Motor Transport Corps (United States Army) (World War One)

The Motor Transport Corps (M.T.C.) was formed out of the Quartermaster Corps on August 15, 1918 by General Order No. 75. Men needed to staff this new corps were recruited from the skilled tradesmen working for automotive manufacturers in the U.S.

Organization

The first Director of the M.T.C. was Brig. Gen. Meriwether Lewis Walker of Lynchburg, Virginia. Walker was chief engineer of the Pancho Villa Expedition in 1916-17. He later was appointed governor of the Panama Canal Zone.
The Deputy Director was Col. Francis Horton Pope of Kansas.
The M.T.C. was headquartered in Tours during the duration of World War 1.

Functions

General Order No. 75 spelled out the functions of the Motor Transort Corps as:
*The technical supervision of all motor vehicles
*The design, production, procurement, reception, storage, maintenance and replacement of all motor vehicles, and accounting for same.
*The design, production, procurement, storage and supply of Transport Corps garages, parks, depots and repair shops.
*The procurement, organization and technical training of Motor Transport Corps personnel.
*The salvage and evacuation of damaged motor vehicles.
*The homogeneous grouping of motor vehicles.
*The operation, in accordance with instruction from the proper commanding officer as to their employment, of groups of motor vehicles of "First Class"
*The preparation of plans for hauling cargo and personnel over military roads, or roads under military control will be under the control of the Motor Transport Corps.
*The procurement, supply, replacement and preliminary training before assignment to combatant organizations, of personnel for operation of motor vehicles of the "Second Class", will be made by the Motor Transport Corps.

Types of motor vehicles

General Order No. 75 also defined a "motor vehicle" as:
*Bicycles
*Motorcycles
*Automobiles
*Trailers and TrucksExcluded from this definition were:
*Tractors of the caterpillar type, designed primarily for traction purposes
*TanksThese were to be under the control of the Ordnance Department.

Wartime Operation: 1918-1919

The American Expeditionary Force that deployed to France during World War I was in need of an organization that could log, track and maintain all needed motor transportation. A school and a network of parks were set up to accomplish this.

chool

All M.T.C. and some non-M.T.C. personnel were to attend training programs to learn operation and repair of motor vehicles. Some courses offered:
*Convoy driving
*Rules of the road
*Oiling, greasing and cleaning
*Map reading
*Motorcycle operation and repair
*Practical shop work
*Repairs of solid and pneumatic tires
*Oxy-acetylene welding

Parks

Reception Parks

Vehicles were unloaded, uncrated and assembled at these parks, then assigned a registration card and markings. Detailed records were kept on each vehicle's whereabouts and conditions. Vehicles and spare parts collected in these parks awaited assignments to specific army units as requested. With the exception of the highest ranking officers, no officer had his own personal car during the war. A large Reception Park was located in St. Nazaire.

ervice Parks

Designed to make repairs not requiring much time or heavy equipment, these mostly mobile workshops carried a limited stock of spare parts and were mainly assigned to combat zones. Because of their temporary and mobile nature, the service parks were often operating in the open, under canvas, or in any shelter found to be available.

Overhaul Parks

These parks were to occupy permanent or semi-permanent structures for basic vehicle maintenance and repair. They were to be located 30 miles behind the fighting zone (40 miles if behind a "thinly held sector"). When the cost of a repair exceeded 30% of the first cost of the vehicle, they were to be sent to a reconstruction park for salvage.

Reconstruction Park

A permanent facility equipped for large scale rebuilding and salvage operations. A temporary park in Nevers was relocated in July 1918 to a permanent facility in Verneuil, Nièvre, 30 miles east of Nevers. The M.T.C. Reconstruction Park covered approximately one thousand acres and consisted of five steel shops averaging 25,000 sq ft each and a large warehouse for storage of spare parts. The park was staffed by three units of approximately 1,150 men each (Units 301, 302, and 303). Some labor was also supplied by German prisoners who were housed inside the Park.

Command of the park at Verneuil was assigned to Colonel Harry A. ("Bull") Hegeman, who was awarded Distinguished Service Medal (United States) for his involvement in the operation, in spite of the post-war accusation of mismanagement and waste there. Hegeman was a Mechanical Engineer from Sparta, Wisconsin.

Post War: 1919-1920

According to the M.T.C. Reconstruction Park newsletter "Let's Go", the park was visited by General John J. Pershing and later, General James Harbord, in April of 1919.

The parks were closed after the war and the Motor Transport Corps was dissolved in 1920.

External links

World War 1

U.S. Army Transportation Corps

U.S. Army Transportation Museum

* [http://www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil The U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum in Fort Lee, Virginia]

* [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/fhpope.htm Francis Horton Pope - Arlington National Cemetery Website]

United States Army Quartermaster Corps

References

cite book
title = Manual of the Motor Transport Corps
publisher = United States War Department
date = 1919


cite book
last = Marcosson
first = Isaac Frederick
authorlink = Isaac Frederick Marcosson
title = S.O.S. America's Miracle in France
publisher = John Lane Company
location = New York
date = 1919


cite paper
title = War Expenditures - Hearings before Subcommittee No. 3 of the Select Committee on Expenditures in the War Department.
version = Serial 4 - Parts 27 and 38
publisher = Government Printing Office
date = 1920
url = http://www.loc.gov/library/libarch-digital.html


cite book
last = Geller
first = Lawrence D
title = The American Field Service Archives of World War I, 1914-1917
publisher = Greenwood Publishing Group
location = Westport, CT
date = June 1989
isbn = 9780313267949


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