# BTZ black hole

The

**BTZ black hole**, named afterMaximo Banados ,Claudio Teitelboim , andJorge Zanelli , is ablack hole solution for(2+1)-dimensional gravity with a negativecosmological constant .When the cosmological constant is zero, a vacuum solution of (2+1)-dimensional gravity is necessarily flat, and it can be shown that no black hole solutions exist. It therefore came as a surprise when black hole solutions were shown to exist for a negative cosmological constant.

The BTZ black hole is remarkably similar to the (3+1)-dimensional black hole. Like the

Kerr black hole it contains an inner and an outer horizon.It has "no hairs" (No hair theorem ) and is fully characterized by ADM-mass, angular momentum and charge. It also possesses thermodynamical properties analogous to the (3+1)-dimensional black hole. E.g. its entropy is captured by a law directly analogous to theBekenstein bound in (3+1)-dimensions, essentially with the surface area replaced by the BTZ black holes circumference.Since (2+1)-dimensional gravity has no Newtonian limit, one might fear that the BTZ black hole is not the final state of a gravitational collapse. It was however shown, that this black hole does arise from collapsing matter.

The BTZ solution is often discussed in the realm on (2+1)-dimensional

quantum gravity .**References*** The original BTZ-paper http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9204099

* A review by S.Carlip on BTZ balck holes and related topics http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0503022

* An older review by S.Carlip solely on BTZ balck holes http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9506079v1

* A review by one of the inventors Banados http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9901148v3

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

### Look at other dictionaries:

**Black hole**— For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). Simulated view of a black hole (center) in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Note the gravitat … Wikipedia**Contributors to general relativity**— General relativity Introduction Mathematical formulation Resources Fundamental concepts … Wikipedia**Closed timelike curve**— In mathematical physics, a closed timelike curve (CTC) is a worldline in a Lorentzian manifold, of a material particle in spacetime that is closed, returning to its starting point. This possibility was first raised by Kurt Gödel in 1949, who… … Wikipedia**Ruppeiner geometry**— is thermodynamic geometry employing the language of Riemannian geometry to study thermodynamics. George Ruppeiner proposed it in 1979. He claimed that thermodynamic systems can be represented by Riemannian geometry, and that statistical… … Wikipedia**Predestination paradox**— A predestination paradox (also called causal loop, causality loop, and, less frequently, closed loop or closed time loop) is a paradox of time travel that is often used as a convention in science fiction. It exists when a time traveller is caught … Wikipedia**Novikov self-consistency principle**— The Novikov self consistency principle, also known as the Novikov self consistency conjecture, is a principle developed by Russian physicist Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov in the mid 1980s to solve the problem of paradoxes in time travel, which is… … Wikipedia**Chronology protection conjecture**— The chronology protection conjecture is a conjecture by the physicist Professor Stephen Hawking that the laws of physics are such as to prevent time travel on all but sub microscopic scales. Mathematically, the permissibility of time travel is… … Wikipedia**Claudio Bunster**— This name uses Spanish naming customs; the first or paternal family name is Bunster (of Irish origin) and the second or maternal family name is Weitzman. Claudio Bunster Weitzman (born Claudio Teitelboim Weitzman on April 15, 1948 in… … Wikipedia**Bootstrap paradox**— The bootstrap paradox is a paradox of time travel in which information or objects can exist without having been created. After information or an object is sent back in time, it is recovered in the present and becomes the very object/information… … Wikipedia**Замкнутая времениподобная кривая**— Замкнутая временеподобная линия или замкнутая временеподобная кривая (англ. closed timelike curve, CTC) в математической физике временеподобная кривая на Лоренцевом многообразии, возвращающаяся в исходную пространственно временную… … Википедия