- Pomoan languages
Infobox Language family
map_caption=Pre-contact distribution of Pomoan languages
Pomoan ("Phōmō," also called Kulanapan) is a family of
endangered languages spoken in northern Californiaby the Pomo peopleon the Pacific Coast. According to the 2000 census, there are 255 speakers of the languages. Of these, 45 are between the ages of 5 and 17, including 15 with limited English proficiency. John Wesley Powelldesignated this group of languages as the Kulanapan family in 1891, and noted that its boundaries were the Pacific Ocean to the west, Yukianand Copehanterritories to the east, the watershed of the Russian River to the north, and Bodega Headand present-day location of Santa Rosa, Californiato the south.Powell 1891:87-88]
Pomoan consists of 7 languages, named for their geographic locations by Samuel Barrett in 1908:
: A. Western Pomoan:: 1.
Northern Pomo"(†)":: a. Southern subgroup::: i. Central Pomo::: ii. Southern Pomo::: iii. Kashaya(a.k.a. Southwestern Pomo, Kashia): B. Northeastern Pomo"(†)": C. Eastern Pomo language: D. Southeastern Pomo
At the time of Barrett's classification these languages were thought to be dialects of a single language, yet the diversity and non-intelligibility between Pomoan languages has shown them to be seven distinct languages. Barrett's naming convention often leads those unfamiliar with the languages to the misconception that the Pomoan languages are dialects of one single Pomo language.
The "Kulanapan Family" in John Wesley Powell's 1891 classification of North American Languages included most of the communities now known to have spoken Pomoan languages. The term "Kulanapan" originated as the name of one Pomo band from the Clear Lake area, and was first applied to the whole Pomoan family by George Gibbs in 1853. Northern Pomo and Northeastern Pomo are now extinct (Northern Pomo in 1994). The remaining Pomoan languages are spoken by rapidly-diminishing handfuls of elderly speakers, with Kashaya having the most speakers.
Pomoan has been included in all formulations of the controversial Hokan language phylum.
Boontling- a descendant language.
* Barrett, Samuel A. (1908). "The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo and Neighboring Indians". Berkeley: University of California Publications in Linguistics (Vol. 6).
* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). "Languages". Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
* Mithun, Marianne. (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
* Powell, John Wesley Powell. "Indian Linguistic Families Of America, North Of Mexico", Government Printing Office, Washington, 1891, pages 1-142. [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17286/17286-8.txt]
* Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). "Handbook of North American Indians" (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
* [http://www.native-languages.org/pomo.htm Pomo (Yakaya, Yokaia, Shanel, Kábinapek)] (Native Languages of the Americas)
* [http://www.native-languages.org/kashaya.htm Kashaya (Kashia, Southwestern Pomo)] (Native Languages of the Americas)
* [http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/pomo.kashaya.html Pomo/Kashaya Bibliography]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=92486 Ethnologue: Pomo]
* [http://www.kstrom.net/isk/art/basket/pomohist.html Pomo People: Brief History]
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