Sequani


Sequani
A portion of the map, Gallia, from Butler's 1907 atlas showing the divisions of the diocese of Gaul in the late Roman Empire.[1] According to the key, the map depicts 17 Provinciae Galliae, "Provinces of Gaul," of which the 17th, [Provincia] Maxima Sequanorum, "Greater Sequania," identified with an XVII shown in the Jura Mountains, contains the Sequani and Helvetii.
Gold coins of the Sequani Gauls, 5-1st century BCE. Early Gallic coins were often inspired by Greek coinage.[2]
Silver coins of the Sequani Gauls, 5-1st century BCE.
A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the locations of the Celtic tribes.

Sequani, in ancient geography, were a Gallic people who occupied the upper river basin of the Arar (Saône), the valley of the Doubs and the Jura Mountains, their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté and part of Burgundy.

Contents

Etymology

Sequani is an exonym assigned by the Romans, most likely based on a similar-sounding endonym. The endonym is not known for certain. Sequani is like Sequana, Caesar's name for the Seine, but the country of the Sequani is not in the Seine's watershed. Strabo was originally responsible for the folk-etymologic connection by supposing that the Sequana flowed through the country of the Sequani, a geographic error.[3] The French name of the Saône, however, the river forming the western border of the Sequani, derives from Celtic Souconna. The Romans called it the Arar. William Smith hypothesized that Sequani and Souconna were related.[4]

Geography

The country of the Sequani can be defined by the reports of the ancient writers.[4] The Jura Mountains separated the Sequani from the Helvetii on the east, but the mountains belonged to the Sequani, as the narrow pass between the Rhone and Lake Geneva was Sequanian.[5] They did not occupy the confluence of the Saône into the Rhone, as the Helvetii plundered the lands of the Aedui there.[6] Extending a line westward from the Jura estimates the southern border at about Mâcon, but Mâcon belonged to the Aedui.[7] Strabo says that the Arar separates the Sequani from the Aedui and the Lingones, which means that the Sequani were on the left, or eastern, bank of the Saône only.[8] On the northeast corner the country of the Sequani touched on the Rhine.[9]

History

Shield pattern of the Sequani auxilia palatina unit, according to Notitia dignitatum.

Before the arrival of Julius Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the side of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them (71 BC). Although his assistance enabled them to defeat the Aedui, the Sequani were worse off than before, for Ariovistus deprived them of a third of their territory and threatened to take another third, while subjugating them into semi-slavery.

The Sequani then appealed to Caesar, who drove back the Germanic tribesmen (58 BC), but at the same time obliged the Sequani to surrender all that they had gained from the Aedui. This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix (52 BC) and shared in the defeat at Alesia. Under Augustus, the district known as Sequania formed part of Belgica. After the death of Vitellius (69 CE), the inhabitants refused to join the Gallic revolt against Rome instigated by Gaius Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus, and drove back Sabinus, who had invaded their territory. A triumphal arch at Vesontio (Besançon), which in return for this service was made a colony, possibly commemorates this victory.

Diocletian added Helvetia, and part of Germania Superior to Sequania, which was now called Provincia Maxima Sequanorum, Vesontio receiving the title of Metropolis civitas Vesontiensium. Fifty years later, Gaul was overrun by the barbarians, and Vesontio sacked (355). Under Julian, it recovered some of its importance as a fortified town, and was able to withstand the attacks of the Vandals. Later, when Rome was no longer able to afford protection to the inhabitants of Gaul, the Sequani became merged in the newly formed Kingdom of Burgundy.

Major settlements

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Butler, Samuel; Rhys, Ernest (1907). "Map 4, Gallia". The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography. Everyman. London; New York: J.M. Dent; E.P. Dutton. 
  2. ^ Boardman, John (1993). The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 308. ISBN 0691036802. 
  3. ^ Strabo Geography, Book 4, Chapter 3, Section 2
  4. ^ a b Smith, William, ed (1873). "Sequana, Sequani". A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Volume II. London: John Murray. pp. 965–966. 
  5. ^ Caesar BG, Book I, Section 6.
  6. ^ Caesar BG, Book I, Section 11.
  7. ^ Caesar BG, Book VII, Section 90
  8. ^ Strabo Geography, Book 4, Chapter 1, Section 11.
  9. ^ Caesar BG, Book I, Section 1.

Bibliography

1911 Britannica References

  • T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899), p. 483.
  • A. Holder, Altceltischer Sprachschatz, ii. (1904).
  • Mommsen, Hist. of Rome (Eng. trans.), bk. v. ch. vii.
  • Dunod de Charnage, Hist. des Séquanois (1735)
  • J. D. Schöpflin, Alsatia illustrata, i. (1751; French trans. by L. W. Ravenèz, 1849).



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Look at other dictionaries:

  • SEQUANI — popul. Galliae Belgicae ab Aeduis Arare fluv. divis. Horum loca hodie tenent Burgundiones, Gallice Ceux de la Franche Comte, ou les Bourguignons. Munsterus hos Sequanos dividit in Cisiuranos, quos in Obern Elsass et Sundgow statuit, et… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Sequăni — Sequăni, celtisches Volk im Belgischen Gallien, zwischen den Helvetiern, Äduern, Lingonen u. dem Narbonensischen Gallien, im jetzigen Süd Elsaß, in der ehemaligen Franche Comte u. in Bourgogne; später bildeten sie eine eigene Provinz, Maxima… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Sequani — ▪ people       Celtic people in Gaul, who in the 1st century BC occupied the territory between the Saône, Rhône, and Rhine rivers, with their chief city at Vesontio (modern Besançon). Quarrels with the Aedui (q.v.) led them to call in the German… …   Universalium

  • Sequani — Die Sequaner (lat. Sequani) waren ein keltischer Stamm in Gallien. Ursprünglich besiedelten sie wohl das Seine Tal, ließen sich aber später im Gebiet zwischen Saône, Rhône und dem Juragebirge nieder. Ihr Hauptort war Vesontio, das heutige… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sequani — Séquanes Les peuplades de Gaule Les Séquanes étaient l un des peuples gaulois de l est de la Gaule au contact des Helvètes. Ils s opposaient à leurs voisins Éduens au sud ouest. Si la Saône figure chez César sous le nom d Arar, il est probable… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • sequani — seq·ua·ni …   English syllables

  • sequani — ˈsekwəˌnī, ˌnē; ˈsākwəˌnē noun plural Usage: capitalized Etymology: Latin : a Celtic people of ancient Gaul inhabiting a region around the sources of the Seine …   Useful english dictionary

  • Секваны — (Sequani) кельтское племя, жившее в центральной Галлии, рядом с гельветами, эдуями, аллоброгами и лингонами. Границу области С. составляли на ЮВ гора Юра, на З р. Арар, на С Вогезские горы (M. Vosegus). Позднее (со времен Тиберия) страна С.… …   Энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Ефрона

  • СЕКВАНЫ —    • Sequăni,          Σηκουανοί, могущественный народ кельтского происхождения в бельгийской Галлии, отделенный Юрой от гельветов, рекой Ааром от Эдуев, Роной от нарбонской Галлии; на севере граничит с Лингонами (южная часть Эльзаса, Франшконте… …   Реальный словарь классических древностей

  • SEQ — Sequani, sequantur, seque, sequentur, sequetur, sequtor, sequtori …   Abbreviations in Latin Inscriptions


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