Palatini (Roman military)
The palatini (Latin for "palace troops") were elite regiments of the Late Roman army mostly attached to the comitatus praesentales, or imperial escort armies. In the elaborate hierarchy of troop-grades, the palatini ranked below the scholares (members of the elite cavalry regiments called the scholae), but above the comitatenses (regiments of the regional comitatus) and the limitanei (border troops).
The term derives from palatium ("palace") a reference to the fact that the regiments originally served in the imperial escort armies only. Later they were also found in the regional comitatus (mobile field armies). There, however, they continued to enjoy higher status and pay than the rest of the comitatus regiments. At the time the Notitia Dignitatum was written (ca. 395 for the Eastern Empire), 80% of the regiments in the eastern comitatus praesentales were graded palatini and 14% of those in the regional comitatus.
The palatini were created by Constantine I after he disbanded the Praetorian Guard in AD 312, and originally comprised former praetorians. As with all comitatus regiments, palatini cavalry regiments were called vexillationes (from vexillum = "military standard") and infantry regiments were either legiones or auxilia. Vexillationes palatinae are believed to have contained 400-600 men, legiones palatinae 800-1,200 and auxilia palatina either 800-1,000 or 400-600.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Auxiliaries (Roman military) — Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports ) formed the standing non citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC ndash;284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. By the 2nd century, the auxilia contained the same number of infantry as… … Wikipedia
Palatini — Recorded in several forms including Paladini, Paladino, Palladino, Palatino, Palatini, and Pallatina, this is a surname of truly ancient origins. It dates back to the time of the original foundation of the Roman Empire although it is probable… … Surnames reference
Late Roman army — The Late Roman army is the term used to denote the military forces of the Roman Empire from the accession of Emperor Diocletian in 284 until the Empire s definitive division into Eastern and Western halves in 395. A few decades afterwards, the… … Wikipedia
East Roman army — The East Roman army refers to the army of the Eastern section of the Roman empire, from the empire s definitive split in 395 AD to the army s reorganisation by themes after the permanent loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the Arabs in the 7th… … Wikipedia
List of Roman army unit types — This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. The distinction between rank and unit type doesn t seem to have been as precise as in a modern day army, in which a soldier has … Wikipedia
Battle of Strasbourg — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Strasbourg partof=the Roman Alamanni conflict caption=Coin showing (obverse) head of Julian (emperor 361 3) with diadem and (reverse) soldier bearing standard holding kneeling captive by the hair and… … Wikipedia
Saint Maurice — This article is about Roman Legion leader. For other uses, see Saint Maurice (disambiguation). Saint Maurice and companions Statue of St. Maurice Martyrs Born … Wikipedia
Comitatenses — This article is part of the series on: Military of ancient Rome (portal) 753 BC – AD 476 Structural history Roman army (unit types and ranks … Wikipedia
The Vatican as a Scientific Institute — The Vatican Palace, as a Scientific Institute † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Vatican Palace, as a Scientific Institute Regarded from the point of view of scientific productivity, the Vatican is the busiest scientific workshop in Rome.… … Catholic encyclopedia
Janus — For other uses, see Janus (disambiguation). Bifrons redirects here. For other uses, see Bifrons (disambiguation). A statue representing Janus Bifrons in the Vatican Museums In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Janus is the god of beginnings… … Wikipedia