Infobox Country
native_name = "Republika y'u Burundi" "République du Burundi"
conventional_long_name = Republic of Burundi
common_name = Burundi

national_motto = "Ubumwe, Ibikorwa, Iterambere"spaces|2(Kirundi) "Unité, Travail, Progrès"spaces|2(

national_anthem = "Burundi bwacu"
official_languages = Kirundi, French, Swahili
capital = Bujumbura
latd=3 |latm=30 |latNS=S |longd=30 |longm=00 |longEW=E
largest_city = capital
demonym = Burundian
government_type = Republic
leader_title1 = President
leader_name1 = Pierre Nkurunziza
sovereignty_type = Independence
sovereignty_note = from Belgium
established_event1 = Date
established_date1 = July 1, 1962
area_km2 = 27,830
area_sq_mi = 10,745
area_rank = 145th
area_magnitude = 1 E10
percent_water = 7.8%
population = 8,691,005
population_estimate_year = 2008
population_estimate_rank = 94th
population_census = 3,589,434
population_census_year = 1978
population_density_km2 = 271
population_density_sq_mi = 533.8
population_density_rank = 43rd
GDP_PPP_year = 2007
GDP_PPP = $2.897 billioncite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=618&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=63&pr.y=14 |title=Burundi|publisher=International Monetary Fund|accessdate=2008-10-09]
GDP_PPP_rank = 142nd
GDP_PPP_per_capita = $371
GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 163rd
GDP_nominal = $974 million
GDP_nominal_rank = 162nd
GDP_nominal_year = 2007
GDP_nominal_per_capita = $124
GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 182nd
HDI_year = 2007
HDI = increase 0.413
HDI_rank = 167th
HDI_category = low
Gini = 42.4
Gini_year = 1998
Gini_category = medium
FSI = 95.2 decrease 1.5
FSI_year = 2007
FSI_rank = 19th
FSI_category = Alert
currency = Burundi franc (FBu)
currency_code = BIF
time_zone = CAT
utc_offset = +2
time_zone_DST = not observed
utc_offset_DST = +2
cctld = .bi
calling_code = 257
footnote1 = Before 1966, "Ganza Sabwa".
footnote2 = Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Program for benchmark estimates.

Burundi (pronounced|buˈɾundi), officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the south and east, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika.

The Twa, Tutsi, and Hutu tribes have occupied Burundi since the country's formation five centuries ago. Burundi was ruled as a kingdom by the Tutsi for over two hundred years. However, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany and Belgium occupied the region, and Burundi and Rwanda became a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Political unrest occurred throughout the region because of social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu, provoking civil war in Burundi throughout the middle twentieth century. Presently, Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic. Sixty-two percent of Burundians are Roman Catholic, eight to ten percent are Muslims and the rest follow indigenous beliefs and other Christian denominations.

Burundi is one of the ten poorest countries in the world.Eggers, E., "Historical Dictionary of Burundi", p. xlix.] Due to civil wars, Burundi has a low gross domestic product, unstable population growth, and sparse resources. Cobalt and copper are among Burundi's natural resources. Some of Burundi's main exports include coffee and sugar.


Early settlement

Archaeological evidence shows that a pygmoid hunter gathering tribe, the Twa, first settled the region in 70,000 B.C.E. [Gates, H., "Africana", p. 338.] However, approximately 5,000 years ago, the Hutu, a Bantu-speaking people from the mountainous regions of central Africa, immigrated and provided Burundi's first language. [Gates, H., "Africana", p. 338–9.] The Hutu served as the main farming group in the country.Eggers, E., "Historical Dictionary of Burundi", p. l.] Following the Hutu, the Tutsi tribe settled the region in the late fifteenth century. The Tutsi were descendants of Nilo-Hamitic-speaking people from Ethiopia. From the Tutsi's early occupation in the region, agricultural techniques were introduced, and a feudal system was established within local chiefdoms. [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2821.htm Burundi] . U.S. Department of State. February 2008. Retrieved June 8, 2008.] The Tutsi's relationship with the Hutu remained stable during this period.Gates, H., "Africana", p. 339.]

With the settlement of the Tutsi and Hutu tribes, Burundi's kingdom expanded in land size until the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Tutsi dynasty reigned over Burundi's kingdom. The kingdom continued through rulers until the late nineteenth century.cite web|url=http://www.iss.co.za/af/profiles/burundi/politics.html |title=Burundi - Political System and history |accessdate=2008-06-08 |date=February 2005 |publisher=Institute for Security Studies ] King Mwezi IV reigned from 1852 to 1908. During this time he allied with the Germans in order to gain control over his opponents. [Gates, H., "Africana", p. 1373.] Mwezi's opponents, two chiefs named Maconco and Birori, were rebelling to take away Burundi's throne. [Chrétien, Jean-Pierre. "Burundi: l'histoire retrouvée: 25 ans de métier d'historien en Afrique". Paris, France: Karthala, 1993. p. 395–396. ISBN 2865374491] As a result, the kingdom of Burundi became a German colony in 1899. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/by.html CIA - The World Factbook - Burundi] CIA. Retrieved June 8, 2008.]

European conquest

After its defeat in World War I, Germany handed control of Burundi to Belgium. On October 20, 1924, Burundi officially became a part of the Belgian colonial empire and was known as Ruanda-Urundi, and consisted of Rwanda and Burundi. However, the Belgians allowed Ruanda-Urundi to continue its kingship dynasty.Weinstein, W., "Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies", p. 5.]

Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi was a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority. During the 1940s, a series of policies caused divisions throughout the country. On October 4, 1943, powers were split in the legislative division of Burundi's government between chiefdoms and lower chiefdoms. Chiefdoms were in charge of land, and lower sub-chiefdoms were established. Native authorities also had powers. In 1948, Belgium allowed the region to form political parties. These factions would be one of the main influences for Burundi's independence from Belgium.

On January 20, 1959, Burundi's ruler Mwami Mwambutsa IV requested the Belgian Minister of Colonies a separation of Burundi and Rwanda and a dissolution of Ruanda-Urundi.Weinstein, W., "Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies", p. 7.] Six months later, political parties formed to bring attention to Burundi's independence from Europe and to separate Rwanda from Burundi. The first of these political parties was the African National Union of Ruanda-Urundi (UNARU). During Burundi's push for independence, instability and ethnic persecution occurred between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes. In November 1959, a dispute over land possession sparked a revolt in Rwanda between Hutu teachers and Tutsi soldiers. At the same time, Tutsi refugees began to enter Burundi, fleeing ethnic persecution in Rwanda. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1068991.stm Timeline: Burundi] . BBC. April 22, 2008. Retrieved on June 8, 2008.] The Union for National Progress (UPRONA), a multi-ethnic unity party led by Tutsi Prince Louis Rwagasore and Christian Democratic Party (PDC) members, became popular throughout Burundi-Urundi. Following an UPRONA victory in legislative elections, Prince Rwagasore was assassinated in 1961 by a Greek national named Georges Kageorgis. The country claimed independence in July 1, 1962, and legally changed names from Ruanda-Urundi to Burundi. [Cook, C., "What Happened Where", p. 281.] Mwami Mwambutsa IV was named king.

Independence and civil war

During Mwambutsa's reign, ethnic violence occurred throughout the region. From 1959 to 1962, Hutu refugees escaped to Rwanda to avoid persecution. In turn, the Hutu in Rwanda murdered thousands of Tutsi, causing the Tutsi to flee to Burundi for freedom. While in Burundi, Tutsi fought against the Hutu. Many Tutsi soldiers killed Hutu peasants in retaliation for Hutu violence in Rwanda. [MacDonald, F., "Peoples of Africa", p. 60.] The Hutu managed to take power in Rwanda by winning Belgian-run elections in 1960. [ [http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/sudan/timeline_rwanda.pdf Timeline: Rwanda] . Amnesty International. Retrieved July 12, 2008.] On September 18, 1962, just over a month after declaring independence from Belgium, Burundi joined the United Nations. [ [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/org1469.doc.htm United Nations Member States] . United Nations. July 3, 2006. Retrieved June 22, 2008.] During Burundi's move to become an independent nation, Hutu forces took control of the country, forcing the Tutsi out of the country; many fled to Rwanda to escape ethnic persecution and death. Also, the assassination of Burundi's Prime Minister Louis Rwagasore in 1961 further caused infighting between the two groups. [ [http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v7/v7i1a5.htm Ethnicity and Burundi’s Refugees] . "African studies quarterly: The online journal for African Studies". Retrieved July 12, 2008.] During 1962 and 1963, approximately 12,000 Tutsi were killed, while between 140,000 to 250,000 people escaped to Rwanda.Uvin, Peter. "Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to Mass Violence". Comparative Politics, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Apr., 1999). Published by: Ph.D. Program in Political Science of the City University of New York. p. 256.]

From independence in 1962 until the elections of 1993, Burundi was controlled by a series of dictators. [Uvin, Peter, "Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda", p. 256.] The government was unstable, and two leaders—The Union for National Progress (UPRONA) leader Lois Rwagasore and Hutu Prime Minister Pierre Ngendandumwe—were assassinated in 1961 and 1965, respectively. [Allen, J.A.; et. al., "Africa South of the Sahara 2004", p. 134.] Throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s, ethnic clashes arose between the Hutu and the Tutsi. As a result, an estimated 250,000 people died over thirty years. [Hagget, Peter. "Encyclopedia of World Geography". Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2002. ISBN 0761473068.]

Peace agreement and present day

In the early 1990s, Burundi began reforming the national army and government. The Hutu-dominated Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) won Burundi's first democratic elections in 1993. FRODEBU leader Melchior Ndadaye, a Hutu, became Burundi's first elected President. A few months later, he was assassinated by a group of Tutsi army officers. Ndadaye's murder strained ethnic relations between the Hutu and Tusi, which resulted a mass killing of Burundians. Years of instability followed, and unelected dictator Pierre Buyoya took power in a coup. [Allen, J.A.; et. al., "Africa South of the Sahara 2004", p. 135–137.]

To stop the Tutsi and the Hutu fighting in Burundi, peace agreements were formed between both parties. Both parties signed agreements in Arusha, Tanzania and Pretoria, South Africa, to share power in Burundi. The agreements took four years to plan, and on August 28, 2000, a transitional government for Burundi was planned as a part of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement. The transitional government was placed on a trial basis for five years. After several more years of genocide against the Hutu, a cease-fire was signed in 2003 between the Tutsi-controlled Burundian government and the largest Hutu rebel group, CNDD-FDD (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy). [ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/OCHA-64D9N7?OpenDocument Global Ceasefire Agreement between Burundi and the CNDD-FDD] . November 20, 2003. "Relief Web". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved July 24, 2008.] In April 2003, FRODEBU leader Domitien Ndayizeye replaced Buyoya as Burundi's president. [Allen, J.A.; et. al., "Africa South of the Sahara 2004", p. 139–142.] In early 2005, ethnic quotas were formed for determining positions in Burundi's government. Throughout the year, elections for parliamentary and president occurred. [ [http://education.nairobi-unesco.org/PDFs/burundi.pdf Burundi: Basic Education Indicators] . UNESCO. May 4, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2008.] To this day, conflicts between the Hutu and the Tutsi continue. As of 2008, the Burundian government is talking with the Hutu-led Palipehutu-National Liberation Forces (NLF) [Haskin, Jeanne M. "The Tragic State of the Congo: From Decolonization to Dictatorship". New York, NY: Algora Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0875864163 p. 151.] to bring peace within the country. [Liang, Yin. [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-06/04/content_8308846.htm "EU welcomes positive developments in Burundi"] . "China View". Xinhua News Agency. June 4, 2008. Retrieved on June 29, 2008.]


Burundi's political system is a transitional presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi. On March 13, 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, [ [http://www.ictj.org/en/where/region1/512.html Burundi] . International Center for Transitional Justice. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.] which provided for a multi-party political process [http://dev.prenhall.com/divisions/hss/worldreference/BI/politics.html Burundi - Politics] . From "The Financial Times World Desk Reference". Dorling Kindersley. 2004. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.] and reflected multi-party competition. Six years later, on June 6, 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice presidents. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.cite journal|title=Republic of Burundi: Public Administration Country Profile|journal=United Nations' Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM)|date=July 2004|first=|last=|coauthors=|volume=|issue=|pages=5–7|id= |url=http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan023253.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2008-09-20 ]

Burundi's legislative branch is a bicameral assembly, consisting of the Transitional National Assembly and the Transitional Senate. As of 2004, the Transitional National Assembly consists of 170 members, with the Front for Democracy in Burundi holding 38% of seats, and 10% of the assembly is controlled by UPRONA. Fifty-two seats are controlled by other parties. Burundi's constitution mandates representation in the Transitional National Assembly to be consistent with 60% Hutu, 40% Tutsi, and 30% female members, as well as three Batwa members. Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote and serve for five year terms. [Puddington, A., "Freedom of the World", p. 145.]

The Transitional Senate has fifty-one members, and three seats are reserved for former presidents. Due to stipulations in Burundi's constitution, 30% of Senate members must be female. Members of the Senate are elected by electoral colleges, which consist of members from each of Burundi's provinces and communes. [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2821.htm Background Note: Burundi] . United States Department of State. February 2008. Retrieved on June 28, 2008.] For each of Burundi's seventeen provinces, one Hutu and one Tutsi senator are chosen. One term for the Transitional Senate is five years. [Puddington, A., "Freedom of the World", p. 145–146.]

Together, Burundi's legislative branch elect the President to a five-year term.Puddington, A., "Freedom of the World", p. 146.] Burundi's president appoints officials to his Council of Ministers, which is also part of the executive branch. The president can also pick fourteen members of the Transitional Senate to serve on the Council of Ministers. Members of the Council of Ministers must be approved by two-thirds of Burundi's legislature. The president also chooses two vice-presidents. As of 2008, the President of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza. The First Vice President is Dr. Yves Sahinguvu, and the Second Vice President is Gabriel Ntisezerana. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/world-leaders-1/world-leaders-b/burundi.html Burundi - World Leaders] . CIA. Retrieved on June 28, 2008.]

The "Court Supreme" (Supreme Court) is Burundi's highest court. There are three Courts of Appeals directly below the Supreme Court. Tribunals of First Instance are used as judicial courts in each of Burundi's provinces as well as 123 local tribunals.

Provinces, communes, and collines

Burundi is divided into 17 provinces, 117 communes, and 2,638 collines (hills). [Kavamahanga, D. [http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102279271.html Empowerment of people living with HIV/AIDS in Gitega Province, Burundi] . International Conference on AIDS 2004. July 15, 2004. NLM Gateway. Retrieved on June 22, 2008.] Provincial governments are structured upon these boundaries. In 2000, the province encompassing Bujumbura was separated into two provinces, Bujumbura Rural and Bunjumbura Mairie.

The provinces are:

*Bujumbura Mairie
*Bujumbura Rural



The smallest country in Africa, Burundi is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the Great Rift Valley. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Africa. The average elevation of the central plateau is convert|5600|ft|m, with lower elevations at the borders. The highest peak, Mount Heha at convert|8810|ft|m, [O'Mara, Michael. "Facts about the World's Nations". Bronx, New York: H.W. Wilson, 1999. p. 150. ISBN 0824209559] lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. The Nile is a major river in Burundi. [By Ash, Russell. "The Top 10 of Everything". New York, New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Incorporated, 2006. ISBN 060061557X] Lake Victoria is also an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Kagera River. [Klohn, Wulf and Mihailo Andjelic. [http://www.fao.org/ag/AGL/AGLW/webpub/lakevic/LAKEVIC4.htm Lake Victoria: A Case in International Cooperation] . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.] [Budge, E. A. Wallace, "The Egyptian Sudan: Its History and Monuments". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1907. p. 352.] Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner. [Jessup, John E., "An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996", p. 97.]

Burundi's lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. Settlement by rural populations has led to deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss. [Bermingham, Eldredge, Christopher W. Dick, and Craig Moritz. "Tropical Rainforests: Past, Present, and Future". Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 2005. p. 146. ISBN 0226044688] Deforestation of the entire country is almost completely due to overpopulation, with a mere convert|230|mi2|km2 remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum. [ [http://www.mongabay.com/deforestation.htm Worldwide Deforestation Rates] Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N.: The State of the World's Forests 2003. Published on Mongabay.com. Retrieved on June 29, 2008.] There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest (a small region of rain forest, adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Rurubu National Park to the northeast (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations. [East, Rob. "African Antelope Database 1998". Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature, 1999. p. 74. ISBN 2831704774.]


Burundi is one of the poorest countries on the planet, owing in part to its landlocked geography, poor legal system, lack of access to education, and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 80% of Burundi's population lives in poverty. [ [http://www.iss.co.za/AF/profiles/burundi/Population.html Burundi Population] . Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.] Famines and food shortages have occurred throughout Burundi, most notably in the 20th century, and according to the World Food Programme, 56.8% of children under age five suffer from chronic malnutrition. [ [http://www.wfp.org/country_brief/indexcountry.asp?region=2&section=9&sub_section=2&country=108 Where We Work - Burundi] . World Food Programme. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.] One scientific study of 178 nations rated Burundi's population as having the lowest satisfaction with life in the world. [White, A. (2007). [http://www.le.ac.uk/users/aw57/world/sample.html A Global Projection of Subjective Well-being: A Challenge to Positive Psychology?] Psychtalk 56, 17–20. Retrieved June 8, 2008.] As a result of poverty, Burundi is dependent on foreign aid.

Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for 58% of the GDP in 1997. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture.Eggers, E., "Historical Dictionary of Burundi", p. xlvii.] The nation's largest source of revenue is coffee, which makes up 93% of Burundi's exports. [Dinham, B., "Agribusiness in Africa", p. 56.] Other agriculture products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Some of Burundi's natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and platinum. [Eggers, E., "Historical Dictionary of Burundi", p. xlviii.] Besides agriculture, other industries include: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, and soap. Burundi's currency is the Burundian franc (BIF); As of July 2008, 1,184 Burundian franc were equivalent to one United States dollar.


As of 2008, Burundi was projected to have an estimated population of 8,691,005 people. This estimate explicitly takes into account the effects of AIDS, which has a significant effect on the demographics of the country. Over 500,000 have been displaced due to the disease. Many Burundians have migrated to other countries as a result of the civil war. In 2006, the United States accepted approximately 10,000 Burundian refugees. [Kaufman, Stephen. [http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2006/October/20061017183816esnamfuak0.9061396.html U.S. Accepting Approximately 10,000 Refugees from Burundi] . October 17, 2006. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.]

Most Burundians live in rural areas, and about six percent of the population live in urban areas. [MacDonald, F., "Peoples of Africa", p. 62.] The population density of around 315 people per square kilometer (753 per sq mi) is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% of the remaining population are Tutsi, and fewer than one percent are Twas. [Eggers, E., "Historical Dictionary of Burundi", ix.] The largest religion is Roman Catholicism (62%), followed by indigenous beliefs (23%) and a minority of Protestants (5%) and Muslims (10%). The Anglican Church of Burundi claims over 10% of the population as members. [ [http://www.anglicancommunion.org/tour/province.cfm?ID=B2 Provincial Directory: The Anglican Church of Burundi] . The Anglican Church of Burundi. Retrieved on July 5, 2008.] Reports indicate the Christian population may be as high as 90% with most of the remainder being Muslim. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4402974.stm Burundi celebrates Muslim holiday] . BBC. November 3, 2005. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.]


Burundi's culture is based on local tradition and the influence of neighboring countries, though cultural prominence has been hindered by civil unrest. Since farming is the main industry in Burundi, a typical Burundian meal consists of sweet potatoes, corn, and peas. Due to the expense, meat is only eaten few times per month. When several Burundians of close acquaintance meet for a gathering they drink impeke, a beer, from a large container. Each person receives a straw to symbolize unity. [ [http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/burundi/eating.html Eating the Burundian Way] . Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.]

Crafts are an important art form in Burundi and are attractive gifts to many tourists. Basket weaving is a popular craft for Burundian artisans. [Levin, Adam. "The Art of African Shopping". Cape Town, South Africa: Struik, 2005. p. 36. ISBN 9781770070707] Other crafts such as masks, shields, statues, pottery are made in Burundi. [ [http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/burundi/arts.html Burundi Arts and Literature] . Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.]

Drumming is an important part of Burundian cultural heritage. The world-famous Royal Drummers of Burundi, who have performed for over forty years, are noted for traditional drumming using the amashako, ibishikiso, and ikiranya drums. [ [http://gazette.gmu.edu/articles/8972/ Center for the Arts Presents the Royal Drummers of Burundi] . "The Mason Gazette". September 14, 2006. George Mason University. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.] Dance often accompanies drumming performance, which is frequently seen in celebrations and family gatherings. The abatimbo, which is performed at official ceremonies and rituals, and the fast-paced abanyagasimbo are some famous Burundian dances. Some musical instruments of note are the flute, zither, ikembe, indonongo, umuduri, inanga, and the inyagara. [ [http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/burundi/arts.html Arts and Literature] . Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2008.]

Kirundi, French, and Swahili are spoken throughout Burundi. Burundi's literacy rate is low, due to low school attendance. Ten percent of Burundian boys are allowed a secondary education. [ [http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/burundi/learning.html Learning in Burundi] . Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.] Burundi's oral tradition is strong and relays history and life lessons through storytelling, poetry, and song. Imigani, indirimbo, amazina, and ivyivugo are types of literary genres existing in Burundi. [Vansina, Jan. "Oral Tradition as History". Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. p. 114. ISBN 0299102149]

Basketball and track and field are noted sports in Burundi. [ [http://cp-pc.ca/english/burundi/sports.html Sports and Recreation] . Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2008.] Football is a popular pastime throughout the country, as are mancala games. In Burundi most Christian holidays are celebrated, with Christmas being the largest. [ [http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/burundi/holidays.html Burundi Holidays] . Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.] Burundian Independence Day is celebrated annually on July 1. [Trawicky, Bernard and Ruth Wilhelme Gregory. "Anniversaries and Holidays". Chicago, Illinois: American Library Association. p. 110. ISBN 0838906958] In 2005, the Burundian government declared Eid al-Fitr, an Islamic holiday, to be a public holiday. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4402974.stm Burundi celebrates Muslim holiday] . BBC. November 3, 2005. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.]



*cite book | last =Allen | first =J.A. | authorlink = | coauthors =et. al. | title=Africa South of the Sahara 2004: South of the Sahara |publisher = Taylor and Francis Group| date = 2003| location = New York, New York | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 1857431839
*cite book | last = Cook | first = Chris | authorlink = | coauthors = Diccon Bewes | title = What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-Century | publisher = Routledge | date = 1999 | location = London, England| pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 1857285336
*cite book | last = Dinham | first = Barbara | authorlink = | coauthors = Colin Hines| title = Agribusiness in Africa| publisher = Africa World Press | date = 1984 | location = Trenton, New Jersey| pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0865430039
*cite book | last = Eggers| first = Ellen K. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Historical Dictionary of Burundi| publisher = Scarecrow Press, Incorporated| date = 2006| location = Lanham, Maryland| pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0810853027 3rd. edition.
*cite book | last = Gates | first = Henry Lewis | authorlink = | coauthors = Anthony Appiah | title = Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience | publisher = Basic Civitas Books | date = 1999 | location = New York, New York | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0465000711
*cite book | last =Jessup | first =John E. | authorlink = | coauthors =| title=An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996 |publisher = Greenwood Publishing Group| date = 1998| location = Westport, Connecticut| pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0313281122
*cite book | last = MacDonald| first = Fiona | authorlink = | coauthors = et. al | title = Peoples of Africa| publisher = Marshall Cavendish | date = 2001| location = Tarrytown, New York| pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0761471588
*cite book | last = Puddington| first = Arch | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties| publisher = Lanham, Maryland | date = 2007| location = Syracuse University | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0742558975
*cite book | last = Weinstein| first = Warren | authorlink = | coauthors = Robert Schrere | title = Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies: A Case Study of Burundi| publisher = Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs | date = 1976| location = Syracuse University | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0915984202
*cite book | last = Weinstein| first = Warren | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Historical Dictionary of Burundi| publisher = Scarecrow Press, Incorporated| date = 2006| location = Metuchen, New Jersey| pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0810809621 1st. edition.

External links

* [http://www.burundi-gov.bi/ Official Burundi government website] (in French)
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Africa/Burundi/ Open Directory Project - "Burundi"] directory category
* [http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/africa/burundi.html Stanford University - Africa South of the Sahara: "Burundi"] directory category
* [http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Country_Specific/Burundi.html University of Pennsylvania - African Studies Center: "Burundi"] directory category

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