- Architecture of Texas
The architecture in the state of
Texascomes from a wide variety of sources. Many of the state's buildings reflect Texas' Spanish and Mexican roots; in addition, there is considerable influence from the American South. Rapid economic growth throughout the since the mid twentieth century has led to a wide variety of contemporary architectural buildings.
The first European buildings in Texas were a series of
religiousSpanish Missions build by established by Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans to spread the Christiandoctrine among the local Native Americans, and to give Spain a toehold in the frontier land. The missions introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, and industryinto the Texasregion. In addition to the "presidio" (fort) and "pueblo" (town), the "misión" was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. In all, twenty-six missions were maintained for different lengths of time within the future boundaries of the state. The San Antonio de Valero Missionknown for the Battle of the Alamois a prime example of this kind of architecture.
Each Texas county has a distinct courthouse. These buildings reflect many different styles of architecture.
Texas State Capitol, located in Austin, Texas, is the fourth building to serve as the seat of Texasgovernment. It houses the chambers of the Texas State Legislatureand the office of the Governor of Texas. Originally designed by Elijah E. Myers, it was constructed from 1882–88 under the direction of civil engineer Lindsay Walker, and a $75 million underground extension was completed in 1993. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Placesin 1970 and recognized as a National Historic Landmarkin 1986. It is the largest State Capitolbuilding, but smaller than the National Capitol in Washington, D.C.[ [http://www.tspb.state.tx.us/SPB/Capitol/TexCap.htm Texas Capitol] . State Preservation Board, Caretakers of the Texas Capitol. Last accessed January 10, 2008.]
In addition to Texas's traditional
architecturethe state also has noteworthy contemporary buildings. Many world class architects and Pritzker Prizewinners have left their enriching marks on Texan cities and landscapes. Frank Lloyd Wrighthad four buildings in Texas, [ [http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/1469/flw_tx.html Frank Lloyd Wright - Texas (All-Wright Site - Frank Lloyd Wright Building Guide) ] ] while Tadao Ando's Modern Art Museum and Louis Kahn's famous Kimbell Art Museumare permanent landmarks of the city of Fort Worth. Other super architects such as I.M. Peiand Philip Johnsonhave numerous works across the state. Among their famous works one can mention the Fort Worth Water Gardens, Amon Carter Museum, Chapel of St. Basil, Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, and Thanks-Giving Square. In Austin, Gordon Bunshaft's Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum(also a Pritzker Prizewinner) is particularly noteworthy, while Steven Holl, Robert A. M. Stern, Richard Meier, and César Pelliare other architect legends who designed buildings that grace the Dallasand Houstonareas. Sir Norman Foster's Dallas Center for the Performing Artsis the latest addition to such architectural landmarks in Texas.
Some facilities even harbor the marks of multiple architects. Houston's Museum of Fine Arts for example, was designed by
Pritzker Prizewinner Rafael Moneo, landscape architect extraordinnaire Isamu Noguchi, and the pioneering master of Modern Architecture Mies van der Rohe.
Texas is also home to some of the tallest
skyscrapersin the United States.
The Houston skyline has been ranked fourth-most impressive in the United States when ranked by breadth and height, [ [http://homepages.ipact.nl/~egram/skylines.html The World's Best Skylines] "Egbert Gramsbergen and Paul Kazmierczak, 2006"] being the country's third-tallest skyline and one of the top 10 in the world; [ [http://ultrapolisproject.com/Tallest_Skylines_Cities_2005.htm Calculated Average Height of the Ten Tallest (CAHTT)] "UltrapolisProject.com"] [ [http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showthread.php?p=2278728 Tallest Cities of the World?] "SkyscraperPage Forum, August 30, 2006"] however, because it is spread over a few miles, most pictures of the city show only the main downtown area. Houston has a system of tunnels and skywalks linking buildings in downtown. The tunnel system also includes shops, restaurants, and convenience stores.
:"Images shown below are the eight tallest buildings in Texas."
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