name =Justinian I
full name =Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
title =Emperor of the
caption =Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the
Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna
reign =9 August 527 - 13 or 14 November 565
date of birth =c. 482
place of birth =
Tauresium, province of Dardania
date of death =13 or 14 November 565
place of death =
Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Justinian the Great), 482/483 – 13 November/14 November 565, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death, and second member of the
Justinian Dynasty, after his uncle Justin I. He is considered a saintamongst Eastern Orthodox Christians, is also commemorated by the Lutheran Church. [In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Justinian is commemorated on November 14 according to the Julian calendar, which currently equals to November 27 on the Gregorian calendar. He is commemorated on November 14 of the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church.]
One of the most important figures of
Late Antiquity, Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Byzantine Empire. The impact of his administration extended far beyond the boundaries of his time and empire. Justinian's reign is marked by the ambitious but ultimately failed "renovatio imperii", or "restoration of the empire". [J.F. Haldon, "Byzantium in the seventh century" (Cambridge, 2003), 17-19. Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "Last Roman" in modern historiography, for instance by G.P. Baker ("Justinian", New York 1931), or in the "Outline of Great Books" series ("Justinian the Great").] This ambition was expressed in the partial recovery of the territories of the Western Roman Empire, including the city of Romeitself. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the " Corpus Juris Civilis", which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia, which was to be the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity for many centuries.
A devastating outbreak of
bubonic plaguein the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendor. The empire entered a period of territorial decline not to be reversed until the ninth century. Procopiusprovides our primary source for the history of Justinian's reign. The Syriacchronicle of John of Ephesus, which does not survive, was used as a source for later chronicles, contributing many additional details of value. Both historians became very bitter towards Justinian and his empress, Theodora. Procopius also wrote the "Anekdota" (the so-called "Secret History"), which reports on various scandals at Justinian's court. Other sources include the histories of Agathias, Menander Protector, John Malalas, the Paschal Chronicle, the chronicles of Marcellinus Comesand Victor of Tunnuna.
Justinian, born in 482, [M. Meier, "Justinian", 29: "481 or 482"; Moorhead (1994), p. 17: "about 482"; Maas (2005), p. 5: "around 483".] was a
Latin-speaking [Justinian referred to Latin as being his native tongue in several of his laws. See Moorhead (1994), p. 18.] Illyrian [The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian by Michael Maas [http://books.google.com/books?id=9AvjaThtrKYC&pg=PA74&dq=Justinian++latin-speaking+Illyrians&sig=zYSvdt6GBz5kP_raKw6g6XLaFDc] ] or Dacian[Reign of Justinian, http://www.bibliomania.com/2/1/62/109/25682/1/frameset.html] [There has been some debate concerning Justinian's ethnic origins. According to Vasiliev (1952), "The theory of Justinian's Slavonic origin must (...) be discarded at present. Justin and Justinian were probably Illyrians or perhaps Albanians" (p. 129). According to the "New Cambridge Medieval History", II, Justinian's uncle Justin Iwas "a peasant from Illyria" (p. 97). Justinian was "born at Tauresium (Illyricum, probably near Niš)" and was "of Latin-speaking peasant stock" (Joseph R. Strayer (ed.), "Dictionary of the Middle Ages", New York 1982-2004). The "Lexikon des Mittelalters", likewise, has: "Sohn eines (illyr.?) Bauern". According to J.R. Martindale, "Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire", II (Cambridge 1980), Justinian was "called "Thrax apo Bederianas" (p. 645, Greek transcribed), while early sources (Evagrius, John Malalas, the "Paschal Chronicle" etc.) describe Justin I as being "of Thracian descent" (p. 648).See the term Thraco-Roman] peasantfrom a small village called Tauresium, in the province of Dardania (near Justiniana Prima, which he founded later), in what is now Taor, Macedonia. [The Serbs by Sima M. Ćirković [http://books.google.com/books?id=Ki1icLbr_QQC&pg=PA5&dq=Justiniana+Prima+Leskovac&sig=HIJsYX8oOiEa91xevY1RefCoSIA] ] [The Dictionary of Art by Jane Turner [http://books.google.com/books?um=1&q=Justiniana+Prima+Site+of+an+early+Byzantine+city+located+30+km+south-west+of+Leskovac+in+Serbia&btnG=Search+Books] ] [Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Everyday Life by Nevra Necipoğlu [http://books.google.com/books?id=tG0p_sZH-fEC&pg=PA37&dq=Justiniana+Prima+Leskovac&sig=-aCQO9ruihPJyOqkbBfsVfwlJT4] ] He was born as Petrus Sabbatius; the cognomen Justinianus, which he later took, is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin. [The sole source for Justinian's full name", Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus" (sometimes called "Flavius Anicius Justinianus"), are consular diptychs of the year 521 bearing his name.] His mother was Vigilantia, the sister of Justin. Justin, who was in the imperial guard (the Excubitors) before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople, and ensured the boy's education. As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence, theologyand Roman history. Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors but the details of his early career are unknown.
When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, with significant help from Justinian. During Justin's reign (518-527), Justinian was the emperor's close confidant. Justinian showed much ambition, and it has been thought that he was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on 1 April 527, although there is no conclusive evidence for this. [Moorhead (1994), pp. 21-22, with a reference to Procopius,
Secret History8.3.] As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler. Justinian was appointed consulin 521, and later commander of the army of the east. [This post seems to have been titular; there is no evidence that Justinian had any military experience. See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in: Michael Maas (ed.), "The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian" (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113-133 (pp. 113-114).] Upon Justin I's death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign.
As a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as "the Emperor who never sleeps" on account of his work habits. Nevertheless, he seems to have been amenable and easy to approach. [See Procopius, "Secret history", ch. 13.] Justinian's family came from a lowly and provincial background, and therefore he had no power base in the traditional aristocracy of Constantinople. Instead, he surrounded himself with men and women of extraordinary talent, whom he selected not on the basis of aristocratic origin, but on the basis of merit. Around 525 he married Theodora, who was by profession a
courtesanabout 20 years his junior. Justinian would have, in earlier times, been unable to marry her because of her class, but his uncle Emperor Justin I had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes. [M. Meier, "Justinian", p. 57.] Theodora would become very influential in the politics of the Empire, and later emperors would follow Justinian's precedent in marrying outside the aristocraticclass. The marriage caused a scandal, but Theodora would prove to be very intelligent, "street smart", a good judge of character and Justinian's greatest supporter. Other talented individuals included Tribonian, his legal adviser; his finance ministers John the Cappadocianand Peter Barsymes, who managed to collect taxes more efficiently than any before, thereby funding Justinian's wars; and finally, his prodigiously talented general Belisarius.
Justinian's rule was not universally popular; early in his reign he almost lost his throne during the
Nika riots, and a conspiracy against the emperor's life by dissatisfied businessmen was discovered as late as 562. [See [http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm De Imperatoribus Romanis: Justinian] .]
Justinian was struck by the plague in the early 540s, but recovered. Theodora died, perhaps of cancer, in 548, at a relatively young age, and Justinian outlived her by almost twenty years. Justinian, who had always had a keen interest in theological matters and actively participated in debates on Christian doctrine, [Theological treatises authored by Justinian can be found in Migne's "
Patrologia Graeca", Vol. 86.] became even more devoted to religion during the later years of his life. When he died, on the night of 13 November-14 November 565, he left no children. He was succeeded by Justin II, the son of his sister Vigilantia, who was married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora. Justinian's body was entombed in a specially built mausoleum in the Church of the Holy Apostles.
Justinian achieved lasting fame through his judicial reforms, particularly through the complete revision of all
Roman law, something that had not previously been attempted. The total of Justinian's legislature is known today as the " Corpus juris civilis". It consists of the " Codex Justinianus", the "Digesta" or " Pandectae", the " Institutiones", and the "Novellae".
Early in his reign, Justinian appointed the
quaestor Tribonianto oversee this task. The first draft of the " Codex Justinianus", a codification of imperial constitutions from the 2nd century onward, was issued on 7 April 529. (The final version appeared in 534.) It was followed by the "Digesta" (or " Pandectae"), a compilation of older legal texts, in 533, and by the " Institutiones", a textbook explaining the principles of law. The "Novellae", a collection of new laws issued during Justinian's reign, supplements the "Corpus". As opposed to the rest of the corpus, the "Novellae" appeared in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Empire; Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Empire, was only poorly understood by most citizens of the Eastern Empire.
The "Corpus" forms the basis of Latin jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical Canon Law) and, for historians, provides a valuable insight into the concerns and activities of the later Roman Empire. As a collection it gathers together the many sources in which the "leges" (laws) and the other rules were expressed or published: proper laws, senatorial consults ("senatusconsulta"), imperial decrees,
case law, and jurists' opinions and interpretations ("responsa prudentum").
Tribonian's code ensured the survival of Roman law. It formed the basis of later Byzantine law, as expressed in the "
Basilika" of Basil Iand Leo VI the Wise. The only western province where the Justinianic code was introduced was Italy (after the conquest, by the so-called Pragmatic Sanctionof 554), [Kunkel, W. (translated by J.M. Kelly) "An introduction to Roman legal and constitutional history." Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1966; 168] from where it was to pass to Western Europein the 12th century and become the basis of much European law code. It eventually passed to Eastern Europewhere it appeared in Slavic editions, and it also passed on to Russia. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1049-7544(195702)16%3A1%3C1%3ARATRL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4 Russia and the Roman law] ] It remains influential to this day.
Justinian's habit of choosing efficient, but unpopular advisors nearly cost him his throne early in his reign. In January 532, partisans of the
chariot racingfactions in Constantinople, normally divided among themselves, united against Justinian in a revolt that has become known as the Nika riots. They forced him to dismiss Tribonianand two of his other ministers, and then attempted to overthrow Justinian himself and replace him by the senator Hypatius, who was a nephew of the late emperor Anastasius. While the crowd was rioting in the streets, Justinian considered fleeing the capital, but he remained in the city on the stirring words of Theodora. In the next two days, he ordered the brutal suppression of the riots by his generals Belisariusand Mundus. Procopius relates that 30,000J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 200] unarmed civilians were killed in the Hippodrome. On Theodora's insistence, and apparently against his own judgment, [Diehl, Charles. "Theodora, Empress of Byzantium" ((c) 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc., transl. by S.R. Rosenbaum from the original French "Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance"), 89.] Justinian had Anastasius' nephews executed. [Vasiliev (1958), p. 157.]
The destruction that had taken place during the revolt provided Justinian with an opportunity to tie his name to a series of splendid new buildings, most notably the architectural innovation of the domed
One of the most spectacular features of Justinian's reign was the recovery of large stretches of land around the Western Mediterranean basin which had slipped out of imperial control in the 5th century. [For an account of Justinian's wars, see Moorhead (1994), pp. 22-24, 63-98, and 101-109.] As a Christian Roman emperor, Justinian considered it his divine duty to restore the
Roman Empireto its ancient boundaries. Although he never personally took part in military campaigns, he boasted of his successes in the prefaces to his laws and had them commemorated in art. [See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in: Michael Maas (ed.), "The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian" (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113-133 (pp. 113-114). For Justinian's own views, see the texts of "Codex Justinianus" 1.27.1 and "Novellae" 8.10.2 and 30.11.2.] The reconquests were in large part carried out by his general Belisarius. [Justinian himself took the field only once, during a campaign against the Huns in 559, when he was already an old man. This enterprise was largely symbolic and although no battle was fought, the emperor held a triumphal entry in the capital afterwards. (See Browning, R. "Justinian and Theodora." London 1971, 193.)]
War with the Sassanid Empire, 527-532
From his uncle, Justinian inherited ongoing hostilities with the
Sassanid Empire. [See Geoffrey Greatrex, "Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century", in: Michael Maas (ed.). "Age of Justinian" (2005), pp. 477-509.] In 530 a Persian army was defeated at Daraa, but the next year saw the defeat of Roman forces under Belisarius near Callinicum. When king Kavadh I of Persiadied (September 531), Justinian concluded an "Eternal Peace" (which cost him 11,000 pounds of gold)J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 195] with his successor Khosrau I(532). Having thus secured his eastern frontier, Justinian turned his attention to the West, where Arian Germanic kingdoms had been established in the territories of the former Western Roman Empire.
Conquest of North Africa, 533–534
The first of the western kingdoms Justinian attacked was that of the
Vandalsin North Africa. King Hilderic, who had maintained good relations with Justinian and the North African Catholic clergy, had been overthrown by his cousin Gelimerin 530. Imprisoned, the deposed king appealed to Justinian.
Belisariuswith a fleet of 92 "dromons" escorting 500 transports, landed at Caput Vada (modern Ras Kaboudia) in modern Tunisiawith an army of about 15,000 men, as well as a number of barbarian troops. They defeated the Vandals, who were caught completely off-guard, at Ad Decimumon 14 September 533 and Tricamarum in December; Belisarius took Carthage. King Gelimerfled to Mount Pappua in Numidia, but surrendered the next spring. He was taken to Constantinople, where he was paraded in a triumph. Sardiniaand Corsica, the Balearic Islands, and the stronghold Septemnear Gibraltarwere recovered in the same campaign. [Moorhead (1994), p. 68]
An African prefecture was established in April 534, [Moorhead (1994), p. 70] but it would teeter on the brink of collapse during the next 15 years, amidst warfare with the
Moorsand military mutinies. The area was not completely pacified until 548, [Procopius, De Bello Vandalico II.XXVIII] but remained peaceful thereafter and enjoyed a measure of prosperity. The recovery of Africa cost the empire about 100,000 pounds of gold. [See [http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Finances.htm Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades] .]
War in Italy, first phase, 535–540
As in Africa, dynastic struggles in Ostrogothic Italy provided an opportunity for intervention. The young king
Athalarichad died on 2 October 534, and an usurper, Theodahad, had imprisoned queen Amalasuntha, Theodoric's daughter and mother of Athalaric, on an island in Lake Bolsena, where he had her assassinated in 535. Thereupon Belisariuswith 7,500 menJ. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 215] invaded Sicily(535) and advanced into Italy, sacking Naplesand capturing Romeon 9 December 536. By that time Theodahadhad been deposed by the Ostrogothic army, who had elected Vitigisas their new king. He gathered a large army and besieged Romefrom February 537 to March 538 without being able to retake the city. Justinian sent another general, Narses, to Italy, but tensions between Narses and Belisarius hampered the progress of the campaign. Milanwas taken, but was soon recaptured and razed by the Ostrogoths. Justinian recalled Narsesin 539. By then the military situation had turned in favour of the Romans, and in 540 Belisarius reached the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna. There he was offered the title of Western Roman Emperorby the Ostrogoths at the same time that envoys of Justinian were arriving to negotiate a peace which would leave the region north of the Po Riverin Gothic hands. Belisarius feigned to accept the offer, entered the city in May 540, and reclaimed it for the Empire. [See Moorhead (1994), pp. 84-86.] Then, having been recalled by Justinian, Belisarius returned to Constantinople, taking the captured Vitigisand his wife Matasuenthawith him.
War with the Sassanid Empire, 540–562
Belisarius had been recalled in the face of renewed hostilities by the Persians. Following a revolt against Byzantium in Armenia in the late 530s and possibly motivated by the pleas of Ostrogothic ambassadors, king
Khosrau Ibroke the "Eternal Peace" and invaded Roman territory in the spring of 540. [See for this section Moorhead (1994), p. 89 ff., Greatrex (2005), p. 488 ff., and H. Boerm, "Der Perserkoenig im Imperium Romanum", in: "Chiron" 36, 2006, p. 299ff.] He first sacked Beroea and then Antioch(allowing the garrison of 6,000 men to leave the city),J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 229] besieged Daras, and then went on to attack the small but strategically significant satellite kingdom of Lazica near the Black Sea, exacting tribute from the towns he passed along his way. He forced Justinian I to pay him 5,000 pounds of gold, plus 500 pounds of gold more each year.J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 229]
Belisarius arrived in the East in 541, but, after some success, was again recalled to Constantinople in 542. The reasons for his withdrawal are not known, but it may have been instigated by rumours of disloyalty on behalf of the general reaching the court. [Procopius mentions this event both in the "Wars" and in the "Secret History", but gives two entirely different explanations for it. The evidence is briefly discussed in Moorhead (1994), pp. 97-98.] The outbreak of the plague caused a lull in the fighting during the year 543. The following year Khosrau defeated a Byzantine army of 30,000 men,J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 235] but unsuccessfully besieged the major city of Edessa. Both parties made little headway, and in 545 a truce was agreed upon for the southern part of the Roman-Persian frontier. After that the
Lazic Warin the North continued for several years, until a second truce in 557, followed by a Fifty Years' Peace in 562. Under its terms, the Persians agreed to abandon Lazica in exchange for an annual tribute of 400 or 500 pounds of gold (30,000 "solidi") to be paid by the Romans. [Moorhead ((1994), p. 164) gives the lower, Greatrex ((2005), p. 489) the higher figure.]
War in Italy, second phase, 541–554
While military efforts were directed to the East, the situation in Italy took a turn for the worse. Under their respective kings
Ildibadand Eraric(both murdered in 541) and especially Totila, the Ostrogoths made quick gains. After a victory at Faenzain 542, they reconquered the major cities of Southern Italy and soon held almost the entire peninsula. Belisarius was sent back to Italy late in 544, but lacked sufficient troops. Making no headway, he was relieved of his command in 548. Belisarius succeeded in defeating a Gothic fleet with 200 ships.Fact|date=April 2008 During this period the city of Romechanged hands three more times, first taken and depopulated by the Ostrogoths in December 546, then reconquered by the Byzantines in 547, and then again by the Goths in January 550. Totila also plundered Sicilyand attacked the Greek coastlines. Finally, Justinian dispatched a force of approximately 35,000 men (2,000 men were detached and sent to invade southern Visigothic Spain) under the command of Narses.J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 251] The army reached Ravenna in June 552, and defeated the Ostrogoths decisively within a month at the battle of Busta Gallorum in the Apennines, where Totila was slain. After a second battle at Mons Lactarius in October that year, the resistance of the Ostrogoths was finally broken. In 554, a large-scale Frankish invasion was defeated at Casilinum, and Italy secured for the Empire, even though it would take Narses several years to reduce the remaining Gothic strongholds. At the end of the war, Italy was garrisoned with an army of 16,000 men.J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 233] The recovery of Italy cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold. [See [http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Finances.htm Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades] .]
In addition to the other conquests, the Eastern Empire established a presence in
Visigothic Spain, when the usurper Athanagildrequested assistance in his rebellion against king Agila. In 552, Justinian dispatched a force of 2,000 men under the octogenarian Liberius, who had served under the Ostrogoth kings of Italy since the 490s. The Byzantines took Cartagena and other cities on the southeastern coast and founded the new province of Spaniabefore being checked by their former ally Athanagild, who had by now become king. This campaign marked the apogee of Byzantine expansion.
During Justinian's reign, the
Balkanssuffered from several incursions by the Turkic and Slavic peopleswho lived north of the Danube. Here, Justinian resorted mainly to a combination of diplomacy and a system of defensive works. In 559 a particularly dangerous invasion of Sklavinoi and Kutrigursunder their khan Zaberganthreatened Constantinople, but they were repulsed by the aged general Belisarius.
Justinian's ambition to restore the Roman Empire to its former glory was only partly realised. In the West, the brilliant early military successes of the 530s were followed by years of stagnation. The dragging war with the Goths was a disaster for Italy, even though its long-lasting effects may have been less severe than is sometimes thought. [See Lee (2005), p. 125 ff.] The heavy taxes that the administration imposed upon its population were deeply resented. While the final victory in Italy and the conquest of the coast of southern Spain significantly enlarged the area over which Byzantium could project its power and influence, and while they must have contributed to the empire's prestige, most of the conquests proved ephemeral. The greater part of Italy would be lost to the invading
Lombardsthree years after Justinian's death (568), and within a century and a half Africa and Spain were forever lost for the empire.
Events of the later years of the reign showed that Constantinople itself was not safe from barbarian incursions from the north, and even the relatively benevolent historian
Menander Protectorfelt the need to explain the emperor's failure to protect the capital from the weakness of his body in his old age. [W. Pohl, "Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms", in: Maas (2005), pp. 448-476; 472] In his efforts to renew the old Roman Empire, Justinian dangerously stretched the resources of the Eastern Empire while failing to take into account the changed realities of 6th-century Europe. [See Haldon (2003), pp. 17-19.] Paradoxically, Justinian's military successes probably contributed to the empire's subsequent decline. [See Pohl, ibidem.]
Justinian saw the orthodoxy of his empire threatened by diverging religious currents, especially
Monophysitism, which had many adherents in the eastern provinces of Syria and Egypt. Monophysite doctrine had been condemned as a heresyby the Council of Chalcedonin 451, and the tolerant policies towards Monophysitism of Zeno Iand Anastasius had been a source of tension in the relationship with the bishops of Rome. Justin reversed this trend and confirmed the Chalcedonian doctrine, openly condemning the Monophysites. Justinian, who continued this policy, tried to impose religious unity on his subjects by forcing them to accept doctrinal compromises that might appeal to all parties, a policy which proved unsuccessful as he satisfied none of them. Near the end of his life, Justinian became ever more inclined towards the Monophysite doctrine, especially in the form of Aphthartodocetism, but he died before being able to issue any legislation which would have elevated its teachings to the status of dogma. The empress Theodora sympathised with the Monophysites and is said to have been a constant source of pro-Monophysite intrigues at the court in Constantinople in the earlier years. In the course of his reign Justinian, who had a genuine interest in matters of theology, authored a small number of theological treatises. [Treatises written by Justinian can be found in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 86.]
As with his secular administration,
despotismappeared also in the emperor's ecclesiastical policy. He regulated everything, both in religion and in law.
At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law the Church's belief in the
Trinityand the Incarnation; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties; ["Cod.", I., i. 5.] whereas he subsequently declared that he intended to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due processof law. ["MPG", lxxxvi. 1, p. 993.] He made the Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan creed the sole symbol of the Church, ["Cod.", I., i. 7.] and accorded legal force to the canons of the four ecumenicalcouncils. ["Novellae", cxxxi.] The bishops in attendance at the Second Council of Constantinoplein 553 recognized that nothing could be done in the Church contrary to the emperor's will and command; [Mansi, "Concilia", viii. 970B.] while, on his side, the emperor, in the case of the Patriarch Anthimus, reinforced the ban of the Church with temporal proscription. ["Novellae", xlii.] Justinian protected the purity of the church by suppressing heretics. He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy, for protecting and extending monasticism. He granted the monks the right to inherit property from private citizens and the right to receive solemnia or annual gifts from the imperial treasury or from the taxes of certain provinces and he prohibited lay confiscation on monastic estates.
Although the despotic character of his measures is contrary to modern sensibilities, he was indeed a "nursing father" of the Church. Both the "Codex" and the "Novellae" contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, episcopal jurisdiction, etc. Justinian also rebuilt the Church of
Hagia Sophia(which cost 20,000 pounds of gold),P. Heather, "The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians", 283] the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots. The new Hagia Sophia, with its numerous chapels and shrines, gilded octagonal dome, and mosaics, became the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxyin Constantinople.
Religious relations with Rome
From the middle of the fifth century onward increasingly arduous tasks confronted the emperors of the East in ecclesiastical matters. For one thing, the radicals on all sides felt themselves constantly repelled by the creed adopted by the
Council of Chalcedonto defend the biblical doctrine of the nature of Christ and bridge the gap between the dogmatic parties. The letter of Pope Leo Ito Flavian of Constantinoplewas widely considered in the East as the work of Satan; so that nobody cared to hear of the Church of Rome. The emperors, however, had a policy of preserving the unity between Constantinople and Rome; and this remained possible only if they did not swerve from the line defined at Chalcedon. In addition, the factions in the East which had become stirred up and disaffected because of Chalcedon needed restraining and pacifying. This problem proved the more difficult because, in the East, the dissenting groups exceeded supporters of Chalcedon both in numerical strength and in intellectual ability. Tension from the incompatibility of the two aims grew: whoever chose Rome and the West must renounce the East, and vice versa.
Justinian entered the arena of ecclesiastical statecraft shortly after his uncle's accession in 518, and put an end to the Monophysite schism that had prevailed between Rome and Byzantium since 483. The recognition of the Roman see as the highest ecclesiastical authority [cf. "Novellae", cxxxi.] remained the cornerstone of his Western policy. Offensive as it was to many in the East, nonetheless Justinian felt himself entirely free to take a Despotic stance toward the
popes such as Silveriusand Vigilius. While no compromise could ever be accepted by the dogmatic wing of the church, his sincere efforts at reconciliation gained him the approval of the major body of the church. A signal proof was his attitude in the Theopaschite controversy. At the outset he was of the opinion that the question turned on a quibble of words. By degrees, however, Justinian came to understand that the formula at issue not only appeared orthodox, but might also serve as a conciliatory measure toward the Monophysites, and he made a vain attempt to do this in the religious conference with the followers of Severus of Antioch, in 533.
Again, Justinian moved toward compromise in the religious edict of 15 March 533, ["Cod.", L, i. 6.] and congratulated himself that
Pope John IIadmitted the orthodoxy of the imperial confession. ["Cod.", I., i. 8.] The serious blunder that he had made at the beginning by abetting a severe persecution of the Monophysite bishops and monks and thereby embittering the population of vast regions and provinces, he remedied eventually. His constant aim now remained to win over the Monophysites, yet not to surrender the Chalcedonian faith. For many at court, he did not go far enough: Theodora especially would have rejoiced to see the Monophysites favored unreservedly. Justinian, however, felt restrained by the complications that would have ensued with the West. But in the condemnation of the "Three Chapters" Justinian tried to satisfy both the East and the West, but succeeded in satisfying neither. Although the pope assented to the condemnation, the West believed that the emperor had acted contrary to the decrees of Chalcedon. Though many delegates emerged in the East subservient to Justinian, many, especially the Monophysites, remained unsatisfied; all the more bitter for him because during his last years he took an even greater interest in theological matters.
Suppression of non-Christian religions
Justinian's religious policy reflected the imperial conviction that the unity of the Empire unconditionally presupposed unity of faith; and it appeared to him obvious that this faith could be only the Orthodox (Nicaean). Those of a different belief had to recognize that the process of consolidation, which imperial legislation had effected from the time of
Constantius II, would now vigorously continue. The "Codex" contained two statutes ["Cod.", I., xi. 9 and 10.] which decreed the total destruction of paganism, even in private life; these provisions were zealously enforced. Contemporary sources ( John Malalas, Theophanes, John of Ephesus) tell of severe persecutions, even of men in high position.
Perhaps the most noteworthy event occurred in 529 when the Neoplatonic
Academyof Athenswas placed under state control by order of Justinian, effectively strangling this training-school for Hellenism. Paganismwas actively suppressed. In Asia Minoralone, John of Ephesus claimed to have converted 70,000 pagans. [ F. Nau, in "Revue de l'orient chretien", ii., 1897, 482.] Other peoples also accepted Christianity: the Heruli, [ Procopius, "Bellum Gothicum", ii. 14; Evagrius, "Hist. eccl.", iv. 20] the Hunsdwelling near the Don, [Procopius, iv. 4; Evagrius, iv. 23.] the Abasgi, [Procopius, iv. 3; Evagrius, iv. 22.] and the Tzaniin Caucasia. [Procopius, "Bellum Persicum", i. 15.]
The worship of
Amunat Augilain the Libyan desert was abolished; [Procopius, "De Aedificiis", vi. 2.] and so were the remnants of the worship of Isison the island of Philae, at the first cataractof the Nile. [Procopius, "Bellum Persicum", i. 19.] The Presbyter Julian["DCB", iii. 482] and the Bishop Longinus [John of Ephesus, "Hist. eccl.", iv. 5 sqq.] conducted a mission among the Nabataeans, and Justinian attempted to strengthen Christianityin Yemenby despatching a bishop from Egypt. [Procopius, "Bellum Persicum", i. 20; Malalas, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1831, pp. 433 sqq.]
Jews, too, had to suffer; for not only did the authorities restrict their civil rights, ["Cod.", I., v. 12] and threaten their religious privileges, [Procopius, "Historia Arcana", 28;] but the emperor interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue, ["Nov.", cxlvi., 8 February, 553] and forbade, for instance, the use of the Hebrew languagein divine worship. The recalcitrant were threatened with corporal penalties, exile, and loss of property. The Jews at Borium, not far from Syrtis Major, who resisted Belisarius in his Vandalcampaign, had to embrace Christianity; their synagogue became a church. [Procopius, "De Aedificiis", vi. 2.]
The emperor had much trouble with the
Samaritans, finding them refractory to Christianity and repeatedly in insurrection. He opposed them with rigorous edicts, but yet could not prevent hostilities towards Christians from taking place in Samariatoward the close of his reign. The consistency of Justinian's policy meant that the Manicheanstoo suffered severe persecution, experiencing both exile and threat of capital punishment. ["Cod.", I., v. 12.] At Constantinople, on one occasion, not a few Manicheans, after strict inquisition, were executed in the emperor's very presence: some by burning, others by drowning. [F. Nau, in "Revue de l'orient", ii., 1897, p. 481.]
Building activities, learning, art and literature
Justinian was a prolific builder; the historian Procopius bears witness to his activities in this area. [See Procopius, "Buildings".] Under Justinian's patronage the
San Vitalein Ravenna, which features two famous mosaics representing Justinian and Theodora, was completed.Robert Browning. "Justinian I" in " Dictionary of the Middle Ages", volume VII (1986).] Most notably, he had the Hagia Sophia, originally a basilicastyle church that had been burnt down during the Nika riots, splendidly rebuilt according to a completely different ground plan. This new cathedral, with its magnificent dome filled with mosaics, remained the centre of eastern Christianity for centuries. Another prominent church in the capital, the Church of the Holy Apostles, which had been in a very poor state near the end of the 5th century, was likewise rebuilt. [Vasiliev (1952), p. 189] Works of embellishment were not confined to churches alone: excavations at the site of the Great Palace of Constantinoplehave yielded several high-quality mosaics dating from Justinian's reign, and a column topped by a bronze statue of Justinian on horseback and dressed in a military costume was erected in the Augustaeumin Constantinople in 543. [Brian Croke, "Justinian's Constantinople", in: Michael Maas (ed.), "The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian" (Cambridge 2005), pp. 60-86 (p. 66)] Rivalry with other, more established patrons from the Constantinopolitan and exiled Roman aristocracy (like Anicia Juliana) may have enforced Justinian's building activities in the capital as a means of strengthening his dynasty's prestige. [See Croke (2005), p. 364 ff., and Moorhead (1994).]
Justinian also strengthened the borders of the empire from Africa to the East through the construction of fortifications, and ensured Constantinople of its water supply through construction of underground
cisterns. During his reign a bridge over the river Sangarius was built, securing a major trade route. Furthermore, Justinian restored cities damaged by earthquake or war and built a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima, which was intended to replace Thessalonicaas the political and religious center of the Illyricum. In Justinian's era, and partly under his patronage, Byzantine culture produced noteworthy historians, including Procopiusand Agathias, and poets such as Paul the Silentiaryand Romanus the Melodist flourished during his reign. On the other hand, centers of learning as the Platonic Academy in Athens and the famous law school of Beirut[Following a terrible earthquake in 551, the school at Beirut was transferred to Sidon and had no further significance after that date. (Vasiliev (1952), p. 147)] lost their importance during his reign. Despite Justinian's passion for the glorious Roman past, aother ancient institution, the Roman consulate, was allowed to lapse after 541. [Vasiliev (1952), p. 192.]
Economy and administration
As was the case under Justinian's predecessors, the empire's economic health rested primarily on agriculture. In addition long-distance trade flourished, reaching as far north as
Cornwallwhere tinwas exchanged for Roman corn. [John F. Haldon, "Economy and Administration", in: Michael Maas (ed.), "The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian" (Cambridge 2005), pp. 28-59 (p. 35)] Within the empire, convoys sailing from Alexandriaprovided Constantinople with corn, and Justinian made the traffic more efficient by building a large granary on the island of Tenedosfor storage and further transport to Constantinople. [John Moorhead, "Justinian" (London/New York 1994), p. 57] Justinian also tried to find new routes for the eastern trade, which was suffering badly from the wars with the Persians. One important luxury product was silk, which was imported and then processed in the empire. In order to protect the manufacture of silk products, Justinian granted a monopoly to the imperial factories in 541. [Peter Brown, "The World of Late Antiquity" (London 1971), pp. 157-158] In order to bypass the Persian landroute, Justinian established friendly relations with the Abyssinians, whom he wanted to act as trade mediators by transporting Indian silk to the empire; the Abyssinians, however, were unable to compete with the Persian merchants in India. [Vasiliev (1952), p. 167] Then, in the early 550s, two monks succeeded in smuggling eggs of silk worms from Central Asiaback to Constantinople, [See Moorhead (1994), p. 167; Procopius, "Wars", 8.17.1-8] and silk became an indigenous Byzantine product.
At the start of Justinian I's reign he had inherited a surplus 28,800,000 "solidi" (400,000 pounds of gold) in the imperial treasury from
Anastasius Iand Justin I. [See [http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Finances.htm Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades] .] Under Justinian's rule, measures were taken to counter corruption in the provinces and to make tax collection more efficient. Greater administrative power was given to both the leaders of the prefecturesand of the provinces, while power was taken away from the vicariates of the dioceses, of which a number were abolished. The overall trend was towards a simplification of administrative infrastructure. [Haldon (2005), p. 50] According to Brown (1971), the increased professionalisation of tax collection did much to destroy the traditional structures of provincial life, as it weakened the autonomy of the town councils in the Greek towns. [Brown (1971), p. 157] It has been estimated that before Justinian I's reconquests the state had an annual revenue of 5,000,000 "solidi" in AD 530, but after his reconquests, the annual revenue was increased to 6,000,000 "solidi" in AD 550. [See [http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Finances.htm Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades] .]
Throughout Justinian's reign, the cities and villages of the East prospered, although
Antiochwas struck by two earthquakes (526, 528) and sacked and evacuated by the Persians (540). Justinian had the city rebuilt, but on a slightly smaller scale. [Kenneth G. Holum, "The Classical City in the Sixth Century", in: Michael Maas (ed.), "Age of Justinian" (2005), pp. 99-100]
Despite all these measures, the empire suffered several major setbacks in the course of the 6th century. The first one was the plague, which lasted from 541 to 543 and, by decimating the empire's population, probably created a scarcity of labour and a rising of wages. [Moorhead (1994), pp. 100-101] The lack of manpower also led to a significant increase in the number of "barbarians" in the Byzantine armies after the early 540s. [John L. Teall, "The Barbarians in Justian's Armies", in: "Speculum", vol. 40, No. 2, 1965, 294-322. [http://www.kroraina.com/bulgar/jteall.html] The total strength of the Byzantine army under Justinian is estimated at 150,000 men (J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 259).] The protracted war in Italy and the wars with the Persians themselves laid a heavy burden on the empire's resources, and Justinian was criticized for curtailing the government-run post service, which he limited to only one eastern route of military importance. [Brown (1971), p. 158; Moorhead (1994), p. 101]
Plague of Justinian
* History of the
* This article incorporates text from the "Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religion".
* "Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia". Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig:
Teubner, 1976-64. Greek text.
*"Procopius". Edited by H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and London, Hutchinson, 1914-40. Greek text and English translation.
* Procopius, "The Secret History", translated by G.A. Williamson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. A readable and accessible English translation of the "Anecdota".
* Elizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott et al. 1986, "The Chronicle of John Malalas: A Translation", Byzantina Australiensia 4 (Melbourne: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies) ISBN 0959362622
Edward Walford, translator (1846) "The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius: A History of the Church from AD 431 to AD 594", Reprinted 2008. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-88-6. [http://www.evolpub.com/CRE/CREseries.html#CRE5]
* Bury, J. B. (1958). "History of the later Roman Empire, Vol. 2". New York (reprint).
* Cameron, Averil et al.(eds.). "The Cambridge Ancient History", Vol. 14, Second Edition, Cambridge 2000.
* Evans, James Allan. "The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire". Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-313-32582-0).
* Maas, Michael (ed.). "The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian", Cambridge 2005.
* Meier, Mischa. "Das andere Zeitalter Justinians. Kontingenzerfahrung und Kontingenzbewältigung im 6. Jahrhundert n. Chr." Göttingen, 2003.
* Meier, Mischa. "Justinian. Herrschaft, Reich, und Religion". Munich, 2004.
* Moorhead, John. "Justinian", London 1994.
* Rosen, William. "Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe", Viking Adult, 2007. ISBN 978-0670038558.
* Rubin, Berthold (1960). "Das Zeitalter Iustinians". Berlin. — German standard work; partially obsolete, but still useful.
* Sarris, Peter. "Economy and society in the age of Justinian". Cambridge, 2006.
* Vasiliev, A. A. "History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453". Second edition. Madison, 1952.
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/procop-anec.html The "Anekdota" ("Secret history") of Procopius in English translation.]
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Procopius/Buildings/home.html The "Buildings" of Procopius in English translation.]
* [http://web.upmf-grenoble.fr/Haiti/Cours/Ak "The Roman Law Library" by Professor Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev]
* [http://www.anders.com/lectures/lars_brownworth/12_byzantine_rulers/ Lecture series covering 12 Byzantine Rulers, including Justinian] - by Lars Brownworth
* [http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm De Imperatoribus Romanis. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors]
* [http://www.byzantium1200.com/justinia.html Reconstruction of column of Justinian in Constantinople]
* [http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/30_20_0482-0565-_Flavius_Justinianus_Imperator.html Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes]
NAME = Justinian I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Justinian the Great; Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus; Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Roman Emperor
DATE OF BIRTH = 482/483
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Tauresium, province of Illyricum
DATE OF DEATH = 13 November or 14 November 565
PLACE OF DEATH = Constantinople
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