1994 Major League Baseball strike
Major League baseballstrike was the eighth work stoppage in baseballhistory, as well as the fourth in-season work stoppage in 23 years. The 232-day strike, which lasted from August 12, by|1994, to April 2, by|1995, led to the cancellation of 931-948 games overall, including the entire 1994 postseason and World Series (these numbers also account for the fact that postseason series can be of varying lengths, in addition, 12 other games scheduled to be played prior to August 12, 1994 were canceled for other reasons, mainly weather-related). The cancellation of the 1994 World Serieswas the first since by|1904; meanwhile, Major League Baseball became the first professional sport to lose its entire postseason due to a labor dispute.
salary capin response to the worsening financial situation in baseball. Ownership claimed that small-market clubs would fall by the wayside unless teams agreed to share local broadcasting revenues (to increase equity amongst the teams) and enact a salary cap, a proposal that the players adamantly opposed. On January 18, by|1994, the owners approved a new revenue-sharing plan keyed to a salary cap, which required the players’ approval. The following day, the owners amended the Major League agreement by giving complete power to the commissioner on labor negotiations.
The dispute was played out with a backdrop of years of hostility and mistrust between the two sides. What arguably stood in the way of a compromise settlement was the absence of an official commissioner ever since the owners forced
Fay Vincentto resign in September by|1992. Vincent described the situation this way: "The Union basically doesn’t trust the Ownership because collusion was a $280 million theft by Bud Seligand Jerry Reinsdorfof that money from the players. I mean, they rigged the signing of free agents. They got caught. They paid $280 million to the players. And I think that’s polluted labor relations in baseball ever since it happened. I think it’s the reason Fehr has no trust in Selig." [ [http://www.businessofbaseball.com/vincent_interview.htm Business of Baseball Fay Vincent interview] ] Deadlink|url=http://www.businessofbaseball.com/vincent_interview.htm Business of Baseball Fay Vincent interview|date=January 2008 Incidentally, on February 11, by|1994, the owners greatly reduced the commissioner's power to act in "the best interests of baseball."
Richard Ravitchofficially unveiled the ownership proposal on June 14, by|1994. The proposal would guarantee a record $1 billion in salary and benefits. But the ownership proposal also would have forced clubs to fit their payrolls into a more evenly based structure. Salary arbitrationwould have been eliminated, free agency would begin after four years rather than six, and owners would have retained the right to keep a four or five year player by matching his best offer. Owners claimed that their proposal would raise average salaries from $1.2 million in by|1994 to $2.6 million by by|2001. Major League Baseball Players Associationleader Donald Fehrrejected the offer from the owners on July 18. Fehr believed that a salary cap was simply a way for owners to clean up their own disparity problems with no benefit to the players.
July 13, by|1993, Fehr said that if serious negotiations between the players and the owners did not begin soon, the players could have gone out on strike in September of that year, threatening the postseason. On December 31, by|1993, Major League Baseball's collective bargaining agreement ran out with no new agreement yet signed.
As negotiations continued to heat up, the owners decided to withhold $7.8 million that they were required to pay per previous agreement into the players' pension and benefit plans. The final straw came on
June 23when the Senate Judiciary Committee failed to approve an antitrustlegislation by a vote of 10-7. According to Donald Fehr, the action left the players with little choice but to strike. "We felt in '94 we were pushed into it," said Donald Fehr, executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association. "I still think that's a justified conclusion."
July 26, the Players Association executive board set August 12, 1994as a strike date. When that day came, the players went ahead with their threat to walk off the job.
August 31, three-and-a-half hours of negotiations with federal mediators produced no progress in the strike, and no further talks were scheduled as the strike went into its 4th week. According to then-acting commissioner Bud Selig, September 9was the tentative deadline for canceling the rest of the season if no agreement was reached between the owners and players. The MLBPA offered a counterproposal to ownership on September 8calling for a two-percent tax on the 16 franchises with the highest payrolls to be divided among the other 12 clubs. Teams in both leagues would share 25% of all gate receipts under the MLBPA's plan. The owners responded by claiming that the measures wouldn't meet the cost.
The rest of the season, including the World Series, was called off by Bud Selig on
September 14. Selig acknowledged that the strike had torn an irreparable hole in the game's fabric. The move to cancel the rest of the season meant the loss of $580 million in ownership revenue and $230 million in player salaries. In 1994, the average MLB salary was an estimated $1.2 million.
The then-' best season in their history was interrupted by the strike. They had the best record in baseball, 74-40, and were six games ahead of the Atlanta Braves in the NL East despite having the second-lowest payroll in the Majors (only the San Diego Padres had a smaller payroll). Some baseball writers were considering the Expos as major World Series contenders. Coincidentally, the only time that the Expos actually made it to the postseason was in by|1981, the last time that there was a significant players' strike in Major League Baseball.
Chicago White Sox star Frank Thomas, who wound up winning the
American League's Most Valuable Player Award in 1994, said "I've had a career year, but I'm not going to finish it." Tony Gwynnhad a chance to be the first to finish a season over .400 since Ted Williams, as he was batting .394 at the time of the strike. The strike also cost Matt Williams of the San Francisco Giants a chance to beat Roger Maris' single season home run record. When the strike forced the cancellation of the remaining 47 games of the season, Williams had already hit 43 home runs, well on pace to top Maris' single season record of 61 home runs. Cleveland Indians second baseman Carlos Baergawas unable to extend his record two-year streak of 20 home runs, 200 hits, and 100 RBI by a second baseman because of the strike. Seattle Mariners star Ken Griffey, Jr., who led the American League with 40 home runs at the time of the strike summed it up best by saying, "We picked a bad season to have a good year." Kevin Mitchell of the Cincinnati Reds, Julio Francoof the Chicago White Sox, and Shane Mack of the Minnesota Twins, all .325 hitters in 1994, opted during the strike to play in Japan in 1995.
One of the few positive notes was that fans were spared from witnessing one of the worst division races in history. The Texas Rangers were leading the newly reformed
American League Westdespite being 10 games under .500. The last-place California Angels were only 5 ½ games out despite having the second-worst record in the majors at 21 games under .500 — on pace for 96 losses. In fact, two last place teams in separate divisions had better records than the Rangers.
By the third day of the strike, Cleveland Indians owner
Richard Jacobsdirected that all souvenirs being sold at the Indians' gift shop carrying the words "inaugural season at Jacobs Field" be sold at half price.
The strike also led to an absurdity: Minnesota traded
Dave Winfieldto the Cleveland Indians for a player to be named later before the season was officially canceled, so no player was named. To settle the deal, the executives of the teams went to dinner, and Cleveland picked up the tab, meaning Winfield had been dealt for dinner. [cite news
first = Keegan
last = Tom
authorlink = Tom Keegan
title = Owners try on global thinking cap
The Baltimore Sun
page = 2C
December 5, it was announced that Richard Ravitch would step down as negotiator for the owners on December 31, 1994. Ravitch instead resigned on December 6, 1994. On December 14, labor talks headed by federal mediator Bill Usery broke down. The next day, the owners approved a salary cap plan by a vote of 25-3, but agreed to delay implementing it so that another round of talks with the players could be held. On December 23, with negotiations at a standstill, the owners unilaterally implemented a salary cap.
January 1, 1995, five bills aimed at ending the baseball strike were introduced into Congress. Four days later, Donald Fehr declared all 895 unsigned Major League players to be free agents in response to unilateral contract changes made by the owners. On January 10, arbitrator Thomas Roberts awarded 11 players a total of almost $10 million as a result of collusioncharges brought against the owners. On January 26, both players and owners were ordered by President Bill Clintonto resume bargaining and reach an agreement by February 6. Unfortunately, President Clinton's deadline came and went with no resolution of the strike. Just five days earlier, the owners agreed to revoke their arbitrarily imposed salary cap and return to the old agreement.
After the deadline passed with no compromises, the use of replacement players for spring training and regular season games was approved by baseball's executive council on
January 13. Replacement players (among them, former Boston Red Soxpitcher Dennis "Oil Can" Boyd), were reportedly guaranteed $5,000 for reporting to spring training and another $5,000 if they made the Opening Day roster. Declared Selig, "We are committed to playing the 1995 season and will do so with the best players willing to play." Baltimore Oriolesowner Peter Angeloson the other hand, announced that his team wouldn't use replacement players (due in no small part to the fact that Cal Ripken, Jr.was going for Lou Gehrig's consecutive games record). On March 20, Angelos' Orioles canceled the remainder of their spring training games because of the team's refusal to use replacement players. The next day, the Maryland House of Delegatesapproved legislation to bar teams playing at Camden Yards from using replacement players.
In addition to Peter Angelos' problems,
Detroit Tigersmanager Sparky Andersonwas put on an involuntary leave of absence as he refused to manage replacement players. Two days after Anderson's punishment, the Toronto Blue Jaysassigned manager Cito Gastonand his coaching staff to work with minor league players so that they wouldn't have to deal with replacement players. On March 14, the players' union announced that it would not settle the strike if replacement players were used in regular season games, and if results were not voided. On March 28, the Ontario Labour Board announced that replacement umpires would not be allowed to work Blue Jays home games. Under the Ontariolabour law then in force, replacement workers were not permitted to be used during a strike or lockout. The Blue Jays opted to play their home games at their Spring Training facility in Dunedin, Floridaas long as replacement players were used.
March 29, the players voted to return to work if a U.S. District Court judge supported the National Labor Relations Board's unfair labor practices complaint against the owners (which was filed on March 27). By a vote of 26-2, owners supported the use of replacement players. The strike ended when federal judge Sonia Sotomayorissued a preliminary injunction against the owners on March 31. On Sunday, April 2, 1995, the day before the season was scheduled to start, the 232 day long strike was finally over. Judge Sotomayor's decision received support from a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, which denied the owners' request to stay the ruling.
The by|1995 season, which was revised to 144 games instead of the normal 162 (a decision that was made on
March 26), resumed April 25under the conditions of the expired contract despite the lack of a collective bargaining agreement. The regular officials continued to be locked out until May 3.
On Opening Day in by|1995, three men, who were each wearing T-shirts emblazoned with the word "Greed", leaped onto the field at
Shea Stadiumand tossed more than $150 in $1 bills at players. In Cincinnati, one fan paid for a plane to fly over Riverfront Stadium that dragged a sign reading "Players and Owners — To Hell With You" The meager crowds at the openers often booed at the players for their rusty fundamentals, shoddy defense, and in response to frequent high-scoring contests. Fans in Pittsburgh disrupted Opening Day by throwing sticks on the field, and holding up the action for 17 minutes. A mere 50,245 fans showed up for the New York Yankees' home opener, the smallest opening crowd at Yankee Stadiumsince by|1990, a full half-decade previously. Ironically, the opening games were played with replacement umpires, the first time since by|1984 that replacement umpires were used.
August 3, 1995, the Senate Judiciary Committee sent a bill calling for the partial repeal of baseball's antitrust exemption to the full Senate. The vote was just 9-8. On August 9, George Nicolau, baseball's impartial arbitrator since by|1986, was fired by Major League owners.
September 29, by|1995, a three-judge panel in New Yorkvoted unanimously to uphold the injunction that brought the end to the strike in April 1995. The owners had appealed the injunction issued last March 31, but the panel said the Players Relations Committee had illegally attempted to eliminate free agencyand salary arbitration.
In by|1998, by|1999, by|2000, by|2001, by|2002 and by|2004, players who were part of the World Series winning
New York Yankees, Arizona Diamondbacks, Anaheim Angels and Boston Red Sox were not permitted on commemorative merchandise because players on the teams were declared replacement players for their participation in spring training. The players who were noted are Shane Spencerof the by|1998, by|1999 and by|2000 New York Yankees, Damian Millerof the by|2001 Arizona Diamondbacks, Brendan Donnellyof the by|2002 Anaheim Angels and Kevin Millarof the by|2004 Boston Red Sox.
Arguably the largest impact was to the Montréal Expos. Forced to lower payroll even further because of losses due to the strike, and with the strike almost completely destroying its fan base, the Expos would never recover from the incident. With the exception of by|1996 under the guidance of
Felipe Alouand by|2003 under the legendary Hall of Famer Frank Robinson, the team never came close to contending again. The team was purchased by Major League Baseball after the by|2001 season, and would become the focus of contraction rumors until the team was moved to Washington, D.C., to become the Washington Nationalsafter the by|2004 season.
1994 in baseball
1995 in baseball
The Baseball Network
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-41-1430-9214/sports/sports_disputes/clip6 CBC Radio report]
* [http://www.chriscomerradio.com/billy-d/billy-d8-17-1994.htm Radio Interview with Major League Beer Vendor Billy D., Cincinnati Ohio] on The Chris & Rob Late Night Talk Show August 17th 1994 on MLB Strike Work Disruption
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