- History of the automobile
Vehicles that can be considered
automobileswere demonstrated as early as 1769; although that date is disputed, 1806 marked the introduction of fuel gaspowered internal combustion engines and 1885 marked the introduction of gasoline powered internal combustion engines. Automotivehistory is generally divided into a number of eras based on the major design and technology shifts. Although the exact boundaries of each era can be hazy, scholarship has defined them as follows:
Eras of invention
Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles are thought to have been devised in the late 18th Century.
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnotdemonstrated his "fardier à vapeur", an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor, in 1770 and 1771. Cugnot's design proved to be impractical and his invention was not developed in his native France, the centre of innovation passing to Great Britain. By 1784, William Murdochhad built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth, and in 1801 Richard Trevithickwas running a full-sized vehicle on the road in Camborne. [cite book
title=Mixed Blessing: The Motor in Britain
chapter=1] Such vehicles were in vogue for a time, and over the next decades such innovations as hand brakes, multi-speed transmissions, and better
steeringdeveloped. Some were commercially successful in providing mass transit, until a backlash against these large speedy vehicles resulted in passing a law, the Locomotive Act, in 1865 requiring self-propelled vehicles on public roadsin the United Kingdombe preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag and blowing a horn. This effectively killed road auto development in the UK for most of the rest of the 19th Century, as inventors and engineers shifted their efforts to improvements in railway locomotives. The law was not repealed until 1896, although the need for the red flag was removed in 1878.
Russiain the 1780s, Ivan Kulibinstarted working on a human-pedalled carriage with a steam engine. He finished working on it in 1791. Some of its features included a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, which are also the features of a modern automobile. His design had three wheels. Unfortunately, like for many of his inventions, the government failed to see the potential market and it was not developed further. [http://www.aboutmycar.com/category/car_history/creation_history/automobile-invention-1122.htm] [ [http://www.carseller.ru/articles/10-01-2008.1350.html Трехколесное чудо механика Кулибина ] ] [ [http://www.devichnick.ru/031kulibin.htm Самокатка Кулибина ] ] [ [http://www.mexanik.ru/332/vved.htm Введение книги "Тракторы и автомобили" ] ] [ [http://bibliotekar.ru/encAuto/6.htm Основные события. Изобретение и история автомобиля ] ] [ [http://avto-news.my1.ru/ п░п╡я┌п╬ п╫п╬п╡п╬я│я┌п╦ - п⌠п╩п╟п╡п╫п╟я▐ я│я┌я─п╟п╫п╦я├п╟ ] ] [ [http://bse.sci-lib.com/article090486.html Автомобиль ] ] [ [http://www.textreferat.com/referat-2531-1.html Автомобилестроение в России до 1917 г - TextReferat.com ] ] [ [http://www.automag.vrn.ru/99_23/4.html яюлши оепбши (ФСПМЮК "юБРНЛЮЦ" N23/99) ] ]
The first automobile
patentin the United Stateswas granted to Oliver Evansin 1789. In 1805, Evans demonstrated his first successful self-propelled vehicle, which not only was the first automobile in the USA but was also the first amphibious vehicle, as his steam-powered vehicle was able to travel on wheels on land and via a paddle wheelin the water.
There were also European efforts. In 1806 Swiss engineer
François Isaac de Rivazbuilt an internal combustion engine powered by a hydrogen and oxygen mixture. In 1815, a professor at Prague Polytechnich, Josef Bozek, built an oil-fired steam car. [Georgano, G.N. "Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930". (London: Grange-Universal, 1985), p.27.] In 1826 Samuel Brown tested his hydrogenfueled internal combustion engineby using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill, Walter Hancock, builder and operator of London steam buses, in 1838 built a four-seat steam phaeton. [Georgano, p.27.] Also in 1838, Scotsman Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that attained a speed of 4 mph (6 km/h). In England, a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells.
Etienne Lenoirmade his hippomobilewith an hydrogen gasfuelled one cilinder internal combustion engine he made a test drive from Paristo Joinville-le-Pont: top speed about 9 km in ~3 hours [ [http://www.netinform.net/H2/H2Mobility/H2MobilityMain.aspx?ID=229&CATID=1 Hippomobile] ] around 1860, later it was driven by coal-gas. The French claim a Deboutteville-Delamarewas successful, and celebrated the 100th birthday of the car in 1984.
About 1870, in
Vienna, capital of Austria(then the Austro-Hungarian Empire), inventor Siegfried Marcusput a liquid-fuelled internal combustion engineon a simple handcart which made him the first man propelling a vehicle by means of gasoline. Today, this car is known as “The first Marcus Car”.
In 1883, Marcus got a German patent for a low voltage ignition of the magneto type; this was his only automotive patent. This design was used for all further engines, and the four-seat “Second Marcus Car” of 1888/89. This ignition in conjunction with the “rotating brush carburretor” made the “Second Car”'s design very innovative.
It is generally acknowledged the first automobiles with gasoline powered internal combustion engines were completed almost simultaneously by several German inventors working independently:
Karl Benzbuilt his first automobile in 1885 in Mannheim. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on January 29, 1886 and began the first production of automobiles in 1888. Soon after, Gottlieb Daimlerand Wilhelm Maybachin Stuttgartin 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile rather than a horse carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motor bike in 1886. Yet Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882 patented a 0.024 hp (18W) 122 cc (7.4 in3) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle; [Georgano, G.N. "Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930". (London: Grange-Universal, 1990), p.26.] Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.Georgano, p.26.] One of the first four wheel petrol-driven automobiles built in Britain came in Birminghamin 1895 by Frederick William Lanchesterwho also patented the disc brake. And, contrary to popular belief, the first electric starter was by Arnold (copy of the Benz Velo) before 1900.Georgano, p.25.]
For all the turmoil, many early pioneers were forgotten. In 1891,
John William Lambertbuilt a three-wheeler in Ohio City, Ohio, which was destroyed in a fire the same year, while Henry Nadigconstructed a four-wheeler in Allentown, Pennsylvania. It is likely they were not the only ones.
Oldsmobile Curved Dashautomobile and period driving clothing]
The first production of automobiles was by
Karl Benzin 1888 in Germanyand under licence to Benz, in Franceby Emile Roger. There were numerous others, including tricyclebuilders Rudolf Egg, Edward Butler, and Léon Bollée; [Georgano, G.N. "Cars: Early and Vintage 1886-1930" (London: Grange-Universal, 1990), pp.20-23.] Bollée, using a 650 cc (40 in3) engine of his own design, enabled his driver, Jamin, to average 45 km/h (28.2 mph) in the 1897 Paris-Tourvillerally. [Georgano, p.23 cap.] By 1900 mass production of automobiles had begun in Franceand the United States. The first company formed exclusively to build automobiles was Panhard et Levassor in France, which also introduced the first four-cylinder engine. [Georgano, p.22.] Formed in 1889, Panhard was quickly followed by Peugeottwo years later. By the start of the twentieth century the automobile industry was beginning to take off in western Europe, especially in France where, in 1903, 30,204 cars were produced, representing 48.8% of world automobile production that year.Fact|date=July 2008
In the United States, brothers Charles and
Frank Duryeafounded the Duryea Motor Wagon Companyin 1893, becoming the first American automobile manufacturing company. However, it was Ransom E. Olds, and his Olds Motor Vehicle Company(later known as Oldsmobile). who would dominate this era of automobile production. Its large scale production linewas running in 1902. Within a year, Cadillac (formed from the Henry Ford Company), Winton, and Ford were producing cars in the thousands.
Within a few years, a dizzying assortment of technologies were being produced by hundreds of producers all over the Western world. Steam, electricity, and gasoline-powered autos competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. Dual- and even quad-engine cars were designed, and
engine displacementranged to more than a dozen liters. Many modern advances, including gas/electric hybrids, multi-valveengines, overhead camshafts, and four-wheel drive, were attempted and discarded at this time.
By 1900, it was possible to talk about a national automotive industry in many countries, including Belgium (home to
Vincke, which copied Benz; Germain, a pseudo-Panhard; or Linonand Nagant, both based on the Gobron-Brillié), Switzerland (led by Fritz Henriod, Rudolf Egg, Saurer, Johann Weber, and Lorenz Popp), Vagnfabrik AB in Sweden, Hammel(by A. F. Hammel and H. U. Johansen at Copenhagen, in Denmark, beginning around 1886), Irgens (starting in Bergen, Norway, in 1883, but without success), [Georgano, p.25-6.] Italy (where FIAT started in 1899), and as far afield as Australia (where Pioneer set up shop in 1898 (with an already archaic paraffin-fuelled center pivot-steered wagon). Meanwhile, the export trade had begun to be global, already, also, with Koch exporting cars and trucks from Paris to Tunisia, Egypt, Iran, and the Dutch East Indies.
Innovation was rapid and rampant, with no clear standards for basic vehicle architectures, body styles, construction materials, or controls. Many veteran cars use a
tillerrather than a wheel for steering, for example, and most operated at a single speed. Chain drivewas dominant over the modern driveshaft, and closed bodies were extremely rare.
November 5, 1895, George B. Seldenwas granted a United States patent for a two-stroke automobile engine (US patent|549160). This patent did more to hinder than encourage development of autos in the USA. Selden licensed his patent to most major American auto makers, collecting a fee on every car they produced.
Throughout the veteran car era, however, automobiles were seen as more of a novelty than a genuinely useful device. Breakdowns were frequent, fuel was difficult to obtain, roads suitable for travelling were scarce, and rapid innovation meant that a year-old car was nearly worthless. Major breakthroughs in proving the usefulness of the automobile came with the historic long-distance drive of
Bertha Benzin 1888when she traveled more than fifty miles (80 km) from Mannheimto Pforzheimto make people aware of the potential of the vehicles her husband, Karl Benz, manufactured, and after Horatio Nelson Jackson's successful trans-continental drive across the United Statesin 1903.
Brass or Edwardian era
Named for the widespread use of
brassin the United States, the Brass or Edwardian eralasted from roughly 1905 through to the beginning of World War Iin 1914. 1905 was a signal year in the development of the automobile, marking the point when the majority of sales shifted from the hobbyist and enthusiast to the average user.
Within the 15 years that make up the Brass or Edwardian era, the various experimental designs and alternate power systems would be marginalized. Although the modern
touring carhad been invented earlier, it was not until Panhard et Levassor's " Système Panhard" was widely licensed and adopted were recognizable and standardized automobiles created. This system specified front-engined, rear-wheel driveinternal combustion cars with a sliding gear transmission. Traditional coach-style vehicles were rapidly abandoned, and buckboard runabouts lost favor with the introduction of tonneaus and other less-expensive touring bodies.
Throughout this era, development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to a huge number (hundreds) of small manufacturers all competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included electric ignition (by
Robert Bosch, 1903), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes (by the Arrol-JohnstonCompany of Scotland in 1909). [Georgano, p.58.] Leaf springs were widely used for suspension, though many other systems were still in use, with angle steel taking over from armored wood as the frame material of choice. Transmissions and throttle controls were widely adopted, allowing a variety of cruising speeds, though vehicles generally still had discrete speed settings rather than the infinitely variable system familiar in cars of later eras.
Between 1907 and 1912, the high-wheel motor buggy (resembling the horse buggy of before 1900) was in its heyday, with over seventy-five makers including
Holsman(Chicago), IHC (Chicago), and Sears (which sold "via" catalog); the high-wheeler would be killed by the Model T. [Georgano, p.65.]
Some examples of cars of the period included the following:
Ford Model T- The most widely produced and available car of the era. It used a planetary transmission and had a pedal-based control system.
Mercer Raceabout- Regarded as one of the first sports cars, the Raceabout expressed the exuberance of the driving public, as did the similarly-conceived American Underslungand Hispano-Suiza Alphonso
Bugatti Type 13- A notable racing and touring model with advanced engineering and design. Similar models were the Types 15, 17, 22, and 23.
The vintage era lasted from the end of
World War I(1919) through the stock market crash at the end of 1929. During this period, the front-engined car came to dominate, with closed bodies and standardized controls becoming the norm. In 1919, 90% of cars sold were open; by 1929, 90% were closed. [Georgano, G.N. "Cars: Early and Vintage 1886-1930" (London: Grange-Universal, 1990), p.7.] Development of the internal combustion enginecontinued at a rapid pace, with multi-valveand overhead camengines produced at the high end, and V8, V12, and even V16engines conceived for the ultra-rich.
Exemplary vintage vehicles:
Austin 7— The Austin Seven was one of the most widely copied vehicles ever serving as a template for cars around the world, from BMWto Nissan.
Bugatti Type 35— The Type 35 was one of the most successful racing cars of all time, with over 1,000 victories in five years.
Lancia Lambda- Very advanced car for the time, first car to feature a load-bearing monocoque-type body and independent suspensionin front.
Ford Model A— After keeping the brass era Model T in production for too long, Ford broke from the past by restarting its model series with the 1927 Model A. More than 4 million were produced, making it the best-selling model of the era.
Cadillac V-16— Developed at the height of the vintage era, the V16-powered Cadillac would join Bugatti's Royale as the most legendary ultra-luxury cars of the era.
The pre-war part of the classic era began with the
Great Depressionin 1930 and ended with the recovery after World War II, commonly placed at 1948. It was in this period that integrated fenders and fully-closed bodies began to dominate sales, with the new sedan body style even incorporating a trunkat the rear for storage. The old open-top runabouts, phaetons, and touring cars were phased out by the end of the classic era as wings, running boards, and headlights were gradually integrated with the body of the car.
By the 1930s most of the mechanical technology used in today's automobiles had been invented although some things were later "re-invented", and credited to someone else. For example,
front-wheel drivewas re-introduced by Andre Citroënwith the launch of the Traction Avant in 1934, though it appeared several years earlier in road cars made by Alvisand Cord, and in racing cars by Miller (and may have appeared as early as 1897).
After 1930, the number of auto manufacturers declined sharply as the industry consolidated and matured.
Exemplary pre-war automobiles:
* 1932-1948 Ford V-8 - Ford introduced their powerful Flathead V8 in their mainstream model, creating a now-legendary car that dominated the world market much as the Model T and Model A had done in previous eras.
Bugatti Type 57— A high-tech and refined automobile for the remaining rich of the time, the Type 57SC has become the singular classic car.
Citroën Traction Avant— The first mass-produced front-wheel drivecar, built with monocoquetechniques, was a technology masterpiece.
Alvis Speed 20 and Speed 25- The first cars with all synchromesh gearbox, the speed models were excellent vehicles with the Speed 25 acknowledged as one of the finest prewar sports tourers ever made.
* 1936–1955 MG T series — This sports car for the masses came to represent the European motoring experience, especially for American soldiers fighting in the war.
Volkswagen Beetle— Perhaps the most-famous automobile of all time, it was a pre-war design that lasted through the modern era.
Automobile design finally emerged from the shadow of
World War IIin 1949, the year that in the United States saw the introduction of high-compression V8engines and modern bodies from General Motors' Oldsmobileand Cadillac brands. The unibody/strut-suspended 1951 Ford Consuljoined the 1948 Morris Minorand 1949 Rover P4in waking up the automobile market in the United Kingdom. In Italy, Enzo Ferrariwas beginning his 250 series just as Lanciaintroduced their revolutionary V6-powered Aurelia.
Throughout the 1950s, engine power and vehicle speeds rose, designs became more integrated and artful, and cars spread across the world.
Alec Issigonis' Miniand Fiat's 500 mini cars swept Europe, while the similar " keicar" class put Japanon wheels for the first time. The legendary VW Beetlesurvived Hitler's Germany to shake up the small car market in the Americas. Ultra luxury, exemplified in America by the Cadillac Eldorado Brougham, reappeared after a long absence, and GT cars, like the Ferrari Americas, swept across Europe.
The market changed somewhat in the 1960s, as Detroit began to worry about foreign competition, the European makers adopted ever-higher technology, and Japan appeared as a serious car-producing nation.
General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford tried radical small cars, like the GM A-bodies, but had little success. Captive imports and badge engineeringswept through the U.S. and UK as conglomerates like the British Motor Corporationconsolidated the market. Eventually, this trend reached Italy as niche makers like Maserati, Ferrari, and Lanciawere acquired by larger companies. By the end of the decade, the automobile manufacturing world was much smaller.
In America, performance was the hot sell of the 1960s, with
pony cars and muscle cars propping up the domestic industry. In 1964 the Ford mustang hit the markets. The Mustang was the hot ticket and was one of the most popular car of the early 1960s. In 1967 Chevrolet released the Camaroto compete with the Ford Mustang. In 1967Chevy came out with the Camaro Z28, so in 1969 Fords competitiveness went into gear and they came out with the Mustang Boss 302and the Mustang Boss 429. But everything changed in the 1970s as the 1973 oil crisis, automobile emissions controlrules, Japanese and European imports, and stagnant innovation wreaked havoc on the American industry. Throughout the decade, small imported cars outperformed large American ones, and the domestic auto industry began to fail. Small performance cars from BMW, Toyota, and Nissantook the place of big-engined cars from America and Italy.
On the technology front, the biggest developments of the era were the widespread use of
independent suspensions, wider application of fuel injection, and an increasing focus on safety in the design of automobiles. The hottest technologies of the 1960s were NSU's Wankel engine, the gas turbine, and the turbocharger. Of these, only the last, pioneered by General Motors but popularized by BMWand Saab, was to see widespread use. Little Mazdahad much success with their "Rotary" engines, but was critically affected by its reputation as a polluting gas-guzzler. Other Wankel licensees, including Mercedes-Benzand General Motors, never put their designs into production. Rover and Chrysler both produced experimental turbine cars to no effect. Cubais famous for its pre-1959 cars, known as yank tanks or maquinas, because before the Cuban revolutionmany rich US citizens lived there, but after the revolution the influx of cars stopped due to the US boycott, so people made sure to keep the cars they had in good condition.
Exemplary post-war cars:
Morris Minor– A popular and typical post-war car exported around the world.
Mini— This quintessential small car lasted for four decades and is one of the most famous cars of all time.
Jaguar E-type—The E-type saved Jaguar on the track and in the showroom and was a standard for design and innovation in the 1960s.
Ford Mustang— The pony carthat became one of the best-selling and most-collected cars of the era.
Datsun 240Z— One of the first Japanese sports cars to be a smash hit with the North American public, it paved the way for future decades of Japanese strength in the automotive industry. It was affordable, well-built, and had great success both on the track and in the showroom.
The modern era is normally defined as the 25 years preceding the current year. However, there are some technical and design aspects that differentiate modern cars from antiques. Without considering the
future of the car, the modern era has been one of increasing standardization, platform sharing, and computer-aided design.
Some particularly notable advances in modern times are the wide spread of
front-wheel driveand all-wheel drive, the adoption of the V6engine configuration, and the ubiquity of fuel injection. While all of these advances were first attempted in earlier eras, they so dominate the market today that it is easy to overlook their significance. Nearly all modern passenger cars are front wheel drive unibodydesigns with transversely-mounted engines, but this design was considered radical as late as the 1960s.
Body styles have changed as well in the modern era. Three types, the
hatchback, minivan, and sport utility vehicle, dominate today's market yet are relatively recent concepts. All originally emphasized practicality but have mutated into today's high-powered luxury crossover SUVand sports wagon. The rise of pickup trucks in the United States and SUVs worldwide has changed the face of motoring, with these "trucks" coming to command more than half of the world automobile market.
The modern era has also seen rapidly rising
fuel efficiencyand engine output. Once the automobile emissions concerns of 1970swere conquered with computerized engine management systems, power began to rise rapidly. In the 1980s, a powerful sports car might have produced 200 hp (150 kW)—just 20 years later, average passenger cars have engines that powerful, and some performance models offer three times as much power.
Exemplary modern cars:
NSU Ro 80- The basic wedge profile of this design was much emulated in subsequent decades. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/10/business/10luthe.html?_r=2&ref=obituaries&oref=login&oref=slogin NY Times Advertisement ] ]
Range Rover- The first take on the combination of luxury and four wheel drive utility, the original SUV. Such was the popularity of the original vehicle that a new model was not brought out until 1996. [ [http://www.channel4.com/4car/ft/buying+guide/used+car+buying+guide/1208/1 Range Rover | Car Features | 4car | channel4.com ] ]
Mercedes-Benz S-Class- Electronic anti-lock brakes, supplemental restraint airbags, seatbelt pretensioners, and traction control all made their debut on the S-Class. These features would later become standard throughout the car industry.
Honda Accordsedan — This Japanese sedan became the most popular car in the United States in the 1990s, pushing the Ford Taurus aside, and setting the stage for today's upscale Asian sedans.
* 1983–present Chrysler minivans — The two-box
minivandesign nearly pushed the station wagonout of the market and presaged today's crossover SUVs.
Ford Taurus— This mid-sized front wheel drive sedan with modern Computer Assisted Design dominated the American market in the late 1980sand created a design revolution in North America.
Toyota Corolla— A simple small Japanese sedan that has come to be the best selling car of all time.
Dodge Ariesand Plymouth Reliant- The "K-cars" that saved Chrysler as a major manufacturer. These models were some of the first successful American front wheel drive, fuel-efficient compact cars.
BMW 3 Series- The 3 Series has been on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list 17 times, making it the longest running entry in the list
History of the internal combustion engine
Automotive industry- information on current production and companies
* [http://www.oldclassiccar.co.uk Old Classic Car] - A large website containing articles, an extensive photograph archive, and free downloads for enthusiasts of classic and vintage cars. 10,000+ pages, updated daily.
* [http://www.youmotorcar.com The history of the American automobile industry]
* [http://www.wheelsofitaly.com Italian Motorcycles and Cars (Wheels Of Italy)]
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/transportationweb/index.html University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Transportation Photographs] An ongoing digital collection of photographs depicting various modes of transportation (including automobiles) in the Pacific Northwest region and Western United States during the first half of the 20th century.
* [http://www.automotivehistoryonline.com Automotive History] - An ongoing photographic History of the Automobile.
* [http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/explore/dgexplore.cfm?topic=industry&collection=TakingtheWheelManufa&col_id=153 Taking the Wheel] , Manufacturers' Catalogs from the First Decade of American Automobiles
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