Infobox Ethnic group
caption = A Qaraei man
group = Qaraei
pop = ca. ?
region1 = flagcountry|Iran
pop1 = ?
"(est. ? of total)"
region2 = flagcountry|Azerbaijan
pop2 = ?
region3 = flagcountry|Turkey
pop3 = ?
region4 = flagcountry|Afghanistan
pop4 = ?
region5 = flagcountry|Pakistan
pop5 = ?
region6 = flagcountry|India
pop6 = ?
region7 = flagcountry|Uzbekistan
pop7 = 189,000 (1993)
ref7 = [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crh Ethnologue report for language code:crh ] ]
region8 = flagcountry|Ukraine
pop8 = ?
region9 = flagcountry|Bulgaria
pop9 = 6,000 (1990)
region10 = flagcountry|Russia
pop10 = ?
region11 = flagcountry|Lithuania
pop11 = 5,000
ref11 = [ [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kdr Ethnologue report for language code:kdr ] ]
languages = Persian Dari
Tajik AzerbaijaniTurkish Russian
Islam( Shi'aand Sunni), Karaite Judaism
Iranian peoples, Qashqai, Turkmen, Kereit, Tatars, Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatarsand Crimean Karaites.
The Qaraei or Kara Tatar(Qarai, Qaray, Karai, Gharaei, Ghara Tatar, Qara Tatar,PerB|قرایی,PerB|قرائی,PerB|قرا تاتار, _tr. Kara Tatar, _tr. Küyin Tatar) are an ethnic group of
Tatarorigin who live between Altay Mountainsand Black Sea, basically in Central Asia, Middle East, Transcaucasiaand Eastern Europe. They have adopted the language of the country they settled in, for instance in eastern Iran they speak Persian and in Turkeyspeak Turkish and in former USSRspeak Russian.
They are known as Karaim or
Karaitein Ukraineand Lithuania, known as Qaraeiin Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistanand India, known as Crimean Tatarsin Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Romaniaand Ukraine, known as Qara Tatar in Turkey, Iranand Russia, known as Kereyin Kazakhstan, known as Besudin Mongolia, known as Garayeliand Garayeluin Iran.
The name of the Qaraei people derives from the Turkish word Kara, which means
black. The term originally was used to refer to the Kara Tatar Black Tatarsie. various clans and tribes such as Tatars, Keraits, Tayichiudwho resided in Mongoliaand Central Asia. They arrived in Middle Eastas part of the Mongol Armywhen their chief Baijuwas the Mongol Commander who invaded Transcaucasia, Anatoliaand parts of Persia. In Turkeythey mixed with the native population of Sivas, Kayseriwho were Turkmen, while Timurwho had invaded the Ottoman Empiremoved some 40,000 of them to ( Damghanand Torbat-e Heydariehin Khorasanand also his capital Samarqand). In Persiathey mixed with the native population and thus adopted Persian customs and language. As part of the Ottoman Armyunder their chiefs Minnet Beyand Minnetoglu Mehmed-begthey settled in ( Filibe, Bulgaria) and conquered Bosnia.
Emergence of the Kara Tatar
Today the Qara Tatars and Qaraei are scattered across the two continents of
Asiaand Europe. They primarily live in Iran, Azerbaijanand Turkey.Although in the past they lived in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Crimea, Tatarstanand the Balkans.
It is believed that the so called Qara Tatars meaning Black Tatars were descendants of the
Toquz Tatarclans meaning Nine Tatar who in 740 A.D. united with the Oghuz Turkic tribes and rebelled against their overlords the Gok Turksmeaning Blue Turks during the reign of the Gok Turk Khaghan, Kul Teginwhose military commander Mojilian Shad(later known as Bilge Khanwas the one who crushed the rebels at the Battle of Aghu.As a result of this defeat, the Oghuzand Toquz Tatars moved to the eastern lands. They settled along the lower end of Kerulen riverand west of Lake Buir, close to the Mongolian-Chinese border.
Their name Qara Tatar(Black Tatar) was first given to them by the Chinese which was Heitata, due to their dark features and black hair color.This name was used to distinguish them from the other tatars who had fair skin and red hair color.
The Qara Tatars were not a major power in Central Asia and the Mongolian steppes until the 12th century. From the time of their settlement in
Mongolia, they’ve been ruled by the Uighurs, Kirghiz, Kara Khitansand the Chinese.However, in the 12th century they became a powerful tribal group who posed a threat to the Mongolian Altan Khanate, the Chinese Empire and other Tatarclans such as the Keraits, Naimansand Kara-Khitans.
Their most famous leader was
Temujin Ugewho in the autumn of 1167 was captured by Genghis Khan’s father Yesükhei. Thus Yesükheinamed his new born son (ie. Genghis Khan)Temujin after the name of the captive chieftain.In the year 1196 when Genghis Khan together with his ally Wang Khanthe chieftain of the Keraitbegan to launch attacks on the Tatar clans of the Lake Buirand Kerulen Riverand the Abakan Tatars. Megujin Se Ulte, who was the Khagan of the Qara Tatars and son of Temujin Uge was defeated and killed at the Battle of the river Ulja.The Mongolsmassacred every teenage and adult male Tatar, keeping only women and children alive.
However, Genghis Khan adopted a four year old, Tatar prince who had golden ear rings. The boy was named
Shiqi Khutuquwho became a fearless commander in Genghis Khan’s army and played a major role in the wars against the Khwarezmian Empireof Persiaand the Chinese QinEmpire.By 1202 all the Tatar tribes had came under the Mongol realm.
13th to 15th century
In the years between 1230 and 1243, Qara Tatars as members of the Mongol army swept through Afghanistan and Persia and after the defeat of
Seljuqs of Rumat the Battle of Kosedagin 1243, settled in Anatoliato supervise the Seljuqs who were now Mongol vessals.Their most famous leader were BaijuNoyan chief commander of Mongol army in Persiaand Anatolia(1241-1246), his son Samagar Noyan who was the Governor-general of Anatolia (c.1265-1274,1277-1284) for the IlkhanMongol ruler of Persia, Abaqa. Arab NoyanSamaghar's son was the first muslim Qara Tatar, he was Governor of Sivas(c.1284-1300s) for Ilkhanid ruler Sultan Mahmud Ghazan.
After the Ilkhanid period, the Qara Tatars in Anatolia came under the
EretnaEmirate in Kayseri and subsequently under Kadi Burhan al-Dinstate in Sivas. Muruvvet Bey(c.1370s-1398) chieftain of the Qara Tatars in Sivas was a close friend of Kadi Burhan al-Dinand fought against his own son-in-law Kara Osmanof the Ak KoyunluHorde who had their capital in Diyarbakir.
In 1394, Qara Tatar territories came under
Ottomanrule. However, Sultan Bayezid Icould not hold on these territories long as a new threat came from the east.In the year 1402 when Tamerlanedefeated the Ottoman army at the Battle of Ankaraand captured the Ottoman Sultan "Yildirim" Bayezid I, the Qara Tatars who were in the service of the Ottomans and had played a major role in Tamerlane’s victory by siding with him, were now rewarded as some of them remained in Anatoliaas powerful tribes while others were moved to Khorasanin today’s Iran and Samarqand, Tamerlane’s capital in modern Uzbekistan and given territories to live in.
"" _tr. 1381’de Kırşehir yöresinde yaşayan Tatar boylarından Samağarlılar, Türkmenlerin otlaklarına saldırdıklarını iddia edince, Kadı Burhanettin, Emir Pir Ali ile Seyidi Hüssam komutasında bir ordu göndererek Türkmenler’i cezalandırmıştır. 1389’da Mürüvvet bey. Kırşehir’i ele geçirerek Kadı Burhanettin’e vermiştir. 1389’a gelindiğinde Yıldırım Beyazıd, kendisine karşı ittifak kuran Kadı Burhanettin ile Candaroğlu Süleyman paşa üzerine yürümüştür. Kadı Burhanettin savaşmak istemediğniden Kırşehir yöresine çekilmiştir. Kırşehir valisi Adil Şah’ın teklifiyle kentin surlarını onartmıştır.
Timur’un 1394’de Anadolu’ya geldiği sırada, onu destekleyen Karamanoğulları Kırşehir’e saldırarak, şehri yağmalamışlardır. 1396’da Timur’un geri dönmesi üzerine Kadı Burhanettin, Karamanoğulları’nın üzerine yürüyerek onları cezalandırmıştır. Kadı Burhanettin öldürülünce Kırşehir halkı şehri Yıldırım Beyazıd’a vermiştir. Bu sıralarda Beyazıd’a sığınan karakoyunlu hükümdarı Kara Yusuf, kendisini Timur’a teslim edeceğinden endişe edince Kırşehir ve çevresini yağmalamıştır. Timur 1402’de Ankara savaşında yıldırım’ı yenmesi üzerine Kırşehir, Karamanoğullarına verilmiştir. [ [http://www.kirsehirtso.org/home.aspx?tab=k1 KÄ±rÅehir Ticaret ve Sanayi OdasÄ± ] ] ""
16th to 20th century
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Qara Tatars started to call themselves Qaraei and served in the
SafavidPersian Army.Throughout this period they were scattered across Iran and Afghanistan by the Safavid Shahs who feared their power.
However when Nader Shah became the Emperor of Persia in 1735, he gathered some of the Qara Tatars from across Persia, approximately 4,000 families and settled them in Khorasan in
Torbat-e Heydariehand Khaftownships and made Najafaliqoli Khan Qara Tataras their chief.From this time their power grew which then from (1802-1816) under [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v8f6/v8f626.html Sardar Eshaq Khan Qaraei-Torbati] and subsequently under his son Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati(1823-1829) had formed an independent Khanate in Khorasan who posed a threat to the ruling QajarDynasty of Persia.
By 1925 when
Reza Shah Pahlavicame to power, the tribal lifestyle of the Qaraei changed. The Qaraei were no longer a tribal people and had become city dwellers.
Qans of the Tayichiud
Ambaghaireigned c.1146-1150(?-d.1150), he was killed by rival clan of the Tatars.
JamuqaChief of the Jadiratclan(?-d.1205), Tayichiudtribe who had been under Jamuqa are invaded by Genghis Khan in 1201. Jamuqa is excuted in 1205
Chiefs of Besud Clan
Besudei(c.1120s) a distant cousin of Ambaqaiis the ancestor of Besud clan.
Balagachi(c.1140s) of Besudclan; was tent guard of Ambaqai
Khans of the Keraits
Cyriacus Buyirugh- Leader of the Keraits
Marghuz Buyruq(Mark) - c.1122, captured by Tatarsand handed to Jurchens
Qurjaquz(George), son of Marghuz
Gurkhan, son of Marghuz
*Toghril - aka. Tigin/Tooril "Wang/Ong" Khan, eldest son of
Achigh Shirun- Leader of the Tubegan clan of the Keraits
Erke-qara- aka "Jakambu/Jakha Gambu", brother of ToghrilOther famous Keraits
Qutuqtay-Irikchi- wife of Marghuz
Hujaur- daughter of Toghril married to Merkit chieftain Toqtoa
Sengglm- son of Toghril
A'lingtaishi- a Kerait military general, ally of Genghis Khan
Nuyin Muqah- a kerait military general under Genghis Khan in invasion of Afghanistan
Sorghaghtani Bekiaka. Sarqutani Begi(?-d.1252), daughter of Jakambu, wife of Toluison of Genghis and mother of Mongke, Ariq Boke, Kubilaiand Hulegu
Abigah- daughter of Jakambu, wife of Genghis Khan
Chingai- advisor to Genghis and chancellor under Ogedei
Doquz Khatun- wife of Hulegu
Kitbugha Noyan- military commander of Hulegu ?-d.1260
Saruji- brother of Doquz Khatun, grandson of Ung Khan
Uruk Khatun- wife of Arghun, daughter of Saruji
Irinjinaka. Irencin, brother of Uruk Khatun, revolted against Sultan Abu Said Bahador
Qurmishi- a kerait general who revolted against Sultan Abu Said Bahador
Shaykh Ali- son of Irinjin
Kara Tatar Noyans and Beys
*Baiju Noyan, Chief of Besud Clan (d.1260?),
West Asia, Transcaucasia& Asia Minor: Maragheh(c.1241-1246); Sivas(c.1258-1260)
*Samagar Noyan, (d.1284?) Rum:
Sivas(c.1264-1274, 1277-1284). _tr. Samagar : İsim olarak da kullanılır. Küyin (Kara) Tatar boyundan Samagar Noyan’ın adıdır. (A. Erol) [ [http://www.turkleronline.com/sozcuk/sozcukler_ss.htm S-Ş ] ] , see also: Franco-Mongol alliance
Qutu Noyan, c.1277, grandson of Baiju.
Arap Noyan, Governorof Konya, Kayseri(c.1295)
Ishbugha Noyan, Governorof Amasya.
Chiefs of Qaraei Tribe
Mohammad Ali Khan Qaraeia Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynastyarmy, c.1729
Baqer Khan Qaraeia Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynastyarmy, c.1729
Haji Mohammad Bega Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynastyarmy, (d.1745). He was setup by Nader Shah Afsharsend to a battle where he would eventually die.
Islam Khan Qaraeia Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynastyarmy,Governor of Ganca(c.1740)
Fath Khan Qaraeia Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynastyarmy,Governor of Ganca(c.1740)
Najaf-Ali-Qoli Khan Qara TatarSupreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor of Torbat-e-Heydariyeh. He was murdered by his own kinsmen.
Amir Khan QaraeiSupreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor of Dowlatabad (Khorasan); Mashhad(c.1749)
Hassan Khan Qaraei(d.1775) Supreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor of Dowlatabad (Khorasan), brother of Amir Khan. He was murdered by a Prince Nasrollah Afshar, great-grandson of Nader Shah Afshar.
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v8f6/v8f626.html Sardar Eshaq Khan Qaraei-Torbati] (b.1735-d.1816) Supreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor
Torbat-e Heydarieh(c.?-1816); Mashhad(c.1813). He was executed by the order of Fath Ali Shah.
Sardar Hassan Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati(d.1816) eldest son of Eshaq Khan. He was Governor of Torshiz(1815-1816); Soltanabad (Khorasan)(1816). He was executed by the order of Fath Ali Shah.
Yousef Ali Beg Qaraei-TorbatiGovernor of Ghurian(1803-1813) and nephew of Eshaq Khan.
Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati(b.1790-d.1850) Governor of Ghurian(1813-1816), Dowlatabad (Khorasan)(1816-1832) and Mashhad(1829), a son of Eshaq Khan. Imprisoned in Tehranfor 2 years, then lived in exile in Tabrizand Karbala.
Hossein Ali Khan Qaraei-TorbatiGovernor of Torbat-e Heydarieh(c.1816-1818) and brother of Mohammad Khan.
Lutf Ali Beg Qaraei-TorbatiGovernor of Mahmoudabad (Khorasan)(c.1818-1821) and son of Hasan Ali Khan.
Allah Qoli Khan Qaraei-TorbatiGovernor of Tun, a son of Mohammad Khan's Arab wife.
Haji Mirza Mahmoud KhanGovernor of Torbat-e Heydarieh(c.1879) had royal Qajarblood.
Colonel Ali Mohammad Khan QaraeiGovernor of Torbat-e Heydariehc.20th century
Soltan Abdolreza Khan QaraeiGovernor of Torbat-e Heydariehc.20th century
Ottoman Military Chiefs and Sancaks
Muruvvet Bey(d.1398?) Governor of Kirsehir(c.1398) _tr. Anadolu'da Kara Tatar denilen Mogollarin reisi Mürüvvet Bey de Kirsehir'i zapt edip Sivas emiri Kadi Burhaneddin'e teslim etti. [ [http://www.weblopedi.com/osmanli_devletinin_kurulus_donemi/yildirim_bayezid_donemi-t12.0.html Yildirim Bayezid Dönemi ] ]
Minnet BeyGovernor of Iskilip(c.1400); Konit Hisari; Filibe(c.1418?)
Mehmet Minnetovic Sanjakof Bosnia-Herzegovina: Sarajevo(c.1463-1464)
Towns and cities of their habitat is unknown, roughly along the lower
kerulen riveralong the Mongolian-Chinese border. Also see Kereit.
The Qaraei in Iran are scattered. They live in the provinces of
Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Farsand West Azerbaijan.
Khorasanprovince, they lived as tribal people in Torbat-e Heydariehand its districts (Dowlatabad; Roshtkhar; Rabat Baba Qodrat), Khaf, Kashmar, Mahmudabad (Khorasan)in Torbat-e-Jam, Soltanabad (Khorasan)in Torshiz. They had their own Qaraei Khanate with each district or town ruled by a khan while the main khan resided in Torbat-e Heydarieh.
Yazdprovince, they lived as tribal people in Tabas, Tunand Taft. They had their own Qaraei Khanate ruled by two khans, one in Tabas and the other in Tun. They are descendants of Allah Qoli Khan, son of Mohammad Khan. His mother was the daughter of Amir Hasan Khan Zangooyi-Sheybani-Tabasi, the powerful chieftain of the Zangooyi clan of the Arab Sheybani tribe of Tabas. The Qavami are one of the Qaraei clans of Tun.
Kermanprovince, they lived as nomadic tribal people who switched their place of living accordingly to Summer or winter seasons. Their summer quarter stretched from the Kana Sorkhòi mountain pass, on the Kerman-Saidabad ( Sirjan) road, down to the neighborhood of Balvard. Their winter quarters were in the Ayn-al-Bagal region, across the salt lake from Saidabad.According to Encyclopaedia Iranica, in 1957 they comprised some 420 households and their tiras (clans) were: Tela Begi, Kurki, Abbasi, Beglari, Haydari and Yar-Ahámadi. The village of Tangu was their headquarters.
Farsprovince, the Qaraei lived as clans within the nomadic Qashqaitribal confederation which composed of Turkic, Arabicand Tajikclans. There are clans by the name Qaraei in the Amala tribe, Eynalli (Inanlu) and Arab Jabbara tribes of the Khamseh tribal confederacy, and in the Bakesh tribe of the Mamasani tribal confederacy. Some Qaraei lived in the dehestan of Sar Ahan, near Bavanat, and in the dehestan of Abada Tashk, near Neyriz. It is believed that the Qaraei of Kerman and Fars were moved there from Khorasan during the Safavid period.
West Azerbaijanprovince, the Qaraei lived as clans within the Shahsevantribal confederations, near modern Urmia.
[http://www.iranica.com/articles/sup/Karai.html Iranica.com - KARAÚ÷I ] ]
Some Qaraei tribes lived as clans within the Shahsevan tribal confederation in Mughan throughout the 17th century.When Nader Shah in 1740s recovered the lost Persian territories of Caucausia, after he signed the treaty of Gyandzha with the Russians, two Qaraei Khans with the names of Islam Khan and Fath Khan who were commanders in the Persian army took governorship of
Ganca. They might have been Khorasani Qaraeis. Today there is nothing known about the Qaraei in Azerbaijan.
Under Eshaq Khan, the chief of the Qaraei tribe in Khorasan, the city of
Ghuriancame under Qaraei Khanate territory. Eshaq Khan made his nephew Yusef Ali Khan the chief in Ghurian.
Some Qara Tatars in 1402 were moved to
In Turkey they are known as Kara Tatar, Küyin Tatar and
Samagar Tatar. They are believed to be the descendants of Samagar Noyan a Mongol commander under Abaqa Ilkhan who held the position of Governor-general of Anatolia from 1271-1276. They lived in cities and townships of Sivas(Sebastea), Kayseri(Caesarea), Iskillip, Kirsehir, Tokatand Amasya. After the collapse of Ilkhanid Sultanate in 1337, the Kara Tatars lived as tribes under a chief with a title of bey. Their beys were vassals of Eretnabeyoghular, Kadi Burhan al-DinAhmed State, Ak KoyunluHorde and OttomanSultans.
" _tr. Çelebi Sultan Mehmed, Canik seferinden sonra Bursa'yadönerken Iskilip taraflarinda bir Tatar cemaatine rastlar. Bunlar, Mogol istilasizamaninda buralara getirilip yerlestirilmislerdi. Padisah, bunlarin kim olduklarini vereislerinin nerede bulundugunu sorunca, kendilerinin Samagar Tatarlarindan olduklarini,reislerinin de Minnet Bey adinda biri oldugunu ve su anda bir dügünde bulundugunusöylerler. Bunun üzerine Çelebi Sultan Mehmed, "bakiniz, ben harb ederken bu Tatarbeyleri dügün pesinde kosuyorlar ve bab-i hümayunumda görünmüyorlar" diyerek,ileride onlardan gelebilecek bir tehlikeye simdiden mani olmak maksadiyla onlarinRumeli'ye göç ettirilmelerini emr eder. Bu emir üzerine yol hazirliklarina baslayanMinnet Bey, yanindaki bütün Tatarlarla birlikte Rumeli'ye geçer. Verilen emre görebunlarin bir kismi Filibe taraflarina, diger bir kismi da Arnavutluk havalisine iskânedileceklerdi. Emre uyularak, bunlardan bir kismi Filibe civarindaki Konushisar mevkiine,bir kismi da Arnavutluk tarafina yerlestirilmislerdi. Filibe-Istanbul yolu üzerinde veFilibe'ye yakin bir mesafede bulunan yere yerlestirilen ve sonradan Tatarpazari adini alanbu yer, adi geçen Tatarlar tarafindan kurulmustur. Minnet Bey'in oglu Mehmed Bey,sonradan burada cami, imâret ve kervansaray yaptirmistir." [ [http://www.egitimevi.com/modules.php?name=Encyclopedia&op=content&tid=1771 Eğitimevi Online Eğitimin Yeni Adresi - Ansiklopedi ] ]
The Kara Tatars of
Bulgariawere a result of force settlement by the Ottoman sultans. The first being the forced population settlement of Crimean Tatars under their chief Aktav in 1393 and the second being the forced population settlement of Tatars from Saruhan under their chief Pasayigitbey( Pasha Yegit Bey) in 1400, in Filibe(modern Plovdiv), both during the reign of Bayezid I(1380-1402). While the third being the forced population settlement of Kara Tatars from Iskilip under their chief Minnet Bey to Konit Hisari(near Filibe) in 1418 during the reign of Mehmet I(1413-1421).
Minnetoglu Mehmed-beg[http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minnetoglu_Mehmed-beg] was the Sancakof Bosnia.
*The Kara Tatars ruled as a dynasty in
Crimeaand Kazanunder the name of Giray Dynasty. The dynasty ruled in Crimea from their capital Baghchisaray from 1440s until Jun 1792 when they were conquered by the Russians and also ruled in Kazan( Tatarstan) roughly between 1524 to 1551.
Kara Tatar are listed as an ethnic group of
USSR. "The Kara Tatar call themselves the Qara Tatar and have also been known as the Nukrat Tatar. They are a small group of Volga Tatarswho dwell on the Cheptsa River" [REFERENCE: Ronald Wixman, The People of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook, 1984.]
Qaraei is one of the music sub-style(gusheh) of Afshari(dastgah) of
Iranian Traditional Music. [ [http://www.dejkam.com/music/iran_traditional/about/dastgah.php radif - dastgah - gusheh - magham ] ]
Qaraei are well known for their carpet weaving, specially Qaraei of
* [http://www.rugreview.com/orr/9-2-51.htm Rugreview: THE QARAI RUGS OF TURBAT-I-HAIDARI]
The Qaraei have adopted the language of the country they settled in. Thus they speak Persian and
Azerbaijaniin Iran, Dariin Afghanistan, Azerbaijaniin Azerbaijan, Turkish and Turkmenin Turkey, Tajikand Uzbekin Uzbekistan, Russian in Russia, Ukrainian in Ukraineand Bulgarian in Bulgaria.
They originally were
Shamanistand Nestorian, however in modern times they're Sunniand Shi'aand some practice Karaite Judaism.
*Tarikh-e Torbat-e Heydarieh: ba tekiye be naqshe Ishaq Khan Qaraei, Mohammad Qaneyi
* [http://www.rugreview.com/orr/9-2-51.htm rugreview]
* [http://www.rugreview.com/95eil.htm A look at the word tribal by Murray L. Eiland]
* [http://www.iranica.com/articles/sup/Karai.html The word Karai in Iranica Encyclopaedia]
* [http://www.tcoletribalrugs.com/article10JA.html From the horses mouth with Jerry Anderson]
* [http://www.rugbooks.com/catalog/product_view.php?prod_id=BOOKS000018I Craycraft, Michael: Belouch and Karai Rugs of Torbat-i-Heydarieh]
* [http://www.esirjan.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=15 Qaraei Tribe of Sirjan]
*An historical and descriptive account of Persia: With a Detailed View of its resources by James Baille Fraser.
*An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, By James Stuart Olson.
*Journey to the North of India: Overland from England, Through Russia, Persia, and Afghanistan by Arthur Conolly.
*A History of Persia by Percy Molesworth Sykes.
*The Kingdom of Afghanistan by George Passman Tate.
* [http://www.history.hacettepe.edu.tr/archive/oimakale.html Central Asia After the Mongol Invasion-Islam and Sedentray Life as a Consequence by Prof. Dr. Ozkan Izgi]
* [http://rbedrosian.com/tm4.htm rbedrosian]
* [http://www.iranica.com/articles/v7/v7f3/v7f342.html The word Deportation in Iranica Encyclopaedia]
* [http://www.ozturkler.com/data/0003/0003_03_02.htm ozturkler]
* [http://bucatarih.sitemynet.com/seminer/karma/yozgat.html List of Qara Tatar clans]
* [http://xorasan.blogspot.com/ Afshar and Khorasani Turks]
* [http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/01341/gmongoliatext.htm Beginning of Great Mongolia]
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