Svayam Bhagavan

:"This article is about a Hindu philosophical concept: the original or absolute manifestation of God. For other meanings, see Krishna (disambiguation) and Bhagavan (disambiguation)."

Svayam Bhagavan (IAST "IAST|svayam bhagavān"), "The Lord" or Lord Himself, is a Sanskrit theological term. The term refers to the concept of absolute representation of the monotheistic God as "Bhagavan" within Hinduism.

It is most often used in Gaudiya Vaishnava Krishna-centered theology as referring to Krishna. The title "Svayam Bhagavan" is used exclusively to designate Krishna, ("Gupta" 2007, p.36 note 9)which appears to be conflicting with other usages in Bhagavata Purana. Only the minor sect of Gaudiya Vaishnavas considers him to be the source of all incarnations, and the source of Vishnu himself, or to be the same as Narayana. As such, he is therefore regarded as "Svayam Bhagavan".cite journal
author = Delmonico, N.
year = 2004
title = The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism
journal = The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=mBMxPdgrBhoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA31&dq=Vaisnava+monotheism&ots=r4RVWf2w7X&sig=ml4nbiFNep6SCtqVbOZsCv5s6g0
accessdate = 2008-04-12
] cite book
author = Elkman, S.M.
coauthors = Gosvami, J.
year = 1986
title = Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Movement
publisher = Motilal Banarsidass Pub
isbn =

]

The term is seldomly used to refer to other forms of Krishna and/or Vishnu within the context of certain religious texts such as the Bhagavata Purana, and also within other sects of Vaishnavism.

Though Krishna is recognized as "Svayam Bhagavan" by many, he is also perceived and understood from an eclectic assortment of perspectives and viewpoints. cite journal
author = Mahony, W.K.
year = 1987
title = Perspectives on Krishna's Various Personalities
journal = History of Religions
volume = 26
issue = 3
pages = 333-335
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(198702)26%3A3%3C333%3APOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
accessdate = 2008-04-12
] When Krishna is recognized to be "Svayam Bhagavan", it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism,cite book
author = Kennedy, M.T.
year = 1925
title = The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal
publisher = H. Milford, Oxford university press
isbn =
] the Vallabha Sampradaya,cite book
author = Flood, Gavin D.
authorlink = Gavin Flood
title = An introduction to Hinduism
publisher = Cambridge University Press
location = Cambridge, UK
year = 1996
pages = 341
isbn = 0-521-43878-0
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=KpIWhKnYmF0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=gavin+flood&sig=q_waAYpO_WokCivKS2OtlwsG2dw#PPA118,M1
accessdate = 2008-04-21
"Early Vaishnava worship focuses on three deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala, and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva-Krishna and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while Narayana was worshipped by the Pancaratra sect."] and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself. This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous statement of the Bhagavatam"(1.3.28). "Essential Hinduism" S. Rosen, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group [http://books.google.com/books?id=VlhX1h135DMC&pg=PA124&dq=Krishna+is+the+original+Personality+of+Godhead&client=firefox-a&sig=2Yojs3j3lTcocPQ7RaIqBnpLrq0 p.124] ISBN 0275990060]

A different viewpoint differing from this theological concept is the concept of Krishna as an "avatara" of Narayana or Vishnu. It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of the God of Vaishnavism, who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism.Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=4]

Meaning

The theological interpretation of "IAST|svayam bhagavān" differs with each tradition and the literal translation of the term has been understood in several distinct ways. Translated from the Sanskrit language, the term literary means "Bhagavan Himself" or "directly Bhagavan". Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition often translates it within its perspective as "primeval Lord" or "original Personality of Godhead", but also considers the terms such as "Supreme Personality of Godhead" and "Supreme God" as an equivalent to the term "Svayam Bhagavan", and may also choose to apply these terms to Vishnu, Narayana and many of their associated avatars. cite book
author = Knapp, S.
year = 2005
title = The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment and Illumination -
publisher = iUniverse
isbn =

"Krishna is the primeval Lord, the original Personality of Godhead, so He can expand Himself into unlimited forms with all potencies." [http://books.google.com/books?id=a2KPChj7lTwC&pg=PA161 page 161] ] cite journal
author = Dr. Kim Knott,
year = 1993
title = Contemporary Theological Trends In The Hare Krishna Movement: A Theology of Religions
url = http://www.iskcon.com/icj/1_1/knott.html
accessdate = 2008-04-12
..."Bhakti", the highest path, was that of surrender to Lord Krishna, the way of pure devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead".]

Earlier commentators such as Madhvacharya translated the term "Svayam Bhagavan" as "he who has "bhagavatta"; meaning "he who has the quality of possessing all good qualities".cite book
author = Dimock Jr, E.C.
coauthors = Dimock, E.C.
year = 1989
title = The Place of the Hidden Moon: Erotic Mysticism in the Vaisnava-Sahajiya Cult of Bengal
publisher = University Of Chicago Press
isbn =

[http://books.google.com/books?id=EAYa1BtUTm0C&pg=PA132&dq=Svayam+bhagavan&sig=jcyEA-4tyPoddQmWg-FnYKDBgEY page 132] ] Others have translated it simply as "the Lord Himself".cite book |author=K. Klostermaier | other = Crotty, Robert B. |title=The Charles Strong Trust Lectures, 1972-1984 |publisher=Brill Academic Pub |location= |year=1997 |pages=206 |isbn=90-04-07863-0 |quote= For his worshippers he is not an avatara in the usual sense, but Svayam Bhagavan, the Lord himself.|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=F_0UAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA109&dq=Svayam+bhagavan&as_brr=3&sig=0MqNO6X3nyfgZTNDC1nVI_OLd0A |accessdate= p.109 Klaus Klostermaier translates it simply as "the Lord Himself"] Followers of Vishnu-centered sampradayas of Vaishnavism rarely address this term, but believe that it refers to their belief that Krishna is among the highest and fullest of all "avatars" and is considered to be the "paripurna Avatara", complete in all respects and the same as the original. [cite web
url=http://www.tirumala.org/sapthagiri/122002/purana.htm
title=Sapthagiri
publisher=www.tirumala.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
Parashara Maharishi, Vyasa's father had devoted the largest Amsa (part) in Vishnu Purana to the description of Sri Krishna Avatara the "Paripoorna Avatara". And according to Lord Krishna's own (istructions) "upadesha", "he who knows (the secrets of) His (Krishna's) Janma (birth) and Karma (actions) will not remain in samsara ("punar janma naiti- maam eti") and attain Him after leaving the mortal coil." (BG 4.9). Parasara Maharishi ends up Amsa 5 with a phalashruti in an identical vein (Vishnu Purana .5.38.94)
] According to them Krishna is described in the Bhagavata Purana as the "Purnavatara" (or complete manifestation) of the Bhagavan, while other incarnations are called partial. "Krishna being the Bhagavan Himself, the mind of man fixed on him intensely, whatever be the motive and however ignorantly it might be."(p.334) Generally there is a universal acceptance of the uniqueness of Krishna incarnation throughout Hinduism, as well as the principles involved in His life and personality for which He has been described as "Svayam Bhagavan" (Bhagavan Himself). cite book
author=Mepathur Narayana Bhattatiri
title=Narayaneeyam-Bhagavata, Condensed Edition
publisher=Sri Ramakrishna Math
location=
year=2003
pages=
isbn=81-7120-419-8
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=
pp.234-239]

Perspectives

upporting Views

There is an element of countenance in many Krishna centered traditions to the subordination of Krishna to Vishnu. The reasons for that are given that it was the easiest way to accommodate Krishna's human story within the composite Vaishnava theological perspective. These "core texts assert and defend the ultimacy of Krsna's identity". [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=154] However inclusion of Krishna in the list of avataras does not necessarily subordinated him to Vishnu as one of the latter's expansions.cite book
author=Matchett, Freda
title=Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana
publisher=Routledge
location=Surrey
year=2000
pages=254
isbn=0-7007-1281-X
oclc=
url+http://books.google.ie/books?id=1oqTYiPeAxMC&printsec=frontcover
doi=
accessdate=
p. 182-183]

The prime supporters of the Krishna-centered theology, Gaudiya Vaishnavas and followers of the Vallabha Sampradaya Nimbarka Sampradaya, use the Gopala Tapani Upanishad,cite book |author=B. V. Tripurari |title=Gopala-tapani Upanisad |publisher=Audarya Press |location= |year=2004 |pages= |isbn=1-932771-12-3 |oclc= |doi=] Vedanta Sutras and other Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavata Purana and the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, among others, to support their view that Krishna is indeed the "Svayam Bhagavan". This belief was summarized by the 16th century author Jiva Goswami in some of his works, such as "Krishna-sandarbha". cite book
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
coauthors =
year = 2004
title = Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika
publisher = University Of Oxford
isbn =

] cite book
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
coauthors =
year = 2007
title = Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami
publisher = Routledge
isbn = 0415405483
] While Krishna himself if mentioned in one of the earliest texts of Vedic literature - Rig-Veda. [Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya "Krishna-cult in Indian Art". 1996M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 8175330015 p.126: "According to (D.R.Bhadarkar), the word Krishna referred to in the expression 'Krishna-drapsah' in the Rig- Veda, denotes the very same Krishna".]

In the sixth book of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the "Bhishma Parva" (where the "Bhagavad Gita" is part of), Krishna offers numerous quotations that reaffirm the belief that he himself is the "Svayam Bhagavan". Verse [http://www.asitis.com/7/7.html 7.7] of the Bhagavad Gita, is often used to support the opinion that Krishna himself is the "Svayam Bhagavan", and that no impersonal form of Brahman supersedes his existence, as it is an common view that Bhagavad Gita was propounding Krishna-theism before first major proponents of monism.cite book
author=
authorlink=
editor = S. Devadas Pillai
others=
title=Indian Sociology Through Ghurye: A Dictionary
edition=
language=
publisher=South Asia Books
location=Columbia, Mo
year=1997
origyear=
pages=403
quote=
isbn=81-7154-807-5
oclc=
doi=
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=P3uD22Ghqs4C&pg=PA283
accessdate=
]

Other two pervading understandings of the position of "Svayam Bhagavan" asserted in the Gita are connected to other, not Krishna-centered, traditions. One tradition follows predominately the views of Sankaracharya commentary on Brahma Sutras and is referred as "maya-vad" which justifies "Svayam Bhagavan" supremacy by a concept of illusion or maya.

The second alternative understanding of the evident supremacy of "Svayam Bhagavan" in the Gita, is a popular view on Krishna being the highest and fullest avatar of the Lord, Vishnu or Narayana.cite book
author = Bipin Chandra Pal
year = 1964, 132 pages
title = Shree Krishna: Letters Written to a Christian Friend
publisher = Yugayatri/New India Printing& Publishing Co.
quote = First edition published in 1938 under the title of 'Europe asks: who is Shree Krishna'.
isbn =

p. 31: Shree Krishna stands at the top of this series. He is therefore called by his votaries as Purna Avatara or the highest and fullest incarnation of the Lord.] "The Bhagavad Gita depicts Krishna not only as Brahman but also as an "avatara" of Vishnu and the friend of Arjuna." [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=dys3AAAAIAAJ&dq=Avatara+of+Narayana+purna++Krishna+Gita Panjab University Journal of Medieval Indian Literature. Page 56] Panjab University Sheikh Baba Farid Dept. of Medieval Indian Literature ] In summary in accordance with this view "Svayam Bhagavan" Krishna is considered to be the "purna-avatara" (full incarnation) of Vishnu or, according to some, of the universal Narayana who transcends even Brahman.cite book
author = Sri Swami Chidananda
year = 1964, 132 pages
title = The Divine Name and Its Practice: Souvenir on the Occasion of the Double
publisher = [http://books.google.com/books?q=inpublisher:%22Divine+Life+Society%22&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Divine Life Society] & Publishing Co.
quote = Preface Sri Swami Krishnananda
isbn =
p. 24] "Bhagawan Swaminarayan bicentenary commemoration volume, 1781-1981." p. 154: ...Shri Vallabhacharya [and] Shri Swaminarayan... Both of them designate the highest reality as Krishna, who is both the highest avatara and also the source of other avataras. To quote R. Kaladhar Bhatt in this context. "In this transcendental devotieon (Nirguna Bhakti), the sole Deity and only" is Krishna. [http://books.google.com/books?id=_Q0YAAAAIAAJ&q=Avatara+Swaminarayan+Krishna+origina%3B&dq=Avatara+Swaminarayan+Krishna+origina%3B New Dimensions in Vedanta Philosophy - Page 154] , Sahajānanda, [http://books.google.com/books?q=+subject:%22Vedanta%22 Vedanta] . 1981]

Supremacy or a concept of "originality" is often referred to the words pf Krishna himself, as for example, Abhinavagupta of yet another tradition of Hinduism, introduces a quotation from the Bhagavad-gita that 'I', referring to Krishna, is the highest self who transcends the perishable and imperishable. Harvnb|Flood|2006|p=150]

Other Vaishnava views

Sri Vaishnavas provide and example of alternative monotheism that is “tainted” by elements apparently in tension with this concept. The Sri Vaishnavas identify Vishnu with the Brahman, while Krishna-centered traditions will associate Para Brahman with Krishna as Svayam Bhagavan. According to Ramanujacharya, Brahman is personal. Indeed, he is the "supreme" person , creator and Lord, who leads souls to salvation. Far from having no (positive) attributes, as some Advaita Vedanta followers maintain, Brahman is the "sum" of all “noble attributes” — i.e. omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, and all-merciful, all qualities attributed to Vishnu by all Vaishavas. According to South Indian traditions he is also "advitya" (Sanskrit meaning without rival). To Vaishnavas, Shiva, Brahma, and the other gods of the Hindu pantheon are viewed as Brahman's agents or servants, created and commissioned by him. Some Vaishnavas consider them to be or see that they have the same status that of angels have in the western religious traditions. [cite web
url=http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/monotheism/#7.3
title=Monotheism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) "Nov 1, 2005"
publisher=www.seop.leeds.ac.uk
accessdate=2008-07-26
]

“The entire complex of intelligent and non-intelligent beings - is viewed as real and constitutes the form, i. e., the body of the highest Brahman”. [Ramanuja {1962) p. 88] A soul-body relationship, according to Ramanujacharya, is “entirely subordinate” to its soul, having no independent reality or value. [Ramanuja {1962) p. 424] However Ramanujacharya himself did not stress a subordination of the 'puravatara' Krishna to Vishnu.

However, Vaishnava traditions do not adhere to the concept of "Svayam Bhagavan" with the same views as those who support the concept.cite book
author = Tapasyananda, S.
year = 1982
title = Śrīmadbhāgavatam-Srimad Bhagavata, the Holy Book of God
publisher = Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras
isbn =
Page xxviVerify credibility|date=July 2008] Verify credibility|date=July 2008To support their view they quote the 149th chapter of "Anushāsanaparva" in the epic Mahabharata, Bhisma which states, with Krishna present, that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the "Vishnu sahasranama"', which are the thousand names of the all-pervading supreme being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, supreme over the "devas" and who is one with Brahman. [ see, Ganguli English translation of Mahabharata, Chapter 148, at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m13/m13b113.htm ] , [For Sanskrit text and translation, see: Tapasyananda, Vishnu Sahasrnama, Ramakrishna Mission pp. 3-4.Verify credibility|date=July 2008] This seems to indicate that Krishna is identical with Vishnu. Indeed, Krishna himself said, "Arjuna, one may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.” [ [http://www.srivaishnavan.com/tomcat/visnu.html Srivaishnavism ] ]

Adherents of this view generally believed to adhere to Vedic literature, and often state that some Vaishnava scriptures such as the Bhagavata Purana, which is one of the primary texts used in supporting the concept of "Svayam Bhagavan", may contain material that was added at a later time and does not completely follow the teachings of the Vedas.Fact|date=May 2008

Some adherents of this view argue that the application of the term "Svayam Bhagavan" and the category of "IAST|svayaṁ-rūpa" is a relatively new view, generally associated with Gaudiya Vaishnavism view, and is generally not upheld in any previous Vaishnava traditions and within greater Hinduism.Fact|date=May 2008

Many Vaishnava schools have different interpretation of the concept as for example followers of the Swaminarayan Sampraday believe that Lord Narayana manifested himself as Lord Swaminarayan. [Cite web | url=http://www.swaminarayanwales.org.uk/Murtis/murtis.asp | title=Lord Narayan manifested himself as Lord Swaminarayan] This view is only supported within their particular tradition.

Comparison

The exact relationship between Krishna and Vishnu, particularly regarding which of the two is primary to the other, and which of the two is the summum bonum, is one of the most frequently debated issues in Vaishnavism.

Some early schools of thought, such as Pancaratra in particular, refer to Vasudeva-Krishna (Krishna, the son of Vasudeva) as the source of all incarnations and as no different from the ultimate and absolute reality, and as non-distinct from Vasudeva and any other manifestations of the supreme self.cite book
author = Flood, G.D.
year = 2006
title = The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion
publisher = IB Tauris
isbn = 1845110129
p.102-105 - describes Vasudeva-Krishna, (Krishna son of Vasudeva) as the source of all or as the same the ultimate reality, non-distinct from Vasudeva and other manifestations. Having a hundred-fold radiance of fire from whom all other forms of Purusha, Achuta and Satya emanate.]

However other, more specifically in South Indian Vaishnava sampradayas existing prior to Caitanya and Vallabhacarya, Krishna is often considered to be either a subordinate avatar of Vishnu, or as in the case of the Madhva tradition, a full avatar of Vishnu. However, this definition of avatar was presented differently to Sanatana Goswami by Chaitanya, as it was based on the Gaudiya interpretations of the Upanishads and the Bhagavata Purana.

Krishnaism

The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the cults of Krishna, reserving term "Vaishnavism" for cults focusing on Vishnu in which Krishna is an avatara, rather than a transcended being. [Flood p. 117]

"Greater Krishnaism" corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopala. [ [http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/hindu/devot/vaish.html Vaishnava] University of Cumbria website Retrieved on 5-21-2008] Today the faith has a significant following outside of India as well.cite book
author=Graham M. Schweig
title=Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story
publisher=Princeton University Press
location=Princeton, N.J
year=2005
pages=Front Matter
isbn=0-691-11446-3
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=
] Supremacy of Krishna is the key concept of Krishnaism. Gaudiya is one of the main traditions worshiping Radha Krishna that developed this concept.

Gaudiya Vaishnava perspective

Theory of avataras

Primary theology of Caitanyaite or Gaudiya traditions is based and presented in Bhagavata Purana and Caitanya Caritamrita.cite book
author=Valpey, Kenneth Russell
title=Attending IAST|Kṛṣṇa's
IAST|Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth
publisher=Routledge
location=New York
year=2006
pages=
isbn=0-415-38394-3
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=
Ch. 1] "Svayam" in "Svayam rupa" does not imply one and only, and all conceptions by previous Vaishnava traditions, according to the Gaudiya Vaishnavas beliefs, fall under a second category, "tad ekatma rupa" (meaning: one that "one" and "not different"). [cite web
url=http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/20/165/en
title=Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya-lila Chapter 20 Verse 165
accessdate=2008-05-07
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
accessdate=2008-05-07
last=Swami Prabhupada
first=A.C. Bhaktivedanta

] 'Svayam' as a term means "not depending on others" or "being himself".cite book
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
coauthors =
year = 2004
title = Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika
publisher = University Of Oxford
isbn =

Chapter: Caitanya Vaishnava Hermeneutics.] In his instruction to Sanatana Goswami, at Kasi, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explains the implications of the "vadanti" verse: "The word "brahman" refers to "Svayam Bhagavan", who has one consciousness without a second, and without whom there is nothing else." (Gupta 2007, p 36).

Rūpa Gosvāmī has described the "IAST|svayaṁ-rūpa" in his "IAST|Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta": [Rupa Goswami, "IAST|Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta" (IAST|Pūrva-khaṇḍa,verse 12) Kusakrathadasa, 1990, [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Krsna+Institute%22&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Krsna Institute] , ISBN 156130008X: [http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/20/165/en "IAST|ananyāpekṣi yad rūpaṁ svayaṁ-rūpaḥ sa ucyate"] .] "The form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that does not depend on other forms is called "IAST|svayaṁ-rūpa", the original form."Harvnb|Beck|2005|p=39|loc=page 39 'According to Ortodox Gaudiya.. Krishnas svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna as Narayana and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna appearing though in varying degrees of possession']

The "tad-ekātma-rūpa" forms are also described in the IAST|Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta Srila Rupa Gosvami's "Sri Laghu-Bhagavatamrta", Translated by Kusakrathadasa, 1990, [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Krsna+Institute%22&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Krsna Institute] , ISBN 156130008X] [Rupa Goswami, "IAST|Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta" (IAST|Pūrva-khaṇḍa, verse 14): "IAST|yad rūpaṁ tad-abhedena svarūpeṇa virājate": "IAST|ākṛtyādibhir anyādṛk sa tad-ekātma-rūpakaḥ" “The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms exist simultaneously with the IAST|svayaṁ-rūpa form and are nondifferent. At the same time, their bodily features and specific activities appear to be different.” quoted in cite web
url=http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/20/165/en
title=Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya-lila Chapter 20 Verse 165
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
accessdate=2008-05-07
last=Swami Prabhupada
first=A.C. Bhaktivedanta
] "The" tad-ekātma-rūpa "forms simultaneous to "IAST|svayaṁ-rūpa" form and are non-different. At the same time by their bodily features and specific activities they appear to be different."

Two best known Vedic descriptions of the creation are purusha sukta and nasadiya sukta. One hymn addresses to Vishvakarma, The one who makes all. To beliefs of Vaishnavas, [ Klaus K. Klostermaier, "A Survey of Hinduism". Page 113, 1994, ISBN 0791421090] the "Visvakarma Sukta" of Rig Veda (10.82) refers to IAST|Garbhodakasayi Viṣṇu indirectly as the Supreme God: The waters verily first retained the embryo in which all the gods were aggregated, single deposited on the navel of the unborn (ajah), in which all beings abide. [ [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv10082.htm Rg.10.082.06] Ralph T.H. Griffith, [1896] translates it "The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn's navel, that One wherein abide all things existing." ] and according to the Gaudiyas, falls under category of "tad-ekātma-rūpa",

According to the Gaudiya Vaishnava interpretation, it is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.7), which says, "IAST|mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat": "There is no truth superior to Me." Where Krishna is 'bhagavan' himself, whose partial manifestations are the other gods. This idea is reflected in the Bhagavata Purana. The Brahma Vaivarta Purana tells us Krishna is the ultimate source from which Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Prakriti originate. He is "Svayam Bhagavan" while other incarnation are his partial manifestations. The comments of Sridhara Svami (an early Sankara sect commentator), bring out uniqueness of Krishna. According to him Krishna is perfect as all potencies are observed to be full in him. cite book
author = Gosvami, J.
coauthors = Chatterjee, C.
year = 1986
title = Srikrsnasandarbha and its critical study
publisher = [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Jadavpur+University Jadavpur University]
isbn =
p xvii-xviii] In "Atharvavedasamhita", Krishna is described as having slain the giant Kesi, Keshava. The "Kaustiki Brahmana" (30.9) alludes to Krishna Angirasa, who is an object of evening ceremony in connection with Brahmanaacchamsin priest. The Aitareya Aranyaka speaks of two Krishnas of Harita Gotra.cite book
author = Gosvami, J.
coauthors = Chatterjee, C.
year = 1986
title = Srikrsnasandarbha and its critical study
publisher = [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Jadavpur+University Jadavpur University]
isbn =
p vi] However the south Indian Vaishnavism makes very little stress on Krishna and altogether ignored Radha in contrast with the other traditions.cite book
author = Gosvami, J.
coauthors = Chatterjee, C.
year = 1986
title = Srikrsnasandarbha and its critical study
publisher = [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Jadavpur+University Jadavpur University]
isbn =
p iv]

To the views of the Gaudiya Sampradaya, the Bhagavad-gita [http://www.asitis.com/18/64.html BG 18.64 "sarva-guhya-tamam—the most confidential of all"] Purport states : "This essence is not understood by a common man, but by one who is actually very dear to IAST|Kṛṣṇa" ] states that this "bhakti-yoga" is secretive:cite journal
author = Klostermaier, K.
year = 1974
title = The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin
journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
volume = 94
issue = 1
pages = 96-107
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279(197401%2F03)94%3A1%3C96%3ATBOVC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E
accessdate = 2008-04-12
] - "Just hear from Me again about the most confidential part of the instructions in Bhagavad-gītā." It is also described as such in Bhagavata Purana [ [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/2/9/35/en SB 2.9.35: IAST|yathā mahānti bhūtāni bhūteṣūccāvaceṣv anu praviṣṭāny apraviṣṭāni tathā teṣu na teṣv aham] ] Vashnavas of ISKCON often stress their view that in both cases Krishna is speaking about himself, "aham" and "me" in Sanskrit mean, "I am" and "Me" respectively. While some commentators derive secondary meanings,cite journal
author = Hiltebeitel, A.
year = 1984
title = The Two Krishnas on One Chariot: Upanisadic Imagery and Epic Mythology
journal = History of Religions
volume = 24
issue = 1
pages = 1-26
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(198408)24%3A1%3C1%3ATTKOOC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
accessdate = 2008-04-19
] all major Sanskrit dictionary accept that the direct meaning of "aham" and "me", refers to Krishna himself. cite book
author = Sivananda, S.
year = 1958
title = God Exists.
publisher = Yoga-Vedanta Forest University
isbn =

Quote: “Aham” means “I” in Sanskrit. “Idam” means “this.”]

Lakshmi

When Gaudiya Vaishnavas present their views on Krishna being "Svayam Bhagavan",cite web
url=http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/bhaktiyoga/vaisnavism.htm
title=VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library
publisher=www.veda.harekrsna.cz
accessdate=2008-05-04
last=
first=
] they present a number of perspectives some include comparison with other forms such as Vishnu, that are considered supreme in other sampradayas. The [http://www.saragrahi.org/Header%20Links/Bhagavat%20Sandarbha/Contents.htm Bhagavat Sandarbha] and the [http://www.saragrahi.org/Header%20Links/Tattva%20Sandarbha/Tattva%20Sandarbha%20Contents.htm Tattva Sandabha] are among quoted works by Jiva Goswami, "Vaishnavas don't argue among themselves if Krishna or Vishnu is the Supreme. They consider it a matter of one's relationship with the Lord. Someone has a relationship with Vishnu, someone with Rama, someone with Krishna, etc. as per rasa theology." In the Caitanya Caritamrita [ [http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/9/108/en Caitanya Caritamrita 2.9.108] ] Chaitanya discusses this in a joking mood with Venkatta Bhatta from Sri sampradaya.cite web
url=http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/bhaktiyoga/vaisnavism.htm
title=VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library
publisher=www.veda.harekrsna.cz
accessdate=2008-05-04
last=Jan
first=Marez
] While Pustimarga tradition predates Gaudiya Vaisnavism in Radha worship.cite journal
author = Brzezinski, J.K.
year = 1992
title = Prabodhananda, Hita Harivamsa and the" Radharasasudhanidhi
journal = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
volume = 55
issue = 3
pages = 472-497
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X(1992)55%3A3%3C472%3APHHAT%22%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P
accessdate = 2008-05-04
"identify Radha as the supreme Laksmi.."] When Chaitanya traveled through South India in 1509-10, he stayed at the house of Venkata Bhatta, the father of Gopala Bhatta, priest of Srirangam. Venkata and his two brothers, Gopala's uncles Trimalla and Prabodhananda Sarasvati "were converted from their Sri Vaishnava faith in Lakshmi-Narayana as supreme to one in Radha Krishna" as Svayam Bhagavan. The dialog of this conversion is recorded in 16 c. Caitanya caritamrita biography by Krishna dasa Kaviraja.

In the Madhya lila of the Chaitanya charitamrita a presentation is given, [ [http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/9/113/en Madhya 9.113-114] : "Just to associate with IAST|Kṛṣṇa, [http://vedabase.net/l/laksmi IAST|Lakṣmī] abandoned all transcendental happiness in [http://vedabase.net/v/vaikuntha IAST|Vaikuṇṭha] and for a long time accepted vows and regulative principles and performed unlimited austerities."] with a reference to the particular verse of the tenth canto of Bhagavata Purana as to the reason why Lakshmi also knows as Sri (thus the name of Sri Sampradaya) is burning with desire and still not capable of entering to the realm of Vrindavana. [ [http://vedabase.net/sb/10/16/36/en SB 10.16.36] ]

Prabodhananda Sarasvati who was a Sri Sampradaya sannyasi was converted as to supreme position of Radha-Krishna being Svayam Bhagavan instead of Lakshmi-Narayana. He as well apparently came to appreciate the supremacy of Radha worship from Caitanya.cite journal
author = Brzezinski, J.K.
year = 1992
title = Prabodhananda Sarasvati: From Benares to Braj
journal = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
volume = 55
issue = 1
pages = 52-75
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X(1992)55%3A1%3C52%3APSFBTB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
accessdate = 2008-05-04
]

Cosmological perspective

The view of South Indian Vaishnava groups, on "sarga", or subtle creation, is based upon scriptural adherence to Narayana or Vishnu being the cause of creation [The Eleventh Canto of "Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam" [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/11/4/3/en(11.4.3-4) describes Lord IAST|Mahāpuruṣa: "IAST|bhūtair yadā pañcabhir ātma-sṛṣṭaiḥ puraṁ virājaṁ viracayya tasmin svāṁśena viṣṭaḥ puruṣābhidhānam avāpa nārāyaṇa ādi-devaḥ" "When the primeval Lord IAST|Nārāyaṇa created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself, and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the IAST|Puruṣa.] ] expanding into Viraja and then IAST|Maha-Viṣṇu glancing over "pradhana", and that is the start of actual function of creation. This view is not contradicted by Krishna-centered Vashnavism and does not appear to be in contradiction with "Svayam Bhagavan" who as Vasudeva (son of Vasudeva, Krishna) is according to Pancaratra is at the source of creation.

Pancaratra sources are accepted by all of Vaishnava traditions, and confirmed by Yamunacarya who preceding in the line of Ramanuja, summarizing in his "Agamapramanya", a defense of the revelation of the "tantric" Vaishnava Pancaratra, defending whole body of the texts being part of the Veda: "The Pancadratra Tantra is authoritative like the Vedic sentences ordaining sacrifice on the grounds that it is based on knowledge free from all defects". Amalananda, also defends Pancaratra and while confirming that Agamas do not have the same self-authenticating validity, as the four Vedas, but the authenticity of it assured because Veda bear witness to the omniscience of Vasudeva. This position also forms the basis of Bhagavatam based theology. "self-authenticating validity as the Veda, but their authenticity is nevertheless assured because the Veda bear witness to the omniscience of Vasudeva." p. 53-54, Flood. 2006]

It is also a view of Gaudiya Vaishnavas that Sanatana Goswamis "Brihad Bhagavatamrita", has illustrated this principle, not just in terms of comparative cosmology or "avatara" hierarchy as in Vaishnava Pancaratra, but also in terms of cosmology of "adi-rasa".cite journal
author = K Dasa,
year = 2006
title = The Life and Teachings of Krishna dasa Baba
url = http://blazingsapphirepress.com/krsna-das-baba/krsna-das-baba-sample.pdf
accessdate = 2008-04-13
] The cosmological principle of the four dhamas (with a separate place for the last two: "Vaikuntha" - abode of Vishnu or Narayana, "tad-ekatma rupa", in transcendence, and "Goloka" as abode of "Svayam Bhagavan" in transcendence) is the key of the graphical presentation, but it is also an answer to the dilemma. [cite web
url=http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/bhakti/archives/apr2000/0168.html
title=krushNAstu bhagavAn swayam
publisher=www.ramanuja.org
accessdate=2008-04-29
last=Anand Karalapakkam
first=Bhakti List : Archives Wed Apr 19 2000
] In accordance with the cosmology of the "Brihad Bhagavatamrita" Krishna is believed being the original and most complete in all "rasas" or tastes is in fact not engaged and non engaging, is his independence, he does not even, at least in this his original form, carry symbols of IAST|Viṣṇu, he only carries his own flute, and that is the pleasure of his devotees.cite book
author=Dāsa, IAST|Gopīparāṇadhana; Sanātana Gosvāmī
title=Śrī Brhad Bhāgavatāmrta of Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī: translated from the original Sanskrit, with a summary of the author's Dig-darśinī commentary
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
location=Los Angeles
year=2002
pages=920
isbn=0-89213-345-7
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=2008-04-12
]

Original Purusha of the Vedas

:See also: Dating of early Tapani Upanishads

The form of Narayana is linked with the concept of sacrifice in the earliest known references to him. In Vedic sources such as the Purusha Sukta, Narayana is given as the name of the self-offering of the great cosmic sacrifice of the Rig Veda [Rig Veda 10.90] . Narayana is not mentioned in Rig Veda itself, but came to be regarded as the seer who authored the hymn. It is possible that the sage who composed the Purusha Sukta hymn has been assimilated to the Purusha whose praise he had sung, and he himself became the object of worship. Mentions of a divine sage named Narayana, along with counterpart Nara, appears in many Puranic texts.cite book
author=Matchett, Freda
title=Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana
publisher=Routledge
location=Surrey
year=2000
pages=254
isbn=0-7007-1281-X
oclc=
url+http://books.google.ie/books?id=1oqTYiPeAxMC&printsec=frontcover
doi=
accessdate=
p. 5] "Purusha" is also identified with Vishnu in the Rig Veda and interpreted accordingly by many traditions of Vaishnavism. In the Bhagavata he is recognized as "the Lord whose being is sacrifice, Yajna Purusha" [Bhagavata Purana 3.13.23] Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=194"bhagavan yajñapuruso"] [cite book
author=Matchett, Freda
title=Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana
publisher=Routledge
location=Surrey
year=2000
pages=254
isbn=0-7007-1281-X
oclc=
url+http://books.google.ie/books?id=1oqTYiPeAxMC&printsec=frontcover
doi=
accessdate=
p.74-75
] Gaudiya scholar, Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his "Dasa Mula Tattva" Ch.3: 'IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa—The Supreme Absolute Truth', Part: "Vedic Evidences of IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa ’s Divinity" states:

In the IAST|Ṛg-Veda (IAST|Ṛg. 1.22.23):

: "IAST|tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ": "IAST|divīva cakṣur ātataṁ viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padam"

"The Personality of Godhead, IAST|Viṣṇu, is the Absolute Truth whose lotus feet all the demigods are always eager to see. His lotus-feet are only visible to those endowed with spiritual vision, for they are completely transcendental and supreme like IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Himself."

Again, in the IAST|Ṛg-Veda (1.22.164 sūkta 31) we find this verse:

: "IAST|apaśyaṁ gopām anipadyamāna mā ca parā ca pathibhiś carantam": "IAST|sa sadhrīcīḥ sa viṣucīr vasāna avarīrvati bhuvaneṣv antaḥ"

"I saw a young cowherd boy, who never falls from His position. Sometimes He is near, sometimes He is far away; in this manner, He moves in various ways. Sometimes, He is clothed in many robes and at other times differently dressed; in this way, He is repeatedly appearing and disappearing in this universe."

The next verse establishes the eternal aspect of IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa's transcendental pastimes as found in the IAST|Ṛg Veda (1.54.6):

: "IAST|tā vāṁ vāstuny uśmasi gamadhyai yatra gavo bhūri sṛṅga ayāsaḥ": "IAST|atrāha tad urugāyasya viṣṇoḥ parama-padam avabhāti bhuri"

"I desire to attain Your (Śrī Rādhikā and IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa's) abode where the wish-fulfilling cows, known as kāmadhenu, are decorated with gracefully long horns. The eternal residence of IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the fulfiller of His devotees' desires, is pre-eminently exhibiting itself in all grandeur." ] Some believe that thus this verse of the Rig Veda is a foundation of Vaishnava tradition. In the Gopala Tapani Upanishad the Rig Veda verse(1.22.20) was addressed paraphrasing the original of the Vedic hymn in accordance with the beliefs of the Gaudiya Vaishnava: [

:"etad visnoh paramam padam ye nityodyuktah samyajante na kaman:"tesam asau gopa-rupah prayatnat prakasayad atma-padam tadaiva"- "To they who always diligently worship Lord IAST|Viṣṇu's transcendental form, the Lord, in His original form as a cowherd boy, shows His lotus feet."cite book |author=B. V. Tripurari |title=Gopala-tapani Upanisad |publisher=Audarya Press |location= |year=2004 |pages= |isbn=1-932771-12-3 |oclc= |doi=] It outlines a specific view held by the Gaudiya Vaishnava and Vallabha Sampradaya, that the conclusion of Vishnu worship is meditation on "gopa-rupah" or specific form of Krishna. [ [http://books.google.ie/books?id=mehE5hn7ircC&dqSree Krishna, the Lord of Love] . Bábá Premánand Bhárati, 1904] ]

"Krishna Upanishad" supports this conclusion of Gopala Tapani,cite book |author=Wood, Ernest |title=Great Systems of Yoga (Forgotten Books) |publisher=Forgotten Books |location= |year=2008 |pages= |isbn=1-60506-644-3 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= [http://books.google.ie/books?id=87cxkdlOA0sC&pg=PA85 "Once the sages came to the great Brahma and asked: 'Who is the supreme God?... He replied Shri Krishna verily is the supreme God. Death is afraid of Godinda."] ] and refers to the original "the most divine form of bliss dwells in the supremacy of love of Lord Krishna", [cite book |author=Stephen Knapp |title=The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment and Illumination |publisher=iUniverse, Inc |location= [United States] |year=2005 |pages= |isbn=0-595-35075-5 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= p.16: "the Krishna Upanishad that directly reveals that the most divine form of bliss dwells in the supremacy of love of Lord Krishna."] "saksad", Hari as "gopa-rüpa". (1.10-12): [: "IAST|gopa-rūpo hariḥ sakṣan maya-vigraha-dharaṇaḥ": "IAST|durbodhaṁ kuhakaṁ tasya mayayā mohitaṁ jagat": "IAST|durjayā sa suraiḥ sarvair dhṛṣṭi-rūpo bhaved dvijaḥ": "IAST|rudro yena kṛto vaṁsas tasya māyā jagat katham": "IAST|balaṁ janaṁ suraṇaṁ vai teṣāṁ janaṁ hṛtaṁ kṣaṇat": "IAST|śeṣa-nago bhaved ramaḥ kṛṣṇo brahmaiva sasvatam"cite book |author=Vyasadeva, Baladevavidyabhusana |title=Sri Krsna Upanisad and Other Vaisnava Upanisads |publisher= [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Krsna+Institute%22&lr=&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Krsna Institute] |location= [United States] |year=1992 |pages= |isbn=1561300780 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] :"The Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as a cowherd boy. Cheated and bewildered by His illusory potency, the world could not understand His true identity.:"Even all the demigods cannot defeat the Lord's Maya potency. By the Lord's Yogamaya potency Brahma became a stick and Siva became a flute. How did the Lord's Maya potency manifest the entire universe?:"Knowledge is the strength of the demigods. The Lord's Maya potency steals away that knowledge in a single moment. Lord Sesanaga appeared in His original form as Lord Balarama. The eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as Lord Krishna." [cite book |author=Vyasadeva, Baladevavidyabhusana |title=Sri Krsna Upanisad and Other Vaisnava Upanisads |publisher= [http://books.google.ie/books?q=inpublisher:%22Krsna+Institute%22&lr=&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Krsna Institute] |location= [United States] |year=1992 |pages= |isbn=1561300780 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=]

Gaudiya Vaishnava believe that Krishna possesses qualities that are absent in other forms and they relate to his sweetness in Vrindavana lila. Krishna is himself Narayana. [ "Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia", Edward Balfour. Published 1871, Scottish and Adelphi Presses. p.604: Krishna indeed, himself is Narayana;] Narayana is often identified with supreme, however, when his beauty and "sweetness" (madhurya) overshadow his majesty, he is known as "Krishna", i.e. "Svayam Bhagavan". [http://books.google.ie/books?id=mBMxPdgrBhoC The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant] , Edwin Bryant, Maria Ekstrand, 2004, 448 pages, Page 151: known as Narayana and is served in awe and reverence. However, when his beauty and sweetness (madhurya) overshadow his majesty, he is known as Krishna...] ] As Friedhelm Hardy says, the concept of Bhagavan, "a single, all-powerful, eternal, personal and loving God ... is an empty slot, to be filled by concrete characteristics" and these characteristics culminate in Krishna.Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=2]

Paribhasa-sutra of Bhagavata Purana

:See also: Dating of the Bhagavata Purana [cite book
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
coauthors =
year = 2007
title = Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami
publisher = Routledge
isbn = 0415405483
] ] In Gaudiya Vaishnava, Vallabha Sampradaya Nimbarka sampradaya and old Bhagavata school, Krishna believed to be fully represented in his original form in the Bhagavata Purana, that at the end of the list of "avataras" concludes with the following text:Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=153Bhag. Purana 1.3.28: "IAST|ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam" :"IAST|indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokaṁ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge"] Quotation|All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead ("Svayam Bhagavan"). [ [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/1/3/28/en 1.3.28] cite web
url=http://srimadbhagavatam.com/1/3/28/en
title=Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 1 Chapter 3 Verse 28
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
accessdate=2008-05-07
last=Swami Prabhupada
first=A.C. Bhaktivedanta
]

Not all commentators on the Bhagavata Purana stress this verse, however a majority of Krishna-centered and contemporary commentaries highlight this verse as a significant statement. [cite web
url=http://www.stephen-knapp.com/sri_krishna.htm
title=Sri Krishna
publisher=www.stephen-knapp.com
accessdate=2008-04-30
last=
first=
] Jiva Goswami has called it "Paribhasa-sutra", the “thesis statement” upon which the entire book or even theology is based. [cite book
author=Dhanurdhara Swami
title=Waves of Devotion
publisher=Bhagavat Books
location=
year=2000
pages=
isbn=0-9703581-0-5
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=
- cite web
url=http://www.wavesofdevotion.com/wod/an.html
title=Waves of Devotion
publisher=www.wavesofdevotion.com
accessdate=2008-05-04
last=
first=
In Hari-namamr†a-vyakarana, Jiva Gosvami defines paribhasa-sutra as "aniyame niyama-karini paribhasa": “A "paribhasa-sutra" implies a rule or theme where it is not explicitly stated.” In other words, it gives the context in which to understand a series of apparently unrelated statements in a book.
]

In another place of the Bhagavata Purana 10.83.5-43 those who are named as wives of Krishna all explain to Uraupadi how the 'Lord himself' ("Svayam Bhagavan", Bhagavata Purana 10.83.7) came to marry them. As they relate these episodes, several of the wives speak of themselves as Krishna's devotees.Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=141]

Many Krishna-centered traditions believe that "Svayam Bhagavan" personally carries his unalloyed devotees ("vahamy aham") like a husband carries his bride across the threshold into the house of "prema bhakti" [Bg 9.22] . Badarayana Vyasa says in his Brahma Sutras, "visesam ca darsayati", implying that the scripture declares a difference with regard to the passing from the world of "nirapeksa" or unflinching devotees. [cite web
url=http://www.vnn.org/editorials/ET9902/ET09-2981.html
title=VNN Editorial - 'Uttarayana', The Path Of Light And Darkness
publisher=www.vnn.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
]

ource of Para-Vasudeva

Baladeva Vidyabhusana in his commentary on Gopala Tapani Upanishad states: Glory to the "Gopala Tapani Upanishad", which to the pious reveals Lord Krishna, the original Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul near to all moving and unmoving creatures.cite book |author=B. V. Tripurari |title=Gopala-tapani Upanisad |publisher=Audarya Press |location= |year=2004 |pages= |isbn=1-932771-12-3 |oclc= |doi="Śrī Gopāla Tapanī bhāśya" 1.1: :"gopala-tapanim naumi ya krsnam svayam isvaram:"kara-stharava-sankasam sandarsayati sad-dhiyah"]

The word used is "krsna svayam isvaram", the paraphrase of the Bhagavatam verse 1.3.28 that Jiva Goswami has called a key "sutra"IAST|Kṛṣṇa sandarbha 29.4-5] , not only to the Bhagavatam but to Vedanta and thus all the Vedas.IAST|Kṛṣṇa sandarbha 29.104] cite book
author = Gosvami, J.
coauthors = Dasa, S.N.; Dasa, K.; Dasa, K.; Dasa, G.; Dasa, D.
year = 1995
title = Sri Tattva-sandarbha: The First Book of the Sri Bhagavata-Sandarbha Also Known as Sri-sandarbha
publisher = Jiva Institute for Vaisnava Studies
isbn =
]

According to the Upanishads its believed that when Brahma, who is said to be original created being, was approached by the sages Four Kumaras he was presented with critical question: – Who is Supreme God? Who does death fears? – By knowing Whom, does everything else gets realized? – Who is that person, who is behind the repetition of creation of this Universe? [ [http://www.celextel.org/108upanishads/gopalatapaniya.html alternative translation of Gopala-tapani Upanisad] ] His own original or sweet form, "IAST|Sva-bimbaṁ" to the is not manifested very often in the Universe, "loka-locanam". [SB 3.2.11] Gaudiya Vaishnavas quote sources that claim that it happens only ones in a universal day of Brahma, and its only at that time its believed, once every fourteen manvantaras, each seventy one divya-yugas duration. [ [http://vedabase.net/cc/adi/3/10/en Chaitanya Charitamrita "Adi" 3.10] ] Some religions do not even consider it possible to see the God. To answer four Kumaras Brahma needed to relate this secret word of the "seed" mantra.cite book
author = Rosen, S.J.
year = 2006
title = Essential Hinduism
publisher = Praeger Publishers
isbn =

] And this is believed to be the answer to the question, who is supreme god and how he creates this world.:"krsno vai paramam daivatam govindan mrtyur bibheti:"gopijanavallabha-jnanena taj jnatam bhavati svahayedam samsarati"] Brahma replied to the sages: "Krisna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Death fears Govinda. By knowing Gopijanavallabha everything becomes realized. By pronouncing the word "svaha" the Personality of Godhead created the world. [Svähä is the mantra by which offerings are made into the sacrificial fire.5 It is derived from the root ä(hu with the prefix su meaning “well-done,” meaning “according to the vidhi.” This etymology is tentatively accepted by Monier-Williams. The verb root vah is only used in the perfect tense. “to say, speak, state.” Monier-Williams gives the following meanings for svähä: “hail! hail to! May a blessing rest on” As a noun: “an oblation, oblation personified.” Both svähuti and svähväna are found in Rg.] In the wider context of the Bhagavata's total perspective, Krishna is "not one among many but the Lord himself".Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=184]

"Sanat-Kumara Samhita" confirms the belief that this "Kama Gayatri" is the foundational structure of the Goloka, believed to be the above of Krishna, who is the original Vaasudeva [om namo bhagavate sarva-bhutatmane vasudevaya sarvatma-samyoga-yoga-padma-pithatmane namah - "I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Vasudeva, the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead who resides in His own transcendental abode, which resembles a lotus flower."] :"In the whorl of the lotus flower which is Lord Krishna's transcendental abode, the Gopala mantra is written." [: "karnikayam likhed vahni-: "putitam mandala-dvayam: "tasya madhye likhed bijam: "sadhyakhyam karma samyutam"] cite journal
author = Cult, P.C.S.
year = 1927
title = An Introduction To The Post-chaitanya Sahajia Cult
journal = Journal
- refers to Kama Gayatri in the practice of Post-chaitanya Sahajia Cult and ortodox Gaudiya.] cite book
author = Mukherjee, P.
year = 1979
title = History of the Chaitanya Faith in Orissa
publisher = Manohar
isbn =

refers to practice of Gopal mantra and its significance] cite journal
author = Rosen, S.J.
year = 2004
title = Who Is Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu?
journal = The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=mBMxPdgrBhoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA63&dq=%22Gopala+mantra%22+Gaudiya&ots=r4RWT9-zbS&sig=g_zTW53Z2ZqXXpAWC-oE8QR1g1E
accessdate = 2008-04-19
"he was given the ten-syllable Gopala mantra, a confidential incantation"]

Related historical records

[
thumb|300px|The_first_inscription_of_the_Heliodorus pillar that was made by Heliodorus 110 BCE. This Garuda-standard of Vasudeva, the God of Gods was erected here by the devotee Heliodoros,] While some place Krishna-centered worship as "Svayam Bhagavan" in the medieval times of Indian history, there is some evidence suggesting the opposite. In the antiquity Krishna images were worshiped at many places. Quoting Curtius, Dr. D.C. Sircar says that an image of Herakles (i.e. Vasudeva-Krishna according to Sircar) was being carried in front of the Paurava army, as it advanced against the Greeks led by Alexander the Great ("The Cultural Heritage of India", vol. 4. p. 115) An interesting terracotta plague showing Vasudeva carrying the infant Krishna over his head across the flooded Yamuna river, belonging to c. first century is housed in the Mathura Museum. A Mora stone inscription of about the same time refers to some images of Bhagavata Vrshni Panchaviras, Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Samba and Aniruddha - which were very beautifully carved in stone. [http://books.google.com/books?id=vNiKM-ky3DQC Chapter: "Krishna and His Cult". Krishna Theatre in India By M.L. Varalpande] , p.6; 2002. ISBN 8170171512] A Gupta period research makes a "clear mention of Vasudeva as the exclusive object of worship of a group of people," who are referred as bhagavatas. Banerjea, 1966, page 20]

Verifying the antiquity of the exclusive worship of "Svayam Bhagavan", Krishna, the early Jaina texts repeatedly stress two categories of Baladevas and Vasudevas that clearly can not be attributed to the Buddhist tradition, and can not be traced to the earlier strata of the Jaina canon itself. The introduction of these novel categories in the Jaina tradition, therefore, can hardly be explained without references to the legends surrounding the two popular figures of the early Vaishnava tradition, namely Balarama and Krishna of Mathura.

Archaeological remains found in the region of Mathura support the fact that the popularity of these two divine figures had reached its zenith in the Mauryan and the Sunga period and associated Bhagavata religion had become widespread throughout Mathura and Western India areas. This period coincides with the large migrations of Jainas from Magadha to Mathura. Baladeva is referred to by Jaina Puranas as Halabhrit, without any support from Brahminical texts. All the Vasudevas are modeled after the description of Krishna found in the Puranas. They are called blue-black (nila) in complexion and are designated by several names that are normally applied exclusively to Krishna e.g. Keshava, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu and Narayana (which is used as synonym for the name Vasudeva). List of opposites (or "prati" categories) include most of the names associated with Asuras in Puranas.cite book
author=Doniger, Wendy
title=IAST|Purāṇa perennis: reciprocity and transformation in Hindu and Jaina texts
publisher=State University of New York Press
location=Albany, N.Y
year=1993
pages=331
isbn=0-7914-1381-0
oclc=
url=http://books.google.ie/books?id=KI5D5aexThoC&printsec=frontcover&cad=1_0#PPA210,M1
accessdate=
p.210-212] According to an opinion of some scholars in Patanjali's time identification of Krishna with Vasudeva is an established fact as is surmised from a passage of the Mahabhasya - ("jaghana kamsam kila vasudevah"). A Corpus of Indian Studies: Essays in Honour of Professor Gaurinath Sastri, Page 150, 1980 - 416 pages.] This "supposed earliest phase is though to have been established from the sixth to the fifth centuries BCE at the time of Panini, who in his Astadhyayi explained the word "vasudevaka" as a bhakta, devotee, of Vasudeva and its believed that Bhagavata religion with the worship of Vasudeva Krishna were at the root of the Vaishnavism in Indian history." Page 76 of 386 pages: The Bhagavata religion with the worship of Vasudeva Krishna as the ... of Vasudeva Krishna and they are the direct forerunners of Vaisnavism in India.cite journal
author = Ehrenfels, U.R.
year = 1953
title = The University Of Gauhati
journal = Dr. B. Kakati Commemoration Volume
] [ Page 98: In the Mahabharata, Vasudeva-Krishna is identified with the highest God.cite book
author = Mishra, Y.K.
year = 1977
title = Socio-economic and Political History of Eastern India
publisher = Distributed by DK Publishers' Distributors
isbn =

] Not just Indian Gupta period but also some historical records of the Greeks show existence of the bhakti tradition to Krishna-Vaasudeva,cite journal
author = Vaidisa, B.
coauthors = Wessanagar, V.; Others,
year = 1987
title = The Impact Of Vaisnavism—excavated Remains From Vidisha (mp)
journal = Vaisnavism in Indian Arts and Culture: Collected Papers of the University Grants Commission National Seminar on" Impact of Vaisnavism on the Indian Arts"
] it needs to be noted that, even Panini gives some support to the ancient root of Krishna-Vaasudeva bhakti - ("IAST|vāsudeva arjunābhyāṁ", or related to Arjuna), [IAST|bhaktiḥ | 4.3.96 IAST|acittāt adeśakālāt ṭhak | 4.3.97 IAST|mahārājāt ṭhañ | 4.3.98 IAST|vāsudeva arjunābhyāṁ vun | Panini 4.3.95] its is however only much later (2nd century BC) Patanjali who refer in his definition of the "devotee" or "bhakta" as "the follower of Vasudeva, God of gods." cite book
author = Singh, R.R.
year = 2007
title = Bhakti And Philosophy
publisher = Lexington Books
isbn = 0739114247
p. 10: " [Panini's] term Vaasudevaka, explained by the second century B.C commentator Patanjali, as referring to "the follower of Vasudeva, God of gods." ]

Other uses

In the Bhagavata purana the term is used for other forms of God, including Dhanvantari, [Bhag.P. 2.7.21: "IAST|dhanvantariś ca bhagavān svayam eva kīrtir nāmnā nṛṇāṁ puru-rujāṁ ruja āśu hantiIAST|āyuṣya-vedam anuśāsty avatīrya loke." The Lord in His incarnation of Dhanvantari very quickly cures the diseases of the ever-diseased living entities simply by his fame personified, and only because of him do the demigods achieve long lives. Thus the Personality of Godhead becomes ever glorified. He also exacted a share from the sacrifices, and it is he only who inaugurated the medical science or the knowledge of medicine in the universe.] Vamana, [Bhag. P. 5.24.27: "IAST|tasyānucaritam upariṣṭād vistariṣyate yasya bhagavān svayam akhila-jagad-gurur nārāyaṇo dvāri gadā-pāṇir avatiṣṭhate nija-janānukampita-hṛdayo yenāṅguṣṭhena padā daśa-kandharo yojanāyutāyutaṁ dig-vijaya uccāṭitaḥ." Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: My dear King, how shall I glorify the character of Bali Mahārāja? The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the three worlds, who is most compassionate to His own devotee, stands with club in hand at Bali Mahārāja's door. When IAST|Rāvaṇa, the powerful demon, came to gain victory over Bali Mahārāja, Vāmanadeva kicked him a distance of eighty thousand miles with His big toe. I shall explain the character and activities of Bali Mahārāja later [in the Eighth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam] .] Vishnu, [Bhag. P. 7.1.1 "IAST|samaḥ priyaḥ suhṛd brahman bhūtānāṁ bhagavān svayam indrasyārthe kathaṁ daityān avadhīd viṣamo yathā" King IAST|Parīkṣit inquired: My dear IAST|brāhmaṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, IAST|Viṣṇu, being everyone's well-wisher, is equal and extremely dear to everyone. How, then, did He become partial like a common man for the sake of Indra and thus kill Indra's enemies? How can a person equal to everyone be partial to some and inimical toward others?] Vaikunthadeva. [Bhag. P. 8.5.4 "IAST|patnī vikuṇṭhā śubhrasyavaikuṇṭhaiḥ sura-sattamaiḥIAST|vaikuṇṭho bhagavān svayam" From the combination of Śubhra and his wife, IAST|Vikuṇṭhā, there appeared the Supreme Personality of Godhead, IAST|Vaikuṇṭha, along with demigods who were His personal plenary expansions.] Although the term appears in the text referring to other forms, these references do not form a part of the Krishna-centered theology on which the reference to Krishna is based.

The Brahma Vaivarta Purana and Garga Samhita often refer to Krishna as IAST|"paripūrṇatama", the term used in Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition by Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his "Amnaya Sutra" - "krishnas tu paripurnatma sarvatra sukha-rupakah" translated as 'original Supreme Personality of Godhead'. ["In that devotional liberation the spiritual senses of the spiritual form of the liberated soul are filled. There Lord Krishna, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, enjoys blissful pastimes." [http://nitaaiveda.com/All_Scriptures_By_Acharyas/Bhaktivinoda_Thakura/Amnaya_Sutra.htm Amnaya Sutra] 3.5 Sampatti-prakarana, Sutra 114]

ee also

*Acintya Bheda Abheda
*Bhagavata
*Gopala Tapani Upanishad
*Hare Krishna
*Krishna
*Krishnology
*Para Brahman
*Narayana
*Radha
*Vasudeva
*Vedanta
*Vishnu

Notes

References

* cite book
author = Elkman, S.M.
coauthors = Gosvami, J.
year = 1986
title = Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement
publisher = Motilal Banarsidass Pub
isbn =


*cite book
author = Flood, G.D.
authorlink = Gavin Flood
year = 2006
title = The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion
publisher = IB Tauris
isbn = 1845110129

* cite book
author = Kennedy, M.T.
year = 1925
title = The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal
publisher = H. Milford, Oxford university press
isbn =


* cite journal
author = Ramanuja
coauthors = George Thibaut (trans.)
year = 1962
title = The Vedanta Sutras with the Commentary by Ramanuja
publisher = Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass

* cite journal
author = Richard Thompson, Ph. D.
year = December 1994
title = Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism
url = http://www.iskcon.com/icj/1_2/12thompson.html
accessdate = 2008-04-12

* cite book
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
authorlink = Ravi Gupta
year = 2004
title = Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika
publisher = University Of Oxford
isbn =

* cite book
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
coauthors =
year = 2007
title = Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika
publisher = Routledge
isbn = 0415405483

*cite book
author = Ganguli, K.M.
year = 1883 -1896
title = The Mahabharata of Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa
publisher = Kessinger Publishing
isbn =

*cite book
author = Kaviraja, K.
coauthors = Prabhupada, A.C.B.S.; Bhaktivedanta, A.C.
year = 1974
title = Sri Caitanya-Caritamrta of Krsnadasa Kaviraja
publisher = Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
isbn =


*
* "Garuda Pillar of Besnagar", Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908-1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129.
* cite journal
author = Rowland Jr, B.
year = 1935
title = Notes on Ionic Architecture in the East
journal = American Journal of Archaeology
volume = 39
issue = 4
pages = 489-496
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9114(193510%2F12)39%3A4%3C489%3ANOIAIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W
accessdate = 2008-04-12

* cite Journal
author = Delmonico, N.
year = 2004
title = The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism
journal = The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=mBMxPdgrBhoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA31&dq=Vaisnava+monotheism&ots=r4RVWf2w7X&sig=ml4nbiFNep6SCtqVbOZsCv5s6g0
accessdate = 2008-04-12

* cite journal
author = Mahony, W.K.
year = 1987
title = Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities
journal = History of Religions
volume = 26
issue = 3
pages = 333-335
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(198702)26%3A3%3C333%3APOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
accessdate = 2008-04-12

* cite journal
author = D Hudson
year = 1993
title = Vasudeva Krsna in Theology and Architecture: A Background to Srivaisnavism
journal = Journal of Vaisnava Studies
volume =
issue = 2
pages =
url =
accessdate = 2008-04-30

*

*cite book
author=Matchett, Freda
title=Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana
publisher=Routledge
location=Surrey
year=2000
pages=254
isbn=0-7007-1281-X
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=

*cite book
author=Valpey, Kenneth Russell
title=Attending IAST|Kṛṣṇa's
IAST|Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth
publisher=Routledge
location=New York
year=2006
pages=
isbn=0-415-38394-3
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=

Further reading

*cite book
author = Ganguli, K.M.
year = 1896
title = Bhagavad-Gita ( [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m06/m06025.htm XXV] - [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m06/m06042.htm XLII] ). [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/maha/index.htm The Mahabharata] , Book 6
publisher = Calcutta: Bharata Press
isbn =

* cite book
author = Prabhupada, A.C.
year = 1988
title = [http://www.vedabase.org/sb/ Srimad-Bhagavatam]
publisher = Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
isbn =

External links

* [http://www.krishna.com ISKCON publishing online] (krishna.com)
* [http://veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/historical-krsna.htm Sources on the Search for the Historical Krishna, Prof. N.S. Rajaram] (veda.harekrsna.cz)
* [http://www.stephen-knapp.com/sri_krishna.htm Sri Krishna - Differences in Realisation & Perception of the Supreme] (stephen-knapp.com)
* [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/1/3/28/en1 The full text of the Bhagavata Purana (Srimad-Bhagavatam)] (srimadbhagavatam.com)
* [http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil/1_sanskr/3_purana/bhagp/bhp1-12u.htm GRETIL etext: The transliterated Sanskrit text for the entire work] - Bhagavata Purana (uni-goettingen.de)
* [http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/sb.htm Srimad Bhagavatam - glories, subjects, dating, concordance to Vedanta-sutra]

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