Infobox Ethnic group
The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (
Old Iranian"Sarumatah" 'archer'Citation|first=J.|last=Harmatta|contribution=Scythians|title=History of Humanity Volume III: From Seventh Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D|year=1996|page=182|publisher=Routledge for UNESCO] , _el. Σαρμάτες) were a people of Iranic origin [(2007). "Encyclopædia Britannica", "s.v." "Sarmatian". Retrieved May 20, 2007, from [Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9065786] ] J.Harmatta: "Scythians" in UNESCO Collection of History of Humanity - Volume III: From the Seventh Century BC to the Seventh Century AD. Routledge/UNESCO. 1996. pg 182] . Mentioned by classical authors, they migrated from Central Asiato the Ural Mountainsaround fifth century B.C. and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia, Ukraine, and the eastern Balkans. Pliny the Elder( [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/4*.html#80 "Natural History" book iv] ) wrote that the Latin "Sarmatae" is identical to the Greek "Sauromatae". At their greatest reported extent these tribes ranged from the Vistulariver to the mouth of the Danubeand eastward to the Volga, and from the mysterious domain of the Hyperboreansin the north, southward to the shores of the Black and Caspian seas, including the region between them as far as the Caucasus mountains. [Apollonius (" Argonautica", iii) envisaged the "Sauromatai" as the bitter foe of King Aietesof Colchis(modern Georgia).] The richest tombs and the most significant finds of Sarmatian artifacts have been recorded in the Krasnodar Kraiof Russia.
The old name of
Paraćin(Paratjin) in Serbiawas Sarmatae.
It is perhaps no coincidence that the boundary between the so-called
Centum-Satem isoglossin the Indo-European languagesapparently split at the European border of the Sarmatians.
Around the year 100 BC, Sarmatian land ranged from
Barents Seaor Baltic Sea("Oceanus Sarmaticus") to tributary of Vistula River, to the Carpathian Mountains, to the mouth of the Danube, then eastward along the northern coast of the Black Sea, across the Caucasusto the Caspian Seaand north along the Volgaup to the polar circle.
The Sarmatians flourished from the time of
Herodotusand allied partly with the Hunswhen they arrived in the fourth century AD.
A popular belief (
Sarmatism) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthbetween the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, held that the nobility were direct descendants of the Sarmatians. No concrete evidence exists to back up this claim.
Archaeology and ethnology
In 1947, the leading Soviet historian
Boris Grakovdefined a culture apparent in late Kurgangraves, sometimes reusing part of much older Kurgans. It is a nomadic steppe culture ranging from the Black Seato beyond the Volga, and is especially evident at two of the major sites at Kardaielovaand Chernayain the trans-Uralic steppe.
The date of the culture (from the seventh century BC to the fourth century AD) and the location are in synchronicity with the written information we have about the Sarmatians. Accordingly Grekov defined four phases:
#Sauromatian, sixth-fifth centuries BC
#Early Sarmatian, fourth-second centuries BC
#Middle Sarmatian, late second century BC to late second century AD
#Late Sarmatian: late second century AD to fourth century AD
The Sarmatians of
Ptolemyfall into the Middle Sarmatian period. However, Grekov’s Sarmatia does not extend at all into the Balto-Slavicrange, where the two elements have their own archeologies descending to the Baltsand the Slavs.
Already anchored in the west in eastern Europe, the Huns were located to the north of the
Alansand extended east to the borders of the Han Dynasty. These Huns were quite peaceful trading partners of the Alans. Their archeology and mode of life is nearly indistinguishable from that of the Alans. The various peoples of the extensive eastern plains did own distinctive bronze kettles. Also, the graves of the people of central Asia, including those of the Huns, include remains that many believe are of mixed features, just as are the peoples of central Asia today.
Whatever happened in the east to bring warriors from there upon the Alans did not introduce a new people to the steppes or to Europe. As far as the Sarmatians are concerned, the Hunnic augment from the east only worked an ethnic reversal of dominance. Some Alans chose to flee to the Romans and others to fight for the Huns. The former disappeared into Europe long ago, while the latter remain in the Caucasus region. [See
Herodotus(Histories 4.21) in the fifth century BC placed the land of the Sarmatians east of the Tanais, beginning at the corner of the Maeotian Lake, stretching northwards for fifteen days' journey, adjacent to the forested land of the Budinoi. Herodotus describes the Sarmatians' physical appearance as blond, stout and tanned; in short, pretty much as the Scythians and Thracianswere seen by the other classical authors.
Herodotus (4.110-117), unaware of the
Iranicname of this group, standing for 'archers', presents a fanciful pseudo-etymologyof the Sauromatae, which he incorrectly derives from the Greek homophone'Σαυρομάτης, "one who has lizard-like eyes", and explains it as being the unfortunate result of marriage between a band of young Scythian men and a group of Amazons. In the story, some Amazonswere captured in battle by Greeks in Pontus(northern Turkey) near the river Thermodon, and the captives were loaded into three boats. They overcame their captors while at sea, but were not able sailors. Their ships were blown north to the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov) onto the shore of Scythianear the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea). After encountering the Scythians and learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, but only on the condition that they move away and not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus the descendants of this band settled toward the northeast beyond the Tanais (Don) river and became the Sauromatians. Herodotus' account explains the origins of the Sarmatians' language as an "impure" form of Scythian and credits the unusual freedoms of Sauromatae women, including participation in warfare, as an inheritance from their supposed Amazon ancestors. Later writers refer to the "woman-ruled Sarmatae" (γυναικοκρατούμενοι).
Hippocrates("De Aere", etc., 24) explicitly classes them as Scythian.
Strabomentions the Sarmatians in a number of places, never saying very much about them. He uses both Sarmatai and Sauromatai, but never together, and never suggesting that they are different peoples. He often pairs Sarmatians and Scythians in reference to a series of ethnic names, never stating which is which, as though Sarmatian or Scythian could apply equally to them all.
In Strabo the Sarmatians extend from above the Danube eastward to the Volga, and from north of the Dnepr into the
Caucasus, where, he says, they are called Caucasii like everyone else there. This statement indicates that the Alansalready had a home in the Caucasus, without waiting for the Huns to push them there.
Even more significantly he points to a Celtic admixture in the region of the
Basternae, who, he says, are of Germanic origin. The Celtic Boii, Scordisciand Taurisciare there. A fourth ethnic element being melted in are the Thracians(7.3.2). Moreover, the peoples toward the north are Keltoskythai, "Celtic Scythians" (11.6.2).
Strabo also portrays the peoples of the region as being nomadic, or Hamaksoikoi, "wagon-dwellers" and Galaktophagoi, "milk-eaters" referring, no doubt, to the universal
koumisseaten in historical times. The wagons were used for porting tents made of felt, which must have been the yurts used universally by Asian nomads.
Pliny the Elder
Tacitus is not the only Roman military man to have been interested in the Sarmatians; the admiral,
Pliny the Elder, relying on intelligence from Roman military stations in the north (by that time amber from the Baltic was being purchased by Roman agents on location), provides the most defining statement regarding the Sarmatians (4.12.79-81):
What this passage seems to tell us is that the Scythians or Scythian rule once extended even to the Germans, but now remained only in the far districts.
Jordanessupports this hypothesis by telling us on the one hand that he was familiar with the "Geography" of Ptolemy, which includes the entire Balto-Slavic territory in SarmatiaFact|date=February 2007, and on the other that this same region was Scythia. By "Sarmatia", Jordanes means only the Aryan territory. The Sarmatians therefore did come from the Scythians.
All Germania is divided from Gaul, Raetia, and Pannonia by the Rhine and Danube rivers; from the Sarmatians and the Dacians by shared fear and mountains. The Ocean laps the rest, embracing wide bays and enormous stretches of islands. Just recently, we learned about certain tribes and kings, whom war brought to light. [ _la. Germania omnis a Gallis Raetisque et Pannoniis Rheno et Danuvio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu aut montibus separatur: cetera Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum inmensa spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit.]
According to Tacitus, like the
Persians, the Sarmatians wore long, flowing robes (ch 17). Moreover, the Sarmatians exacted tribute from the Cotiniand Osi, and iron from the Cotini (ch. 43), “to their shame” (presumably because they could have used the iron to arm themselves and resist).
By the third century BC, the Sarmatian name appears to have supplanted the Scythian in the plains of what is now south
Ukraine. The geographer, Ptolemy, reports them at what must be their maximum extent, divided into adjoining European and central Asian sections. Considering the overlap of tribal names between the Scythians and the Sarmatians, no new displacements probably took place. The people were the same Indo-Europeans they used to be, but now under yet another name.
Later, Pausanias, viewing
votive offerings near the Athenian Acropolis in the second century AD. ("Description of Greece" 1.21.5-6), found among them a Sauromic breastplate.cquote|On seeing this a man will say that no less than Greeks are foreigners skilled in the arts: for the Sauromatae have no iron, neither mined by themselves nor yet imported. They have, in fact, no dealings at all with the foreigners around them. To meet this deficiency they have contrived inventions. In place of iron they use bone for their spear-blades, and corneal-wood for their bows and arrows, with bone points for the arrows. They throw a lasso round any enemy they meet, and then turning round their horses upset the enemy caught in the lasso."
Their breastplates they make in the following fashion. Each man keeps many mares, since the land is not divided into private allotments, nor does it bear any thing except wild trees, as the people are nomads. These mares they not only use for war, but also sacrifice them to the local gods and eat them for food. Their hoofs they collect, clean, split, and make from them as it were python scales. Whoever has never seen a python must at least have seen a pine-cone still green. He will not be mistaken if he liken the product from the hoof to the segments that are seen on the pine-cone. These pieces they bore and stitch together with the sinews of horses and oxen, and then use them as breastplates that are as handsome and strong as those of the Greeks. For they can withstand blows of missiles and those struck in close combat.
Pausanias' description is well borne out in a relief from Tanais. These facts are not necessarily incompatible with Tacitus, as the Sarmatians on the west might have kept their iron to themselves, it having been a scarce commodity on the plains. If true, this circumstance argues for a lack of central government or even for bad communication (as opposed to the Persians).
The greater part of the foreign names occurring in the inscriptions of Olbia,
Tanaisand Panticapaeumare supposed to be Sarmatian, and as they have been wellFact|date=February 2007 explained from the Iranic languagenow spoken by the Ossetiansof the Caucasus(the Ossetic language), these are supposed to be the modern representatives of the Sarmatians and can be shown to have a direct connection with the Alans, one of their tribes.
Sarmatians were still a force the Romans had to reckon with in the late fourth century A.D.
Ammianus Marcellinus(29.6.13-14) describes a severe defeat, which Sarmatian raiders inflicted upon Roman forces in the province of Valeria in Pannoniain late 374 A.D. The Sarmatians almost annihilated both a legion recruited from Moesiaand one from Pannonia, which had been sent to intercept a party of Sarmatians who had been pursuing a senior Roman officer named Aequitius deep into Roman territory. The two legions failed to coordinate and their quarreling allowed the Sarmatians to catch them unprepared and deal a stunning blow.
At the end of antiquity
The Sarmatians remained dominant until the Gothic ascendancyFact|date=April 2007 in the Black Sea area and then disappearedFact|date=April 2007 at the Hunnish destruction of the Gothic empire and subsequent invasion of central Europe. From bases in Hungary the Huns ruled the entire former Sarmatian territory. Their various constituents enjoyed a
floruitunder Hunnish rule, fought for the Huns against a combination of Roman and Germanic troops, and went their own ways after the Battle of Chalons(a stand-off), the death of Attilaand the disappearance of the Chuvashruling elements west of the Volga.
Priscuswho sees a lot of 'happy' Scythians around Attila. They played a significant part in the rise of early Russia.Fact|date=April 2007
Constantine the Great's campaign, 332
Goths attacked Samaritan tribes on the north of the Danube in what is today Romania. The Roman Emperor
Constantinecalled Constantine IIup from Galia in order to run the campaign. In very cold weather the Romans were overwhelmingly victorious, destroying 100.000 Goths and capturing Ariaricusthe son of the Goth king. [Origo Constantini 6.32 mentions the actions] [Eusebius Vita Constantini IV.6] [Charles Manson Odahl Constantine and the Christiane Empire chapter X]
334AD Constantine the Great campaign
In their efforts to halt the
Gothexpansion on the north of Lower Danube (present-day Romania), the Sarmatians armed their slaves. However, after the Roman victory the local population revolted against their Sarmatian masters, pushing them beyond the Roman border. Constantine, on whom the Sarmatians had called for help, defeated Limigantes, the leader of the revolt, and moved the Sarmatian population back in. In the Roman provinces, Sarmatian combattants were enlisted in the Roman army, whilst the rest of the population was distributed throughout Thracia, Macedonia and Italy. Origo Constantinimentions 300,000 refugees resulting from this conflict. The emperor Constantine was subsequently attributed the title of SARMATICUS MAXIMUS. [Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions] [Eusebius Vita Constantini IV.6] [Barnes Victories of Constantine page 150-154] [Grant Constantine the Great pages 61-68] [Charles Manson Odahl Constantine and the Christian Empire Chapter X]
Ancient DNA of 13 Sarmatian remains from Pokrovka and Meirmagul kurgans was extracted for comparative analysis. Most of the genetic traits determined were of western Eurasian origin, while only a few were of central/east Asian origin. [ [http://www.csen.org/DNA_Report/DNA.html] .]
In a recent excavation of Sarmatian sites by Dr. Jeannine Davis-Kimball, a tomb was found wherein female warriors were buried, thus lending some credence to the myths about the
Amazons. Amazons are reported as Sauromatae wives.
Hungarya great Late Sarmatian pottery center was reportedly unearthed between 2001-2006 near Budapest, in Üllő5archaeological site. Typical gray, granular Üllő5 ceramics forms a distinct group of Sarmatian pottery found everywhere in the north-central part of the Great Hungarian Plainregion, indicating a lively trading activity. A recent paper on the study of glass beads found in Sarmatian graves suggests wide cultural and trade links. [ [http://www.nbz.or.jp/eng/pdffiles/hallandyablonsky1998.pdf Chemical Analyses of Sarmatian Glass Beads from Pokrovka,Russia] , by Mark E. Hall and Leonid Yablonsky.]
Those Sarmatians, being in the early Iranian range of south Russia, were probably Iranian people akin to the
Scythians/ Saka. The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea Coast indicate that the Sarmatians there spoke a north-eastern Iranian dialect related to Sogdianand Ossetic.
Like the Scythians, Sarmatians were of Caucasian appearance; before the arrival of the Huns it is thought that few of the western steppe peoples had Asiatic or Turco-Mongol features. [Brzezinski, R., et al, "The Sarmatians 600 BC-AD 450" (in series Men-At-Arms 373) 2002, pp.6-7]
Tribes at some time considered Sarmatian
Below is a list of tribes considered by various ancient writers to be among the people called Sarmatian, or to be in territory considered Sarmatian. [The writers are identified in the articles for the tribes.] Note that the political and ethnic affiliations of the Sarmatians as well as their territory varied somewhat over the centuries. Authors do not all identify the same tribes.
Abii, Achaei, Acibi, Agathyrsi, Agoritae, Alans(Alauni, Halani, Alanorsi), Alontae, Amadoci, Amaxobi, Amazones, Anartophracti, Antae, Aorsi(Adorsi, Alanorsi), Arichi, Arsietae, Asaei, Aspurgiani, Atmoni, Avarini
Basilici, Basternae, Biessi, Bosporani, Bodini, Borusci, Burgiones
Carbones, Careotae, Cariones, Carpians, Caucasii, Cercetae, Chaenides, Choroatos, Chuni, Cimmerians, Costoboci, Conapseni
Fenni(Tacitus was not sure if Fenni were Sarmatians or Germanic people)
Galactophagi, Galindae, Gelones, Gerri, Gevini, Greater Venedae, Gythones
Hamaksoikoi, Heniochi, Hippemolgi, Hippophagi, Hippopodes, Hyperboreans, Horouathos or Horouatos
Iaxamatae, Iazyges, Igylliones, Isondae
Materi, Melanchlaenior Melanchlani, Metibi, Modoca, Mysi
Nasci, Navari, Nesioti
Ombrones, Ophlones, Orinei, Osili, Ossi
Pagyritae, Perierbidi, Peucini, Piengitae, Phrungundiones, Phthirophagi, Psessi
Saboci, Sacani, Saii, Sargati, Savari, Scythian Alani, Senaraei, Serboi, Sidoni, Siraces, Stavani, Sturni, Suani, Suanocolchi, Suardeni, Sudini, Sulones
Taïphali, Tanaitae, Tauroscythae, Thatemeotae, Tigri, Toreccadae, Transmontani, Tusci, Tyrambae, Tyrangitae
Veltae, Venedae, Vibiones
One can always find proponents of the hypothesis that two distinct peoples existed, the Sauromatae and the Sarmatae. This is not a popular hypothesis, as both peoples would have to be using many of the same tribal names. Moreover,
Jordanes, a churchman of mixed Gothic and Sarmatian background, states that they were the same and that the Goths changed their name in some places to Sarmatians before conquering.
There is a suggestion in Lubotsky's Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (on the Leiden University IED site) that the name is related to the Avestan zarəman-, "old". This is the same zar- that appears in
Zarathustra. The exact sense is not clear, but words with that root can mean "senior" and "undying" (through being very old) or _av. kos'tur of sun or fire. This word has the advantage of being in the most appropriate language and of being able to be the source of both Sar- and Sauro-.
The Avesta contains references to a people " _av. sairima". In later tradition, recorded in
Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, "Salm" is one of three sons of Fereydun, and the ancestor of the European peoples.
Since there is the theory that the linguistic descendants of the Sarmatians are the
Ossetians1 (contrary to, at that time completely unknown genetic data), one may include the three following theories for the origin of the name:
#Dumezil: oss. saw (black) scr. róman- (fur), oss tae (plural marker)
#Abaev: oss. saw (black) oss arm (arm), oss tae (plural marker)
#Christol: *sarumant (archer) from scr. saru (arrow)
The Indo-European root, which is the *ĝerh2- of
Julius Pokorny, "old", opens out exciting speculations. The word Greek, Latin Graeci, is from the same root, originating from an obscure Balkan tribe, the Graioi, which the ancients took to be "the old ones." In the area of Sauro-matae lived Ma-zurian. If zur(zar -sun) is similar to saur (sol -sun) then is also related to water founded 'zur niesiemy zur', vedi vodi or (sola sla). Graroi, given ż<>g<>h may be related to Żaroi Graroi "Haroy" Harian Hurian or even "Hunga" till today sing as "Ha'Hary", Compare the war cray "Hurra" of people from this area. Sarmatian is the satemequivalent of centumGreek.It must be noted here that "Αέρα" ( AERA ) is the Greek battle cry to this day. A genetic commonality would require an original satem word in Proto-Indo-European. Such a connection is speculative at this point.
The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the
Black SeaCoast indicate that the Sarmatians spoke a North-Eastern Iraniandialect ancestral to Ossetic(see Scytho-Sarmatian). [ Handbuch der Orientalistik, Iranistik. By I. Gershevitch, O. Hansen, B. Spuler, M.J. Dresden, Prof M Boyce, M. Boyce Summary. E.J. Brill. 1968. ]
*"Sarmatian Knights" were prominently featured in the 2004 film "King Arthur". The film posited that Arthur was a Roman officer with a Roman father and Briton mother origin. This was based on the Sarmatian connection hypothesis of Littleton and Thomas, who pointed out in 1978 that many Arthurian legends have surviving parallels among the
Ossetians, and that Marcus Aureliusplanted a Sarmatian colony of cataphracts("i.e.," heavily armoured cavalry) in Roman Britain.
Edward Gibbon's " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" devotes several chapters to the series of skirmishes and minor wars between the Sarmatians and Roman legions during the first few centuries AD, and includes the dubious footnote commenting on the Consul Proculus: "He had taken one hundred Sarmatian virgins. The rest of the story he must relate in his own language: _la. Ex his una nocte decem inivi; omnes tamen, quod in me erat, mulieres intra dies quindecim reddidi." [ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 1, chapter 12, p397. By Edward Gibbon. 1727. ]
*Almsaodi, Aymn. "The Historic Atlas of Iberia"
Richard Brzezinskiand Mariusz Mielczarek, "The Sarmatians 600 BC-AD 450" (in series "Men-At-Arms" 373), Oxford: Osprey, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-485-X
*Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. "Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines". Warner Books, New York. first Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
Tadeusz Sulimirski, "The Sarmatians" (vol. 73 in series "Ancient People and Places") London: Thames & Hudson/New York: Praeger, 1970.
Alexander Guagnini(1538-1614), "Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio", Spira 1581.
* [http://83.1911encyclopedia.org/S/SA/SARMATAE.htm "Encyclopaedia Britannica" 1911:] "Sarmatae"
* [http://www.kroraina.com/sarm/jh/index.html Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians]
* [http://dpg.lib.berkeley.edu/webdb/dsheh/heh_brf?Description=&CallNumber=HM+1092 Ptolemaic Map (Digital Scriptorium)]
* [http://www.sarmacja.com.pl/1697eng.htm Map of Sarmatia 1697]
* [http://www.csen.org/BAR%20Book/BAR.%20Part%2001.TofC.html Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age]
* [http://184.108.40.206/www1/ofm/pilgr/bord/10Bord03Sirmium.html "THE ANONYMOUS PILGRIM OF BORDEAUX (333 A.D.)"]
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