Qaraei

Infobox Ethnic group

http://www.rugreview.com/or95k1.jpg]
caption = A Qaraei man
group = Qaraei
pop = ca. ?
region1 = flagcountry|Iran
pop1 = ?
"(est. ? of total)"
ref1 =
region2 = flagcountry|Azerbaijan
pop2 = ?
ref2 =
region3 = flagcountry|Turkey
pop3 = ?
ref3 =
region4 = flagcountry|Afghanistan
pop4 = ?
ref4 =
region5 = flagcountry|Pakistan
pop5 = ?
ref5 =
region6 = flagcountry|India
pop6 = ?
ref6 =
region7 = flagcountry|Uzbekistan
pop7 = 189,000 (1993)
ref7 = [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crh Ethnologue report for language code:crh ] ]
region8 = flagcountry|Ukraine
pop8 = ?
ref8 =
region9 = flagcountry|Bulgaria
pop9 = 6,000 (1990)
ref9 =
region10 = flagcountry|Russia
pop10 = ?
ref10 =
region11 = flagcountry|Lithuania
pop11 = 5,000
ref11 = [ [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kdr Ethnologue report for language code:kdr ] ]
languages = Persian Dari Tajik Azerbaijani Turkish Russian
religions = Islam (Shi'a and Sunni), Karaite Judaism
related-c= Iranian peoples, Qashqai, Turkmen, Kereit, Tatars, Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars and Crimean Karaites.

The Qaraei or Kara Tatar(Qarai, Qaray, Karai, Gharaei, Ghara Tatar, Qara Tatar,PerB|قرایی,PerB|قرائی,PerB|قرا تاتار, _tr. Kara Tatar, _tr. Küyin Tatar) are an ethnic group of Tatar origin who live between Altay Mountains and Black Sea, basically in Central Asia, Middle East, Transcaucasia and Eastern Europe. They have adopted the language of the country they settled in, for instance in eastern Iran they speak Persian and in Turkey speak Turkish and in former USSR speak Russian.

They are known as Karaim or Karaite in Ukraine and Lithuania, known as Qaraei in Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, known as Crimean Tatars in Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Romania and Ukraine, known as Qara Tatar in Turkey, Iran and Russia, known as Kerey in Kazakhstan, known as Besud in Mongolia, known as Garayeli and Garayelu in Iran.

Origins

Etymology

The name of the Qaraei people derives from the Turkish word Kara, which means black. The term originally was used to refer to the Kara Tatar Black Tatars ie. various clans and tribes such as Tatars, Keraits, Tayichiud who resided in Mongolia and Central Asia. They arrived in Middle East as part of the Mongol Army when their chief Baiju was the Mongol Commander who invaded Transcaucasia, Anatolia and parts of Persia. In Turkey they mixed with the native population of Sivas, Kayseri who were Turkmen, while Timur who had invaded the Ottoman Empire moved some 40,000 of them to (Damghan and Torbat-e Heydarieh in Khorasan and also his capital Samarqand). In Persia they mixed with the native population and thus adopted Persian customs and language. As part of the Ottoman Army under their chiefs Minnet Bey and Minnetoglu Mehmed-beg they settled in (Filibe, Bulgaria) and conquered Bosnia.

History

Emergence of the Kara Tatar

Today the Qara Tatars and Qaraei are scattered across the two continents of Asia and Europe. They primarily live in Iran, Azerbaijan and Turkey.Although in the past they lived in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Crimea, Tatarstan and the Balkans.

It is believed that the so called Qara Tatars meaning Black Tatars were descendants of the Toquz Tatar clans meaning Nine Tatar who in 740 A.D. united with the Oghuz Turkic tribes and rebelled against their overlords the Gok Turks meaning Blue Turks during the reign of the Gok Turk Khaghan, Kul Tegin whose military commander Mojilian Shad(later known as Bilge Khan was the one who crushed the rebels at the Battle of Aghu.As a result of this defeat, the Oghuz and Toquz Tatars moved to the eastern lands. They settled along the lower end of Kerulen river and west of Lake Buir, close to the Mongolian-Chinese border.

Their name Qara Tatar(Black Tatar) was first given to them by the Chinese which was Heitata, due to their dark features and black hair color.This name was used to distinguish them from the other tatars who had fair skin and red hair color.

The Qara Tatars were not a major power in Central Asia and the Mongolian steppes until the 12th century. From the time of their settlement in Mongolia, they’ve been ruled by the Uighurs, Kirghiz, Kara Khitans and the Chinese.However, in the 12th century they became a powerful tribal group who posed a threat to the Mongolian Altan Khanate, the Chinese Empire and other Tatar clans such as the Keraits, Naimans and Kara-Khitans.

Their most famous leader was Temujin Uge who in the autumn of 1167 was captured by Genghis Khan’s father Yesükhei. Thus Yesükhei named his new born son (ie. Genghis Khan)Temujin after the name of the captive chieftain.In the year 1196 when Genghis Khan together with his ally Wang Khan the chieftain of the Kerait began to launch attacks on the Tatar clans of the Lake Buir and Kerulen River and the Abakan Tatars. Megujin Se Ulte, who was the Khagan of the Qara Tatars and son of Temujin Uge was defeated and killed at the Battle of the river Ulja.The Mongols massacred every teenage and adult male Tatar, keeping only women and children alive.

However, Genghis Khan adopted a four year old, Tatar prince who had golden ear rings. The boy was named Shiqi Khutuqu who became a fearless commander in Genghis Khan’s army and played a major role in the wars against the Khwarezmian Empire of Persia and the Chinese Qin Empire.By 1202 all the Tatar tribes had came under the Mongol realm.

13th to 15th century

In the years between 1230 and 1243, Qara Tatars as members of the Mongol army swept through Afghanistan and Persia and after the defeat of Seljuqs of Rum at the Battle of Kosedag in 1243, settled in Anatolia to supervise the Seljuqs who were now Mongol vessals.Their most famous leader were Baiju Noyan chief commander of Mongol army in Persia and Anatolia (1241-1246), his son Samagar Noyan who was the Governor-general of Anatolia (c.1265-1274,1277-1284) for the Ilkhan Mongol ruler of Persia, Abaqa. Arab Noyan Samaghar's son was the first muslim Qara Tatar, he was Governor of Sivas(c.1284-1300s) for Ilkhanid ruler Sultan Mahmud Ghazan.

After the Ilkhanid period, the Qara Tatars in Anatolia came under the Eretna Emirate in Kayseri and subsequently under Kadi Burhan al-Din state in Sivas.
Muruvvet Bey(c.1370s-1398) chieftain of the Qara Tatars in Sivas was a close friend of Kadi Burhan al-Din and fought against his own son-in-law Kara Osman of the Ak Koyunlu Horde who had their capital in Diyarbakir.

In 1394, Qara Tatar territories came under Ottoman rule. However, Sultan Bayezid I could not hold on these territories long as a new threat came from the east.In the year 1402 when Tamerlane defeated the Ottoman army at the Battle of Ankara and captured the Ottoman Sultan "Yildirim" Bayezid I, the Qara Tatars who were in the service of the Ottomans and had played a major role in Tamerlane’s victory by siding with him, were now rewarded as some of them remained in Anatolia as powerful tribes while others were moved to Khorasan in today’s Iran and Samarqand, Tamerlane’s capital in modern Uzbekistan and given territories to live in.

"" _tr. 1381’de Kırşehir yöresinde yaşayan Tatar boylarından Samağarlılar, Türkmenlerin otlaklarına saldırdıklarını iddia edince, Kadı Burhanettin, Emir Pir Ali ile Seyidi Hüssam komutasında bir ordu göndererek Türkmenler’i cezalandırmıştır. 1389’da Mürüvvet bey. Kırşehir’i ele geçirerek Kadı Burhanettin’e vermiştir. 1389’a gelindiğinde Yıldırım Beyazıd, kendisine karşı ittifak kuran Kadı Burhanettin ile Candaroğlu Süleyman paşa üzerine yürümüştür. Kadı Burhanettin savaşmak istemediğniden Kırşehir yöresine çekilmiştir. Kırşehir valisi Adil Şah’ın teklifiyle kentin surlarını onartmıştır.

Timur’un 1394’de Anadolu’ya geldiği sırada, onu destekleyen Karamanoğulları Kırşehir’e saldırarak, şehri yağmalamışlardır. 1396’da Timur’un geri dönmesi üzerine Kadı Burhanettin, Karamanoğulları’nın üzerine yürüyerek onları cezalandırmıştır. Kadı Burhanettin öldürülünce Kırşehir halkı şehri Yıldırım Beyazıd’a vermiştir. Bu sıralarda Beyazıd’a sığınan karakoyunlu hükümdarı Kara Yusuf, kendisini Timur’a teslim edeceğinden endişe edince Kırşehir ve çevresini yağmalamıştır. Timur 1402’de Ankara savaşında yıldırım’ı yenmesi üzerine Kırşehir, Karamanoğullarına verilmiştir. [ [http://www.kirsehirtso.org/home.aspx?tab=k1 Kırşehir Ticaret ve Sanayi Odası ] ] ""

16th to 20th century

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Qara Tatars started to call themselves Qaraei and served in the Safavid Persian Army.Throughout this period they were scattered across Iran and Afghanistan by the Safavid Shahs who feared their power.

However when Nader Shah became the Emperor of Persia in 1735, he gathered some of the Qara Tatars from across Persia, approximately 4,000 families and settled them in Khorasan in Torbat-e Heydarieh and Khaf townships and made Najafaliqoli Khan Qara Tatar as their chief.From this time their power grew which then from (1802-1816) under [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v8f6/v8f626.html Sardar Eshaq Khan Qaraei-Torbati] and subsequently under his son Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati (1823-1829) had formed an independent Khanate in Khorasan who posed a threat to the ruling Qajar Dynasty of Persia.

By 1925 when Reza Shah Pahlavi came to power, the tribal lifestyle of the Qaraei changed. The Qaraei were no longer a tribal people and had become city dwellers.

Battles

Rulers List

Qans of the Tayichiud

*Ambaghai reigned c.1146-1150(?-d.1150), he was killed by rival clan of the Tatars.
*Targutai reigned c.1170-1201(?-d.1201)
*Jamuqa Chief of the Jadirat clan(?-d.1205), Tayichiud tribe who had been under Jamuqa are invaded by Genghis Khan in 1201. Jamuqa is excuted in 1205

Chiefs of Besud Clan

*Besudei (c.1120s) a distant cousin of Ambaqai is the ancestor of Besud clan.
*Balagachi (c.1140s) of Besud clan; was tent guard of Ambaqai

Khans of the Keraits

*Cyriacus Buyirugh - Leader of the Keraits
*Marghuz Buyruq(Mark) - c.1122, captured by Tatars and handed to Jurchens
*Qurjaquz(George), son of Marghuz
*Gurkhan, son of Marghuz
*Toghril - aka. Tigin/Tooril "Wang/Ong" Khan, eldest son of Qurjaquz ?-d.1203
*Achigh Shirun - Leader of the Tubegan clan of the Keraits
*Erke-qara - aka "Jakambu/Jakha Gambu", brother of ToghrilOther famous Keraits
*Qutuqtay-Irikchi - wife of Marghuz
*Hujaur - daughter of Toghril married to Merkit chieftain Toqtoa
*Sengglm - son of Toghril
*A'lingtaishi - a Kerait military general, ally of Genghis Khan
*Nuyin Muqah - a kerait military general under Genghis Khan in invasion of Afghanistan
*Sorghaghtani Beki aka. Sarqutani Begi(?-d.1252), daughter of Jakambu, wife of Tolui son of Genghis and mother of Mongke,Ariq Boke,Kubilai and Hulegu
*Abigah - daughter of Jakambu, wife of Genghis Khan
*Chingai - advisor to Genghis and chancellor under Ogedei
*Doquz Khatun - wife of Hulegu
*Kitbugha Noyan - military commander of Hulegu ?-d.1260
*Saruji - brother of Doquz Khatun, grandson of Ung Khan
*Uruk Khatun- wife of Arghun, daughter of Saruji
*Irinjin aka. Irencin, brother of Uruk Khatun, revolted against Sultan Abu Said Bahador
*Qurmishi - a kerait general who revolted against Sultan Abu Said Bahador
*Shaykh Ali - son of Irinjin

Kara Tatar Noyans and Beys

*Baiju Noyan, Chief of Besud Clan (d.1260?), West Asia,Transcaucasia & Asia Minor: Maragheh(c.1241-1246); Sivas(c.1258-1260)
*Samagar Noyan, (d.1284?) Rum: Sivas(c.1264-1274, 1277-1284). _tr. Samagar : İsim olarak da kullanılır. Küyin (Kara) Tatar boyundan Samagar Noyan’ın adıdır. (A. Erol) [ [http://www.turkleronline.com/sozcuk/sozcukler_ss.htm S-Ş ] ] , see also: Franco-Mongol alliance
*Qutu Noyan, c.1277, grandson of Baiju.
*Arap Noyan , Governor of Konya, Kayseri(c.1295)
*Ishbugha Noyan, Governor of Amasya.
*Teberruk Bey

Chiefs of Qaraei Tribe

*Mohammad Ali Khan Qaraei a Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynasty army, c.1729
*Baqer Khan Qaraei a Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynasty army, c.1729
*Haji Mohammad Beg a Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynasty army, (d.1745). He was setup by Nader Shah Afshar send to a battle where he would eventually die.
*Islam Khan Qaraei a Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynasty army,Governor of Ganca(c.1740)
*Fath Khan Qaraei a Qaraei Chieftain in Afsharid dynasty army,Governor of Ganca(c.1740)
*Najaf-Ali-Qoli Khan Qara Tatar Supreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor of Torbat-e-Heydariyeh. He was murdered by his own kinsmen.
*Amir Khan Qaraei Supreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor of Dowlatabad (Khorasan); Mashhad(c.1749)
*Hassan Khan Qaraei (d.1775) Supreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor of Dowlatabad (Khorasan), brother of Amir Khan. He was murdered by a Prince Nasrollah Afshar, great-grandson of Nader Shah Afshar.
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v8f6/v8f626.html Sardar Eshaq Khan Qaraei-Torbati] (b.1735-d.1816) Supreme Chief of Qarei Tribe and Governor Torbat-e Heydarieh(c.?-1816); Mashhad(c.1813). He was executed by the order of Fath Ali Shah.
*Sardar Hassan Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati (d.1816) eldest son of Eshaq Khan. He was Governor of Torshiz(1815-1816); Soltanabad (Khorasan)(1816). He was executed by the order of Fath Ali Shah.
*Yousef Ali Beg Qaraei-Torbati Governor of Ghurian(1803-1813) and nephew of Eshaq Khan.
*Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati (b.1790-d.1850) Governor of Ghurian(1813-1816),Dowlatabad (Khorasan)(1816-1832) and Mashhad(1829), a son of Eshaq Khan. Imprisoned in Tehran for 2 years, then lived in exile in Tabriz and Karbala.
*Hossein Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati Governor of Torbat-e Heydarieh(c.1816-1818) and brother of Mohammad Khan.
*Lutf Ali Beg Qaraei-Torbati Governor of Mahmoudabad (Khorasan)(c.1818-1821) and son of Hasan Ali Khan.
*Allah Qoli Khan Qaraei-Torbati Governor of Tun, a son of Mohammad Khan's Arab wife.
*Haji Mirza Mahmoud Khan Governor of Torbat-e Heydarieh(c.1879) had royal Qajar blood.
*Colonel Ali Mohammad Khan Qaraei Governor of Torbat-e Heydarieh c.20th century
*Soltan Abdolreza Khan Qaraei Governor of Torbat-e Heydarieh c.20th century

Ottoman Military Chiefs and Sancaks

*Muruvvet Bey (d.1398?) Governor of Kirsehir(c.1398) _tr. Anadolu'da Kara Tatar denilen Mogollarin reisi Mürüvvet Bey de Kirsehir'i zapt edip Sivas emiri Kadi Burhaneddin'e teslim etti. [ [http://www.weblopedi.com/osmanli_devletinin_kurulus_donemi/yildirim_bayezid_donemi-t12.0.html Yildirim Bayezid Dönemi ] ]
*Minnet Bey Governor of Iskilip(c.1400); Konit Hisari; Filibe(c.1418?)
*Mehmet Minnetovic Sanjak of Bosnia-Herzegovina: Sarajevo(c.1463-1464)

Geographic distribution

Original Homeland

Towns and cities of their habitat is unknown, roughly along the lower kerulen river along the Mongolian-Chinese border. Also see Kereit.

Former Persia

Iran

The Qaraei in Iran are scattered. They live in the provinces of Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Fars and West Azerbaijan.

In Khorasan province, they lived as tribal people in Torbat-e Heydarieh and its districts (Dowlatabad; Roshtkhar; Rabat Baba Qodrat), Khaf, Kashmar, Mahmudabad (Khorasan) in Torbat-e-Jam, Soltanabad (Khorasan) in Torshiz. They had their own Qaraei Khanate with each district or town ruled by a khan while the main khan resided in Torbat-e Heydarieh.

In Yazd province, they lived as tribal people in Tabas, Tun and Taft. They had their own Qaraei Khanate ruled by two khans, one in Tabas and the other in Tun. They are descendants of Allah Qoli Khan, son of Mohammad Khan. His mother was the daughter of Amir Hasan Khan Zangooyi-Sheybani-Tabasi, the powerful chieftain of the Zangooyi clan of the Arab Sheybani tribe of Tabas. The Qavami are one of the Qaraei clans of Tun.

In Kerman province, they lived as nomadic tribal people who switched their place of living accordingly to Summer or winter seasons. Their summer quarter stretched from the Kana Sorkhòi mountain pass, on the Kerman-Saidabad (Sirjan) road, down to the neighborhood of Balvard. Their winter quarters were in the Ayn-al-Bagal region, across the salt lake from Saidabad.According to Encyclopaedia Iranica, in 1957 they comprised some 420 households and their tiras (clans) were: Tela Begi, Kurki, Abbasi, Beglari, Haydari and Yar-Ahámadi. The village of Tangu was their headquarters.

In Fars province, the Qaraei lived as clans within the nomadic Qashqai tribal confederation which composed of Turkic, Arabic and Tajik clans. There are clans by the name Qaraei in the Amala tribe, Eynalli (Inanlu) and Arab Jabbara tribes of the Khamseh tribal confederacy, and in the Bakesh tribe of the Mamasani tribal confederacy. Some Qaraei lived in the dehestan of Sar Ahan, near Bavanat, and in the dehestan of Abada Tashk, near Neyriz. It is believed that the Qaraei of Kerman and Fars were moved there from Khorasan during the Safavid period.

In West Azerbaijan province, the Qaraei lived as clans within the Shahsevan tribal confederations, near modern Urmia.

[http://www.iranica.com/articles/sup/Karai.html Iranica.com - KARAÚ÷I ] ]

Azerbaijan

Some Qaraei tribes lived as clans within the Shahsevan tribal confederation in Mughan throughout the 17th century.When Nader Shah in 1740s recovered the lost Persian territories of Caucausia, after he signed the treaty of Gyandzha with the Russians, two Qaraei Khans with the names of Islam Khan and Fath Khan who were commanders in the Persian army took governorship of Ganca. They might have been Khorasani Qaraeis. Today there is nothing known about the Qaraei in Azerbaijan.

Afghanistan

Under Eshaq Khan, the chief of the Qaraei tribe in Khorasan, the city of Ghurian came under Qaraei Khanate territory. Eshaq Khan made his nephew Yusef Ali Khan the chief in Ghurian.

Uzbekistan

Some Qara Tatars in 1402 were moved to Samarqand by Timur.

Former Ottoman

Turkey

In Turkey they are known as Kara Tatar, Küyin Tatar and Samagar Tatar. They are believed to be the descendants of Samagar Noyan a Mongol commander under Abaqa Ilkhan who held the position of Governor-general of Anatolia from 1271-1276. They lived in cities and townships of Sivas(Sebastea), Kayseri(Caesarea), Iskillip, Kirsehir, Tokat and Amasya. After the collapse of Ilkhanid Sultanate in 1337, the Kara Tatars lived as tribes under a chief with a title of bey. Their beys were vassals of Eretnabeyoghular, Kadi Burhan al-Din Ahmed State, Ak Koyunlu Horde and Ottoman Sultans.

" _tr. Çelebi Sultan Mehmed, Canik seferinden sonra Bursa'yadönerken Iskilip taraflarinda bir Tatar cemaatine rastlar. Bunlar, Mogol istilasizamaninda buralara getirilip yerlestirilmislerdi. Padisah, bunlarin kim olduklarini vereislerinin nerede bulundugunu sorunca, kendilerinin Samagar Tatarlarindan olduklarini,reislerinin de Minnet Bey adinda biri oldugunu ve su anda bir dügünde bulundugunusöylerler. Bunun üzerine Çelebi Sultan Mehmed, "bakiniz, ben harb ederken bu Tatarbeyleri dügün pesinde kosuyorlar ve bab-i hümayunumda görünmüyorlar" diyerek,ileride onlardan gelebilecek bir tehlikeye simdiden mani olmak maksadiyla onlarinRumeli'ye göç ettirilmelerini emr eder. Bu emir üzerine yol hazirliklarina baslayanMinnet Bey, yanindaki bütün Tatarlarla birlikte Rumeli'ye geçer. Verilen emre görebunlarin bir kismi Filibe taraflarina, diger bir kismi da Arnavutluk havalisine iskânedileceklerdi. Emre uyularak, bunlardan bir kismi Filibe civarindaki Konushisar mevkiine,bir kismi da Arnavutluk tarafina yerlestirilmislerdi. Filibe-Istanbul yolu üzerinde veFilibe'ye yakin bir mesafede bulunan yere yerlestirilen ve sonradan Tatarpazari adini alanbu yer, adi geçen Tatarlar tarafindan kurulmustur. Minnet Bey'in oglu Mehmed Bey,sonradan burada cami, imâret ve kervansaray yaptirmistir." [ [http://www.egitimevi.com/modules.php?name=Encyclopedia&op=content&tid=1771 Eğitimevi Online Eğitimin Yeni Adresi - Ansiklopedi ] ]

Bulgaria

The Kara Tatars of Bulgaria were a result of force settlement by the Ottoman sultans. The first being the forced population settlement of Crimean Tatars under their chief Aktav in 1393 and the second being the forced population settlement of Tatars from Saruhan under their chief Pasayigitbey(Pasha Yegit Bey) in 1400, in Filibe(modern Plovdiv), both during the reign of Bayezid I(1380-1402). While the third being the forced population settlement of Kara Tatars from Iskilip under their chief Minnet Bey to Konit Hisari(near Filibe) in 1418 during the reign of Mehmet I(1413-1421).

Bosnia

Minnetoglu Mehmed-beg [http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minnetoglu_Mehmed-beg] was the Sancak of Bosnia.

Crimea

*The Kara Tatars ruled as a dynasty in Crimea and Kazan under the name of Giray Dynasty. The dynasty ruled in Crimea from their capital Baghchisaray from 1440s until Jun 1792 when they were conquered by the Russians and also ruled in Kazan (Tatarstan) roughly between 1524 to 1551.

Former USSR

Kara Tatar are listed as an ethnic group of USSR. "The Kara Tatar call themselves the Qara Tatar and have also been known as the Nukrat Tatar. They are a small group of Volga Tatars who dwell on the Cheptsa River" [REFERENCE: Ronald Wixman, The People of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook, 1984.]

Culture

Music

Qaraei is one of the music sub-style(gusheh) of Afshari(dastgah) of Iranian Traditional Music. [ [http://www.dejkam.com/music/iran_traditional/about/dastgah.php radif - dastgah - gusheh - magham ] ]

Carpet Weaving

Qaraei are well known for their carpet weaving, specially Qaraei of Khorasan.
* [http://www.rugreview.com/orr/9-2-51.htm Rugreview: THE QARAI RUGS OF TURBAT-I-HAIDARI]

Language

The Qaraei have adopted the language of the country they settled in. Thus they speak Persian and Azerbaijani in Iran, Dari in Afghanistan, Azerbaijani in Azerbaijan, Turkish and Turkmen in Turkey,
Tajik and Uzbek in Uzbekistan, Russian in Russia, Ukrainian in Ukraine and Bulgarian in Bulgaria.

Religion

They originally were Shamanist and Nestorian, however in modern times they're Sunni and Shi'a and some practice Karaite Judaism.

References

*Tarikh-e Torbat-e Heydarieh: ba tekiye be naqshe Ishaq Khan Qaraei, Mohammad Qaneyi
* [http://www.rugreview.com/orr/9-2-51.htm rugreview]
* [http://www.rugreview.com/95eil.htm A look at the word tribal by Murray L. Eiland]
* [http://www.iranica.com/articles/sup/Karai.html The word Karai in Iranica Encyclopaedia]
* [http://www.tcoletribalrugs.com/article10JA.html From the horses mouth with Jerry Anderson]
* [http://www.rugbooks.com/catalog/product_view.php?prod_id=BOOKS000018I Craycraft, Michael: Belouch and Karai Rugs of Torbat-i-Heydarieh]
* [http://www.esirjan.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=15 Qaraei Tribe of Sirjan]
*An historical and descriptive account of Persia: With a Detailed View of its resources by James Baille Fraser.
*An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, By James Stuart Olson.
*Journey to the North of India: Overland from England, Through Russia, Persia, and Afghanistan by Arthur Conolly.
*A History of Persia by Percy Molesworth Sykes.
*The Kingdom of Afghanistan by George Passman Tate.
* [http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Persia/qajar6.htm]
* [http://www.history.hacettepe.edu.tr/archive/oimakale.html Central Asia After the Mongol Invasion-Islam and Sedentray Life as a Consequence by Prof. Dr. Ozkan Izgi]
* [http://rbedrosian.com/tm4.htm rbedrosian]
* [http://www.iranica.com/articles/v7/v7f3/v7f342.html The word Deportation in Iranica Encyclopaedia]
* [http://www.ozturkler.com/data/0003/0003_03_02.htm ozturkler]
* [http://bucatarih.sitemynet.com/seminer/karma/yozgat.html List of Qara Tatar clans]
* [http://www.enfal.de/otarih23.htm]
* [http://hattusa.sitemynet.com/b_kale.htm]
* [http://xorasan.blogspot.com/ Afshar and Khorasani Turks]
* [http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/01341/gmongoliatext.htm Beginning of Great Mongolia]
* [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MONGOLS.htm]


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