region = Western Philosophy
color = #B0C4DE
name = Pyrrho
birth = ca. 360 BC,
death = ca. 270 BC
Timon of Phlius, Aenesidemus, Sextus Empiricus
Pyrrho (ca. 360 BC - ca. 270 BC), a Greek
philosopherof classical antiquity, is credited as being the first Skepticphilosopher, and the inspiration for the school known as Pyrrhonismfounded by Aenesidemusin the 1st century BC.
Pyrrho was from
Elis, on the Ionian Sea. Diogenes Laertius, quoting from Apollodorus, says that Pyrrho was at first a painter, and that pictures by him were exhibited in the gymnasium at Elis. Later he was diverted to philosophy by the works of Democritus, and according to Diogenes Laertius became acquainted with the Megarian dialectic through Bryson, pupil of Stilpo. [Diogenes' testimony is doubtful. See Bett (2000) 1.]
Pyrrho, along with
Anaxarchus, travelled with Alexander the Greaton his exploration of the East, and studied under the Gymnosophistsin Indiaand the Magiin Persia. This exposure to Eastern philosophyseems to have inspired him to adopt a life of solitude; returning to Elis, he lived in poor circumstances, but was highly honored by the Elians and also by the Athenians, who conferred upon him the rights of citizenship.
Pyrrho wrote nothing. His doctrines were recorded in the satiric writings of his pupil
Timon of Phlius(the Sillographer). Unfortunately these works are mostly lost. Today Pyrrho's ideas are known mainly through the book "Outlines of Pyrrhonism" written by the Greek physician Sextus Empiricus.
The main principle of Pyrrho's thought is expressed by the word "
acatalepsia", which connotes the ability to withhold assent from doctrines regarding the truth of things in their own nature; against every statement its contradiction may be advanced with equal justification. Secondly, it is necessary in view of this fact to preserve an attitude of intellectual suspense, or, as Timon expressed it, no assertion can be known to be better than another. Thirdly, Pyrrho applied these results to life in general, concluding that, since nothing can be known, the only proper attitude is " ataraxia", "freedom from worry". ("By suspending judgment, by confining oneself to phenomena or objects as they appear, and by asserting nothing definite as to how they really are, one can escape the perplexities of life and attain an imperturbable peace of mind.")
The proper course of the sage, said Pyrrho, is to ask himself three questions. Firstly we must ask what things are and how they are constituted. Secondly, we ask how we are related to these things. Thirdly, we ask what ought to be our attitude towards them. Pyrrho's answer was that things are indistinguishable, unmeasurable, undecidable, and no more this than that, or both this and that and neither this nor that. He concluded that human senses neither transmit truths nor lie. [Long and Sedley (1987) vol. 1, pp. 14-17, vol. 2, pp. 5-7.] Humanity cannot know the inner substance of things, only how things appear.
The impossibility of knowledge, even in regard to our own ignorance or doubt, should induce the wise man to withdraw into himself, avoiding the stress and emotion which belong to the contest of vain imaginings. This theory of the impossibility of knowledge is the first and the most thorough exposition of
agnosticismin the history of thought.Fact|date=March 2007 Its ethical implications may be compared with the ideal tranquility of the Stoics and the Epicureans.
*Algra, K., Barnes, J., Mansfeld, J. and Schofield, M. (eds.), "The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
*Annas, Julia and Barnes, Jonathan, "The Modes of Scepticism: Ancient Texts and Modern Interpretations" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
*Bett, Richard, "Aristocles on Timon on Pyrrho: The Text, Its Logic and its Credibility" "Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy" 12 (1994a): 137-181.
*Bett, Richard, "What did Pyrrho Think about the Nature of the Divine and the Good?" "Phronesis" 39 (1994b): 303-337.
*Bett, Richard, "Pyrrho, his antecedents, and his legacy" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
*Brunschwig, Jacques, "Introduction: the beginnings of Hellenistic epistemology" in Algra, Barnes, Mansfeld and Schofield (eds.), "The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999): 229-259.
*Burnyeat, Myles (ed.), "The Skeptical Tradition" (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).
*Burnyeat, Myles and Frede, Michael (eds.), "The Original Sceptics: A Controversy" (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997).
*Doomen, Jasper, "The Problems of Scepticism" "Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy" 10 (2007): 36-52.
*Hankinson, R.J., "The Sceptics" (London: Routledge, 1995).
*Long, A.A., "Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics, Epicureans, Sceptics" (University of California Press, 1986).
*Long, A.A. and Sedley, David, "The Hellenistic Philosophers" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
*Striker, Gisela, "On the difference between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics" in G. Striker, "Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 135-149.
*Striker, Gisela, "Sceptical strategies" in G. Striker, "Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 92-115.
*Striker, Gisela, "The Ten Tropes of Aenesidemus" in G. Striker, "Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 116-134.
*Svavarsson, Svavar Hrafn, "Pyrrho’s dogmatic nature", "The Classical Quarterly" 52 (2002): 248-56.
*Svavarsson, Svavar Hrafn, "Pyrrho’s undecidable nature", "Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy" 27 (2004): 249-295.
*sep entry|pyrrho|Pyrrho|Richard Bett
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PYRRHO — philosophus, patriâ Eleus; primo pictor, vixit temporibus iisdem, quibus Theophrastus et Epicurus, Olymp. 110. Nam audivit Drysoen Stilponis filium, atque Anaxarchum Abderitem: quem etiam in Indiam comitatus est. Praesens quoque erat, cum Indus… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Pyrrho — /pir oh/, n. c365 c275 B.C., Greek philosopher. * * * … Universalium
PYRRHO — the father of the Greek sceptics, born in Elis, a contemporary of Aristotle; his doctrine was, that as we cannot know things as they are, only as they seem to be, we must be content to suspend our judgment on such matters and maintain a… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Pyrrho — /ˈpɪroʊ/ (say piroh) noun c.365–c.275 BC, Greek philosopher who expounded the doctrine of the impossibility of attaining certainty of knowledge … Australian English dictionary
pyrrho- — combining form see pyrrh … Useful english dictionary
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