John Otis Brew
John Otis Brew, born
March 28, 1906, was an American Southwest archaeologistthat not only conducted extensive archaeological research, but was also a director at the Peabody Museum. Many of his publications are still used today by archaeologists that conduct their work in the American Southwest. J.O. Brew was a titan in the world of archaeology for his attempts to “preserve our archaeological heritage.” [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:452.] On March 19, 1988, John Otis Brew died from congestive heart failurein Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Early life and academic career
From his early beginnings, Brew had an interest in history, but his true love was classical archaeology. Brew received his education at
Dartmouth Collegewhere he earned a bachelor’s degree in fine arts in 1928. He then went on to Harvard Universityfor his graduate studies where he earned a Thaw Fellowship. In 1931 “Jo”, as he was known by his friends and colleagues, finished his residence requirements at Harvard and gained an invitation to join the Peabody Museum’s Claflin-Emerson Expedition for archaeological reconnaissance which was located in northeastern Utah.
Alkali Ridge Expedition
In 1931, Brew was made director of the Peabody Museum’s Southeastern Utah Expedition to
Alkali Ridge. His work in this location is what he is most known for. His report, The Archaeology of Alkali Ridge, Southeastern Utah, With a Review of the Prehistory of the Mesa VerdeDivision of the San Juan and Some Observations on Archaeological Systematics, was published in 1946 and “immediately became a landmark in southwestern archaeological literature” [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:453.] . In this particular report Brew recorded such outstanding detail and interpretations of the site that the first three chapters are still used as a fundamental reference today.
Harvard Irish Expedition
Brew was introduced to Old World archaeology by Hugh Hencken and Hallam Movius in 1934. He accompanied them on the Harvard Irish Expedition in which they excavated a hill fort in County Clare and a lake dwelling in County Meath [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:453.] .
From the years 1936-1939 Brew directed the Peabody Museum’s
AwatoviExpedition in northeastern Arizona. This expedition was considered to be Brew’s second major archeological undertaking. During this expedition Brew and his team investigated the Jeddito region on the Hopi Indian Reservation, where, among other things, they discovered a major Franciscan Mission built in the seventeenth century. Because of WWIImost of the reports for the Awatovi Expedition were not published until later, but by 1978 eleven reports started to appear. A “final” report for the Awatovi Expedition has never been written [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:453.] .
Upper Gila Expedition
Brew’s third major research program came between 1949-1954 with the Peabody Museum’s
Upper GilaExpedition. There he investigated Anasazi-Mogollon contact with the help of colleagues, including Watson Smith and Charles R. McGimsey III, from his work at the Awatovi Expedition. This expedition was originally planned to be carried out in the 1930s with the help of Donald Scott, who was the director of the Peabody Museum at the time. Those who have had the pleasure of working with Brew on archaeological sites have said, “He was remarkably skilled at keeping track of the daily minutiae of field research without losing sight of the major goals of the work” [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:453.] .
Archaeological Involvement and the Peabody Museum
Brew was appointed curator of southwestern archaeology at the
Peabody Museumin 1941 and the curator of North American archaeology in 1945. Brew also taught, which he thoroughly enjoyed, and made sure his students were actively enjoying the classroom as much as he was. These positions left Brew ample time to pursue his love for archaeological research and never interfered with his work. In 1948 he was appointed director of the Peabody Museum [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:454.] .
In 1945 the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains, known as CRAR, was formed. The committee was appointed by the Society for American Archaeology, the American Anthropological Association and the American Council of Learned Societies and consisted of William S. Webb, A.V. Kidder, Frederick Johnson, and John Otis Brew (as the chairman). CRAR was a successful and very productive organization with J.O. Brew at the head. Brew was applauded for his leadership by Emil Haury in the following quote, “Jo knows his way around Washington, on the Hill and wherever else it counts. His dealings with tough-minded Senators, Representatives, and people in the Bureau of the Budget, have been done with a finesse that has paid off. All one needs to do is…catch the enthusiasm Jo has instilled in them (Federal agency representatives) for an activity that is far from their main line of interest” [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:455.] .
J.O. Brew was also president of the Society for American Archaeology. In 1949 he revealed a humorous side when he wrote to his colleagues stating, “I have been instructed by the last Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology to appoint a committee to determine whether or not we should retain the traditional spelling ‘Archaeology’ or adopt the bob-tailed version ‘Archeology’ in the official name of the society and all its works” [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:453-454.] . The vote was sixteen to seven in favor of the traditionalist term, which the archaeologists considered Brew’s letter with all seriousness.
The Peabody Museum celebrated its one-hundredth anniversary on October 8, 1966. The event was celebrated the evening before with approximately four-hundred and fifty graduates, friends, faculty, and staff. IN an essay in the volume 100 Years of Archaeology, Brew notes that it was a festive event in which tobacco was smoked and cocktails were served for the first time inside the halls of the museum. He also organized several lectures that took place over the 1966 academic year that discussed the growth of the five major phases of anthropology from 1866 to 1966. Those phases were:
American Archaeology, Old World Prehistory, Biological Anthropology, Ethnology and Social Anthropology, and Anthropological Linguistics. The lecturers were Gordon Willey of Harvard University, Glyn Daniel of Cambridge Universityin England, Sherwood Washburn of the University of California at Berkeley, Fred Eggan of the University of Chicago, and Floyd Lounsbury of Yale University. Brew also gave a brief history of the Peabody Museum. All of these activities showed what great enthusiasm Brew had for Harvard University, the Peabody Museum, and the fields of anthropologyand archaeology[Brew, John O. (1968) One Hundred Years of Anthropology. 5-6. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.] .
Brew also became actively involved with the
National Park ServiceAdvisory Board and UNESCO’s International Committee for Monuments, Historic Sites, and Archaeological Excavations, for which he was chairman for a number of years. He was a member of the Massachusetts Historical Commissionand the advisory board of Plimoth Plantationand served as trustee of Fruitlands Museumin Harvard, Massachusetts. Late in his life he also served on a board that advised the Tennessee Valley Authorityon archaeological matters.
John Otis Brew married Evelyn Nimmo in 1939 at the Awatovi Expedition site and they had two children, Alan P. Brew and Lindsay E. Brew. Alan followed in his father’s footsteps and became an archaeologist while Lindsay became a lawyer. Brew also enjoyed collecting trolley car memorabilia, which is now permanently housed in the
Boston Public Library. He will always be remembered as an intelligent, humorous, and sensitive person who helped to save archaeological sites from being destroyed [Woodbury, Richard B.(1990)Obituary: John Otis Brew, 1906-1988. American Antiquity 55:456.] .
Brew, John O.
-(1941) Bibliography: Field Methods in Archaeology, Anthropology 15. Ms. on file, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge.
-(1943) Applied Anthropology in the Southwest. Applied Anthropology 3:35-40.
-(1946) The Archaeology of Alkali Ridge, Southeastern Utah, With a Review of the Prehistory of the Mesa Verde Division of the San Juan and Some Observations on Archaeological Systematics. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 21. Harvard University, Cambridge.
-(1948) The 1947 Reconnaissance and the Proposed Upper Gila Expedition of the Peabody Museum of Harvard University (with E. B. Danson). El Palacio 55:211-222.
-(1956) The Metal Ages: Copper, Bronze, and Iron. In Man, Culture, and Society, edited by H. L. Shapiro, pp. 111-138. Oxford University Press, New York.
-(1966) Salvage Archaeology: Saving the Past from the Present. The Nation 203:117-120.
-(1968) Introduction. In One Hundred Years ofAnthropology, edited by J. O. Brew, pp. 5-25. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
-(1979) Hopi Prehistory and History to 1850. In Southwest, edited by A. Ortiz, pp. 514-523. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 9, W. G. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
* [http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/ The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Site]
* [http://history.utah.gov/apps/markers/detailed_results.php?markerid=1366 Alkali Ridge Site]
* [http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=99&ResourceType=Site Awatovi Site]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/explorers/sitec3.htm Awatovi Site]
* [http://www.ugwa.org/ Upper Gila Site]
* [http://www.dartmouth.edu/ Dartmouth College Site]
* [http://www.harvard.edu/ Harvard University Site]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Otis Harris — (* 30. Juni 1982 in Edwards, Mississippi) ist ein US amerikanischer Leichtathlet und Staffel Olympiasieger. Seine bisher größten internationalen Erfolge gelangen ihm bei den Olympischen Spielen 2004 in Athen. Im 400 Meter Lauf gewann er die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Ainsworth-Davis — (* 23. April 1895 in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion; † 3. Januar 1976 in Stockland, Devon) war ein britischer Sprinter, der in den Jahren um 1920 im 400 Meter Lauf aktiv war. Er nahm an den Olympischen Spielen 1920 in Antwerpen teil. Im Einzelrennen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Derrick Brew — (* 28. Dezember 1977 in Houston) ist ein US amerikanischer Sprinter. Der 400 m Läufer Brew hatte seinen Durchbruch 2001 bei den US Trials für die Leichtathletik Weltmeisterschaften 2001 in Edmonton. Er wurde Vierter und qualifizierte sich für die … Deutsch Wikipedia
American Anthropological Association — Founded in 1902, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) is the world’s largest professional organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology. With 11,000 members, the Arlington, Virginia based association includes… … Wikipedia
Ruinas de Awatovi — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Ruinas de Awatovi (Awatovi Ruins) Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos (EE. UU.) Hito Histórico Nacional … Wikipedia Español
Liste der Olympiasieger in der Leichtathletik/Medaillengewinner — Olympiasieger Leichtathletik Übersicht Alle Medaillengewinner Alle Medaillengewinnerinnen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Бег на 400 метров (лучшие спортсмены года, мужчины) — Содержание 1 Лучшие результаты по годам 1.1 1900 1909 1.2 1910 1919 1.3 1920 1929 1.4 … Википедия
4 x 400 m Staffel (Leichtathletik) — Gedränge beim Wechsel eines 4 × 400 Meter Staffelrennens Der 4 mal 400 Meter Staffellauf ist ein olympischer Wettbewerb der Leichtathletik, bei dem vier Läufer (die Staffette) nacheinander jeweils eine Stadionrunde von 400 Metern laufen. Dabei… … Deutsch Wikipedia
4 × 400 m Staffel (Leichtathletik) — Gedränge beim Wechsel eines 4 × 400 Meter Staffelrennens Der 4 mal 400 Meter Staffellauf ist ein olympischer Wettbewerb der Leichtathletik, bei dem vier Läufer (die Staffette) nacheinander jeweils eine Stadionrunde von 400 Metern laufen. Dabei… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste der Rock-’n’-Roll-Alben — Dies ist eine Liste von einflussreichen oder bemerkenswerten Alben der Rock Geschichte. Sie wurde aus verschiedenen Fachmagazinen zusammengestellt. Jedes genannte Album ist dort mindestens einmal gelistet worden. Die Nummern hinter dem Titel… … Deutsch Wikipedia