Diamond ring effect (solar eclipse)
The diamond ring effect is a feature of total
solar eclipses. Just before the sundisappears or just after it emerges from behind the moon, the rugged lunar topography allows beads of sunlight to shine through. This effect is called Baily's beads, in honor of Francis Bailywho first noted the phenomenon in 1836.
The smoothness of the lunar topography is interrupted by mountains, craters, valleys, etc, and the lunar limb profile is known accurately from grazing occultations of stars. So in advance of the eclipse we have a fairly good idea which mountains and valleys will cause the beads to appear. While Baily's beads are seen for a few seconds at the central path of the eclipse, they are visible longer near the margins of the path of totality.
The diamond ring effect is seen when only one bead is left, a shining diamond set in a bright ring around the lunar
silhouette. [cite web | author = O. Staiger | title = The Experience of Totality | url = http://www.mreclipse.com/Totality/TotalityCh01.html] Cosmas Damian Asamwas probably the earlist realistic painter to depict a total solar eclipse and diamond ring.cite web | title = A Solar Eclipse Painting from the 1700s | publisher = Astronomy Picture of the Day | date = January 2008| url = http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap080128.html] His painting was finished in 1735.
It is not entirely safe to view
Baily's beadsor the diamond ring effect without proper eye protection because in both cases the photosphereis still visible.
* [http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/TSE98reports/TSE98Nugent.html Report on the Total Solar Eclipse of 1998 February 26.]
* [http://www.exploratorium.edu/eclipse/what2.html What to See During an Eclipse Continued.]
* [http://images.apple.com/home/2007/images/welcome2007_20070101.jpgBaily's Beads visible in an eclipse of a light source by the Apple logo.]
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