Mewar


Mewar
Historical Region of North India
Mewar (मेवाड़)
Location southern Rajastan
Flag of 19th c. Mewar.svg
Guhil State established: AD 734
Language Mewari
Dynasties Moris (up to AD 734)
Guhilots(734-1303)
Parihar's
Sisodias (1326–1949)
Historical capitals Chittorgarh, Udaipur

Mewar (मेवाड़ مئور also called Udaipur Kingdom) is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. It includes the present-day districts of Pratapgarh, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara and some of the part of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The region was for centuries a Rajput kingdom that later became a princely state under the British. It was ruled by the Chattari rajputs of Mori Guhilot Parihar and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years.

It was originally called Medhpaath, and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called The King of Mewar so he is called as a Medhpateshwar (lord of Medhpaath) later on it was due to long journey of words Medhpaath became Mewar, Mewar region it includes lies across the Aravali Range to the northwest, Ajmer lies to the north, Gujarat and the Vagad region of Rajasthan lie to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state lies to the southeast, and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan lies to the east.

Contents

Geography

Mewar Region

The northern part of Mewar is a gently sloping plain, drained by the Bedach and Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal River, a tributary of the Yamuna River. The southern part of the region is hilly, and marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Cambay through Gujarat state. The Aravalli Range forms the northwestern boundary of the region, composed mostly of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material.

The region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion. Protected areas include the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, the Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sitamata Game Sanctuary.

Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, and is generally higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain typically falls in the period June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon.

History

Gahlot Dynasty of Mewar

A certain Kanak-Sen left Koshala in the 2nd century and settled in Saurashtra. His descendents established themselves and became rulers at Vallabhi. Ages later, Prince Grahaditya also known as Guhil obtained the small kingdom of Idar. His name became the patronymic Grahilot, later corrupted to Gahlot. They sometimes supported the Pratiharas (the dominant clan in Rajasthan) along with Chauhans against Arab invasions of 7th century. Later the wilds of Idar had to be abandoned and the clan settled at Ahar, and the new name Aharya came into use. Around the 12th century sons of Karan Singh I, namely Mahup established himself at Dungarpur while his younger brother Rahup established himself near Sisodia village. Later the term Sisodia supplanted both Gahlot and Aharya.[1]</ref>[2]

Gahlot rulers at Idar

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Grahaditya
2 Bhoja
3 Mahendra I
  • The dynasty moved to a new capital city, Nagda.

Gahlot rulers at Nagda

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Nagaditya
2 Siladitya
3 Aparajita
4 Mahendra II
  • Last King of Mori Dynasty of Malwa, Mun Singh Mori, kills Mahendra II, his brother-in-law, to conquer Mewar.
    • Kalbhoj son of Mahendra II returns with allies to recover Mewar from his uncle and establishes himself at the new capital of Chittor.[1]</ref>[2]

Gahlot rulers at Chittor

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Kalbhoj Bappa Rawal 734 753
2 Khuman I
3 Matatt
4 Bhartribhatt I
5 Singha Gahlot
6 Khuman II
7 Mahoyak
8 Khuman III
9 Bhartribhatt II 942
10 Allat Singh - forced by Siyaka II of Paramara dynasty to abandon Chittor and move to Ahar. 951 953

Gahlot rulers at Ahar

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Narwahana 971
2 Shalivahana
3 Shakti Kumar 977
4 Amba Prasad
5 Shuchi Varma
6 Narvarma
7 Kirtivarma
8 Yograj
9 Vairath
10 Hanspal I
11 Bair Singh 1108
12 Hanspal II
13 Amar Singh I
14 Kod Singh
15 Vikram Singh
16 Karan Singh I - Father of Rahup & Mahup 1158 1168
17 Kshem Singh 1172
  • Kshem Singh forced to move his capital to Dungarpur due to Muslim Invasions.[1][2]

Gahlot rulers at Dungarpur

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Samant Singh
2 Kumar Singh
3 Manthan Singh - Fought alongside Prithviraj Chauhan against Muhammad of Ghor & was one of the few Rajput rulers to survive. 1192
4 Padma Singh - His successor moves the seat of government to Nagda

Gahlot rulers at Nagda

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Jaitra Singh - Recovered Chittor after fall of Malwa to Sultan Iltutmish 1213 1253

Gahlot rulers at Chittor

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Jaitra Singh 1213 1253
Mewar without ruler for Eight Years 1253 1262
2 Tej Singh 1262 1273
3 Samar Singh 1273 1302
4 Ratan Singh - Siege of Chittor by Alauddin Khilji & conquest of Mewar by Delhi Sultanate 1302 1303
  • Interregnum - Sanchore Rulers at Chittor under Alauddin Khilji (1303–1326)
    • Galhot dynasty is replaced by its junior branch Sisodia founded by Rahup.[1]</ref>[2]

Sisodia Dynasty of Mewar

Rana Laksha of Sisodia clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain. The Sardars decided that it was time to safeguard the royal lineage. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by name, Ari Singh I and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hamir Singh I who was taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khilji in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who began a guerrilla campaign till he too died in 1320s. The Sardars now picked Hamir Singh I as head of the Sisodia clan and rightful heir to the throne of Mewar. He married the daughter of Maldeo of Jalore who now governed Chittor for the Delhi Sultanate. He overthrew his father in law and reclaimed his ancestral homeland.[1]</ref>[2]

Sisodia Dynasty at Chittor

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Maharana Hamir Singh I - First to take the title of Maharana of Mewar 1326 1366
2 Maharana Kshetra - Takes Ajmer and Mandalgarh
3 Maharana Lakha - Takes remaining Mewar territories from Delhi. Killed in Battle. 1421
4 Maharana Mokal – Marwar invades Mewar and Mokal is assassinated at age 24. 1421 1433
5 Maharana Kumbha 1433 1468
6 Maharana Udai Singh I 1468 1473
7 Maharana Rai-Mal 1473 1509
8 Maharana Sangram Singh Rana Sanga - Defeated at the Battle of Khanwa by Mughal Emperor Babur in 1527. 1509 1527
9 Maharana Ratan Singh 1528 1531
10 Maharana Vikramaditya Singh 1531 1537
11 Maharana Banbir Singh 1537 1540
12 Maharana Udai Singh IIHe lost Chittor to Mughal Emperor Akbar in February 25, 1568. He moved his capital to Udaipur. 1540 1568

Sisodia Dynasty at Udaipur

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Maharana Udai Singh II 1568 1572
2 Maharana Pratap Singh I 1572 1597
3 Maharana Amar Singh II 1597 1620
4 Maharana Karan Singh II 1620 1628
5 Maharana Jagat Singh I 1628 1654
6 Maharana Raj Singh I 1468 1681
7 Maharana Jai Singh 1681 1700
8 Maharana Amar Singh III 1700 1716
9 Maharana Sangram Singh II 1716 1734
10 Maharana Jagat Singh II 1734 1751
11 Maharana Pratap Singh II 1752 1755
12 Maharana Raj Singh II 1755 1762
13 Maharana Ari Singh II 1762 1772
14 Maharana Hamir Singh II 1772 1778
15 Maharana Bhim Singh 1778 1828
16 Maharana Jawan Singh 1828 1838
17 Maharana Swaroop Singh 1842 1861
18 Maharana Shambhu Singh 1861 1874
19 Maharana Sajjan Singh 1874 1884
20 Maharana Fateh Singh 1884 1930
21 Maharana Bhopal Singh 1930 1955
22 Maharana Bhagwat Singh - Last ruler of Mewar (Udaipur) 1955 1971

Head of Sisodia Dynasty of Udaipur

Name[1]</ref>[2] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Rana Bhagwat Singh 1971 1984

Economy

The economy of the Mewar region relies primarily on tourism, the marble and stone industry, mining, handicraft, zinc smelters, cement and tire factories, as well as agriculture. Major crops include maize, groundnut, soybean, wheat, and mustard. Opium is also grown in the adjoining regions of the southeast (Pratapgarh and Nimbahere). Fishery also thrives in the region's various lakes, supported by a government fisheries department.

Tourism

Lake Palace, Udaipur
  • The massive Chittorgarh hilltop fort is one of the main tourist attractions of Mewar. The fort is a depiction of Rajput culture and values. It stands on a 2.4 square kilometre site on an 180 m high hill that rises rapidly from the plains below. The fort was sacked thrice by a stronger enemy. The first sacking occurred in 1303 by Alauddin Khilji. In 1535 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort causing the women to commit Jauhar. In 1568 Mughal emperor Akbar razed the fort to the rubble and once again the history repeated itself. In 1616 Mughal emperor Jehangir restored the fort to the Rajput but it was not resettled.
  • Udaipur, also known as the city of lakes, is a world famous and a very popular tourist destination with its grand palaces, lakes, temples, gardens and narrow lanes.
  • The Lake Palace is a palace inaugurated in 1746 that is completely made of marble and situated in the middle of lake Pichhola.
  • Jaisamand Lake
  • Udaisagar lake
  • Fatehsagar lake
  • Shilpgram, a crafts village located north west of Udaipur, hosts a crafts fair every year which is one of the biggest in India.
  • Eklingji, a temple dedicated to lord Shiva the Ruling deity of Mewar.
  • Keshariaji, a temple of Rishabhdev
  • Nathdwara, a temple of Lord Shrinathji is one of the most important pilgrimage site of India.
  • Haldighati, a mountain pass in Rajsamand district that hosted the battle between Rana Pratap Singh and the Mughal emperor Akbar.
  • Kumbhalgarh, a 15th century fortress, built by Rana Kumbha, with 36 kilometres of walls. Over 360 temples are within the fort. It also has a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Charbhuja Temple, dedicated to Indian Goddess of the same name.
  • Rajsamand, a huge lake near the city which derives its name from.
  • The Ranakpur village is home to one of the most important Jain temples, that escaped the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's efforts to destroy Hindu and Jain temples because it is hidden in a geographically difficult terrain.

See also


Further reading

  • Mewar through the ages, by D. L. Paliwal. Sahitya Sansthan, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, 1970
  • The Kingdom of Mewar: great struggles and glory of the world's oldest ruling dynasty, by Irmgard Meininger. D.K. Printworld, 2000. ISBN 8124601445.
  • Costumes of the rulers of Mewar: with patterns and construction techniques, by Pushpa Rani Mathur. Abhinav Publications, 1994. ISBN 8170172934.

rathore mertiya

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The Rajputs of Rajputana: a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan by M. S. Naravane ISBN 81-7648-118-1
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rajput by Eva Ulian ISBN 978-1-4497-0060-7(sc) ISBN 978-1-4497-0061-4(e)

External links



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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mewar — (Meiwar, Meywar), s. Oodeypore …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Mewar — Mewar, Radschputenstaat in Britisch Indien, s. Udaipur …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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  • Mewar — Agencia de Mewar hasta 1906. Agencia de los Estats de Rajputana Occiden …   Wikipedia Español

  • Mewar — Lage von Mewar Flagge Mewars …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mewar — Situation du Mewar en Inde Le Mewar (मेवाड़ mévar), est une région du centre et du sud de l État du Rajasthan, en Inde de l Ouest. Elle inclut les districts actuels de Pratapgarh, de Bhilwara, de Chittorgarh, de Rajsamand et de Udaipur. La région …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mewar —    Southeastern Rajasthan demarcated in the north by the Ba nas River and on the west by the southern extension of Aravalli range is known as Mewar, with Udaipur and Chitor as its important strong holds. The Guhilas ruled over the region as early …   Historical dictionary of Medieval India

  • Mewar — geographical name see Udaipur …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Mewar — /me wahr /, n. Udaipur (def. 2). * * * …   Universalium

  • Mewar — /mɛˈwa/ (say me wah) noun → Udaipur (def. 2) …   Australian English dictionary


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