Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin "flagellum", "whip") the human body. Specialised implements for it include rods, switches and the
cat-o-nine-tails. Typically, whipping is performed on unwilling subjects as a punishment; however, flagellation can also be submitted to willingly, or performed on oneself, in religious or sadomasochistic contexts.
Disciplinary use and torture
Flogging is an approximate synonym that was probably derived from "flagellum" in the British navy, where flogging was a common disciplinary measure that became associated with a seaman's manly disregard for pain. Aboard ships,
knittlesor the cat o' nine tailswas used for severe punishment, while a rope's end or starter was used to administer the lightest discipline to sailors.
Flagellation probably originated in the Near East but quickly spread throughout the ancient world. In
Sparta, young men were flogged as a test of their masculinity. Jewish law limited flagellation to forty strokes, and in practice delivered forty strokes minus one, so as to avoid any possibility of breaking this law due to a miscount. Additionally they would have a doctor monitor the punishment, who would stop it if it became too much for the person to safely bear.
Roman Empire, flagellation was often used as a prelude to crucifixion, and in this context is sometimes referred to as scourging. Whips with small pieces of metal or bone at the tips were commonly used. Such a device could easily cause disfigurement and serious trauma, such as ripping pieces of flesh from the body or loss of an eye. In addition to causing severe pain, the victim would be made to approach a state of hypovolemic shock due to loss of blood.The Romans reserved this torture for non-citizens, as stated in the "lex Porcia" and "lex Sempronia", dating from 195 and 123 BC. The poet Horacerefers to the "horribile flagellum" (horrible whip) in his "Satires", calling for the end of its use. Typically, the one to be punished was stripped naked and bound to a low pillar so that he could bend over it, or chained to an upright pillar as to be stretched out. Two lictors (some reports indicate scourgings with four or six lictors) alternated blows from the bare shoulders down the body to the soles of the feet. There was no limit to the number of blows inflicted— this was left to the lictors to decide, though they were normally not supposed to kill the victim. Nonetheless, Livy, "Suetonius" and Josephusreport cases of flagellation where victims died while still bound to the post. Flagellation was referred to as "half death" by some authors and apparently, many died shortly thereafter. Ciceroreports in "In Verrem", "pro mortuo sublatus brevi postea mortuus" ("taken away for a dead man, shortly thereafter he was dead"). Often the victim was turned over to allow flagellation on the chest, though this proceeded with more caution, as the possibility of inflicting a fatal blow was much greater.
Corporal punishment such as whipping was especially popular during the French Revolution. For example, one of the revolutionary leaders,
Anne Josephe Theroigne de Mericourt, went mad and ended her days in an asylum after a public whipping. On 31 May 1793, the Jacobin women seized her, stripped her naked, and flogged her on the bare bottom in the public garden of the Tuileries. After this humiliation, shameless and bloodthirsty in delirium she started to live naked - refusing to wear any garments, in memory of the outrage she had suffered. [Roudinesco, Elisabeth. (1992) "Madness and Revolution: The Lives and Legends of Theroigne de Mericourt", Verso. ISBN 0-86091-597-2. p.198]
While flagellation and other forms of corporal punishment are now forbidden in most Western countries, flagellation is still a common form of punishment around the world, particularly in
Islamic countries. Medically supervised caningis also still used as a punishment for some categories of crime in Singaporeand Malaysia[http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/03/05/1046826437209.html?oneclick=true] .
Flogging as military punishment
In the 1700s and 1800s, European armies administered floggings to common soldiers who committed breaches of the military code. During the
American Revolutionary War, the American Congress raised the legal limit on lashes from 39 to 100 for soldiers who were convicted by courts-martial. [Martin, p 76] Generally, officers were not flogged. However, in 1745, a cashiered British officer could have his sword broken over his head, among other indignities inflicted on him. [Tomasson, p 127]
Napoleonic Wars, the maximum number of lashes that could be inflicted on soldiers in the British Army reached an astonishing 1,200. This many lashes could permanently disable or kill a man. Oman, historian of the Peninsular War, noted that the maximum sentence was inflicted "nine or ten times by general court-martial during the whole six years of the war" and that 1,000 lashes were administered about 50 times. [Oman, p 239] Other sentences were for 900, 700, 500 and 300 lashes. One soldier was sentenced to 700 lashes for stealing a beehive. [Oman, p 246] Another man was let off after only 175 of 400 lashes, but spent three weeks in the hospital. [Oman, p 254] Later in the war, the more draconian punishments were abandoned and the offenders shipped to New South Wales instead, where unfortunately, more whippings often awaited them. (See Australian penal colonies section.) Oman later wrote,
"If anything was calculated to brutalize an army it was the wicked cruelty of the British military punishment code, which Wellington to the end of his life supported. There is plenty of authority for the fact that the man who had once received his 500 lashes for a fault which was small, or which involved no moral guilt, was often turned thereby from a good soldier into a bad soldier, by losing his self-respect and having his sense of justice seared out. Good officers knew this well enough, and did their best to avoid the cat-of-nine-tails, and to try more rational means -- more often than not with success." [Oman, p 43]
Meanwhile, during the
French Revolutionary Warsthe French Army stopped floggings altogether. The King's German Legion (KGL), which were German units in British pay, did not flog. In one case, a British soldier on detached duty with the KGL was sentenced to be flogged, but the German commander refused to carry out the punishment. When the British 73rd Foot flogged a man in occupied France in 1814, disgusted French citizens protested against it. [Rothenberg, p 179]
Australian penal colonies
While common in the
British Armyand British Royal Navy as a means of discipline, flagellation also featured prominently in the British penal colonies in early colonial Australia. Given that convicts in Australia were already "imprisoned", punishments for offenses committed in the colonies could not usually result in imprisonment and thus usually consisted of corporal punishment such as hard labour or flagellation. Unlike Roman times, British law explicitly forbade the combination of corporal and capital punishment; thus, a convict was either flogged or hanged but never both.
Flagellation took place either with a single whip or more notoriously, with the
cat o' nine tails. Typically, the offender's upper half was bared and he was suspended by the hands beneath a tripod of wooden beams (known as 'the triangle'), while either one or two floggers administered the prescribed number of strokes. During the flogging, a doctor or other medical worker was consulted at regular intervals as to the condition of the prisoner - if the offender had fainted from blood loss or suffered extreme skin and flesh loss from the back, the punishment was usually suspended until such time that the offender had sufficiently healed. Once healed, the remainder of the required strokes were administered. Punishment was usually limited to 20, 50 or 100 strokes at one flogging, though records exist of prisoners in Australian penal colonies such as Norfolk Islandor Port Arthur receiving more than 3,000 strokes over a number of months or years.
Due to its prevalence, flagellation featured prominently in the culture of early colonial Australia. It was often a mark of pride for a flogged former convict to "show his stripes" (expose his flagellation scars) as an "iron man", or to hide them at all costs if an emancipated convict was attempting to rebuild some semblance of a normal life in society. Children in the Australian colonies were often observed playing "flogging games" where a doll or another child would pretend to be "strung from the triangles" and whipped.
(See also: "
History of Australia").
Association with religion
Various pre-Christian religions, like the cult of
Isisin Egyptand the Dionysian cult of Greece, practiced their own forms of flagellation. Most women were flogged repeatedly during the Roman Lupercaliato ensure fertility. Christianity
"The Flagellation" refers in a
Christiancontext to the "Flagellation of Christ", an episode in Jesus' physical degradation leading to the Crucifixion. (See also: The Passion, Jesus and the Money Changers). The practice of mortification of the fleshfor religious purposes was utilized by some Christians throughout most of Christian history, especially in Catholic monasteries and convents. In the 13th century, a radical group of christians, known as the Flagellants, took this practice to an extreme. The flagellants were later condemned by the Catholic Church in the 14th century. Self-flagellation is still very common, to this day, in the Philippinesand Latin America. Some strict monasticorders such as the Carmelitesstill practice mild self-flagellation using an instrument called a "discipline", a cattail whip made of light chains with small spikes or hooks on the end, which is flung over the shoulders repeatedly during private prayer. Islam
Flagellation is still in use today under Islamic
Sharialaw in Saudi Arabiaand Islamic Republic of Iranfor various crimes, i.e. sexual crimes, drug use or dealing.
While self-harm is forbidden in Islam, many
Shi'a Muslimsperform self-flagellation to mourn the death of Hussain during Muharram. Most usually beat their chests with their hands, but the use of metal chains and spikes is common as well. The practice is common among Shiites in the Middle East and Asia, although is often frowned upon by other Shiites and other Muslims.
Ecstatics and Mystics
Because practices such as starvation, sleep denial and flagellation are known to induce altered states, flagellation may be used by religious
ecstatics and mystics as part of ritualistic practices or ceremonies to achieve unusual states of mind.Fact|date=June 2008
In the sexual sub-culture of
BDSM, "flagellation" involves beating the submissive partner and is a form of impact play. Such a flogging is not always delivered with forceful blows; sometimes it is done with very soft blows, repeated a great many times so as to make the skin sensitive. Thus, the softest impact will eventually feel very intense. Flogging for erotic thrill, typically with implements such as floggers, whips, paddles, or canes, has been called the "English vice". [Gibson] See also paraphilia.
The flogger used in this context consists of a handle with an number of attached thongs known as "falls". Falls are typically made of materials such as
suede, leather, rubber, rope, or other or flexible materials. The length, number, and composition of the falls determines the sensation caused by the flogger. Floggers are usually characterized by the sensation they cause. "Thuddy" floggers typically impart a broadly felt deep muscle impact, while "stingy" floggers are felt as a sharp stinging sensation over the skin. The sensation of floggers can also vary with the techniques used by the top.
Floggers are typically applied to areas of the body which are well muscled, or protected by body fat, such as the upper back or buttocks. Vulnerable areas such as the abdomen, kidneys, and face are to be avoided. Some areas - such as female breasts - can be lightly flogged safely if appropriate care and skill is used. Intense flogging can leave bruising but typically does not cut or permanently mark the skin.
Flagellant Confraternities (Central Italy)
* Mortification of the flesh use in religious and spiritual contexts
References and further reading
* Bean, Joseph W. "Flogging",
Greenery Press, 2000. ISBN 1-890159-27-1
* Conway, Andrew. "The Bullwhip Book".
Greenery Press, 2000. ISBN 1-890159-18-2
* Gibson, Ian. "The English Vice: Beating, Sex and Shame in Victorian England and After". London: Duckworth, 1978. ISBN 0-715612-64-6
* Martin, James Kirby & Lender, Mark Edward. "A Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic, 1763-1789." Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1982. ISBN 0-88295-812-7
* Oman, Charles. "Wellington's Army, 1809-1814." London: Greenhill, (1913) 1993. ISBN 0-947898-41-7
* Rothenburg, Gunther E. "The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon." Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-253-31076-8
* Tomasson, Katherine & Buist, Francis. "Battles of the '45." London: Pan Books, 1974.
* [http://e-forensicmedicine.net/Turin2000.htm "Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion" by Dr. Frederick Zugibe]
* [http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/pacific/australia/convict_australia/pardon_and_punishment.php Pilot Guides - Flogging in penal Australia (including animation)]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06092a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia: Flagellation]
* [http://www.religious-vocation.com/redemptive_suffering.html Suffering and Sainthood] The importance of penance and mortification in the Catholic Church
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Look at other dictionaries:
flagellation — [ flaʒelasjɔ̃; flaʒɛllasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • XIVe, rare av. XVIIe; lat. ecclés. flagellatio ♦ Action de flageller. ⇒ fustigation. Supplice de la flagellation. ⇒ fouet. La flagellation de Jésus Christ. Flagellation thérapeutique : massage consistant à… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Flagellation — • Includes history and its use in scripture Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Flagellation Flagellation † … Catholic encyclopedia
Flagellation — Flag el*la tion, n. [L. flagellatio: cf. F. flagellation.] A beating or flogging; a whipping; a scourging. Garth. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
flagellation — (n.) early 15c., the scourging of Christ, from Fr. flagellation or directly from L. flagellationem (nom. flagellatio) a scourging, from pp. stem of flagellare (see FLAGELLUM (Cf. flagellum)) … Etymology dictionary
flagellation — Flagellation. subst. f. v. Il n a guere d usage qu en cette phrase. La flagellation de Nostre Seigneur, pour dire, Le supplice que les Juifs firent souffrir a Nostre Seigneur en le flagellant … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
Flagellation — (v. lat.), so v.w. Geißelung, daher Flagelliren, geißeln … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
flagellation — Flagellation, Flagellatio … Thresor de la langue françoyse
flagellation — [flaj΄ə lā′shən] n. [ME flagellacioun < LL(Ec) flagellatio: see FLAGELLATE] a whipping or flogging, esp. as a religious discipline or for sexual stimulation flagellatory [flaj′lə tôr΄ē] adj … English World dictionary
Flagellation — Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave à Baton Rouge, aux États Unis, le 2 avril 1863. La flagellation est un acte qui consiste à fouetter le corps humain avec un fouet, des lanières, ou une tige souple, ou encore tout autres objets… … Wikipédia en Français
flagellation — /flaj euh lay sheuhn/, n. 1. the act or process of flagellating. 2. a masochistic or sadistic act in which the participants receive erotic stimulation from whipping or being whipped. [1400 50; late ME < LL flagellation , s. of flagellatio. See… … Universalium