List of constructed languages
This list of
constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres.
The following are languages that have generated significant followings, or which have been of significance in the history of auxiliary languages.
There have been literally hundreds of proposals for auxiliary languages, and more continue to be created. The following are languages with some notability, either historically or because of unusual characteristics.
Controlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable to those who do not speak the original language well. Most of these have been based on English.
Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word.
Common Logic, an ISOstandard derived from KIF
Distributed Language Translationproject used a "binary-coded" version of Esperantoas a pivot languagebetween the source language and its translation.
Languages used in fiction
Adûnaicfrom J. R. R. Tolkien's works
Aklo, Tsath-yo, and R'lyehianare ancient and obscure languages in the works of H. P. Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith, and others. Aklo is considered by some writers to be the written languageof the Serpent People
Amtorian, spoken in some cultures on the planet Venusin Pirates of Venusby Edgar Rice Burroughsand several sequels. Judged by critic Fredrik Ekman to have "a highly inventive morphology but a far less interesting syntax." (See [http://www.erblist.com/erblist/ven1sum.html] .)
* Ancient Language in the
Inheritance Trilogyby Christopher Paolini(although this is considered to be a cipher of English by many)
Unglishand Ingliss- three languages spoken respectively at Western Europe, North America and the Pacific in the 29th Century world of Poul Anderson's "Orion Shall Rise". All derived from present-day English, the three are mutually unintelligable, following 800 years of separate development after a 21st century nuclear war and the extensive absorption of words and grammatical forms from French in the first case, Russian, Chinese and Mongolian in the second, and Polynesianin the third.
* Anglic, the dominant languague of the declining Galactic empire depicted in
Poul Anderson's Dominic Flandryseries, is descended from present-day English but so changed that only professional historians or linguists can understand English texts.
* Anglo-French, in the
alternate historyworld of the Lord Darcy stories by Randall Garrett- where England and France were permanently united into a single kingdom by Richard the Lionheartand their languages consequently merged.
* asa'pili ("world language"), in "bolo'bolo", by Swiss author P.M..
* Atreides battle, in "Dune" by
* Babel-17, in "
Babel-17" by Samuel R. Delany
Baronh, language of Abh in "Seikai no Monsho" (" Crest of the Stars") and others, by Morioka Hiroyuki
Black Speech- language of Mordorin " The Lord of the Rings"
Chakobsa, a language used in the "Dune" novels by Frank Herbert
Codex Seraphinianus" by Luigi Serafiniappears to be written in a constructed language which is presumably the language of the alien civilization the book describes
* Common The language spoken in a wide variety of fantasy fiction, particularly
Dungeons and Dragons.
D'HaranThe ancient, dead language of pre-Great War New World (D'Hara, Midlands, and Westland) in Terry Goodkind's "Sword of Truth" series.
Drac, language of the alien species in Barry B. Longyear's Enemy Mineand The Enemy Papers
* Kad'k, the language of the Dwarfs in
Terry Pratchett's Discworld
Earthsea" books (by Ursula K. Le Guin)
** Language of the Making - the basis of all magic, spoken by
Dragons as their native tongue and learned with considerable effort by human mages
Hardic- linguistically descended from the above
Osskilian, and Kargish- a different family of languges, distantly related
* Elemeno, language of two sisters in "Caucasia" by
Fremen, language of the native people of Arrakis, in "Dune" and other novels by Frank Herbert
* "Galactic Standard Speech" in
Asimov' " Foundation series". Inhabitants of the planet Fomalhaut speak "an extreme dialect" of it.
Galacticspeakfrom " The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy"
Gobbledygook, the language of goblins, in the Harry Potterseries. Noted speakers include Albus Dumbledoreand Barty Crouch.
* Glide, created by
Diana Reed Slattery, used by the Death Dancers of " The Maze Game"
High Speechof Gilead from Stephen King's The Dark Tower (series)
Ilythiiri, the language of drow elves in Forgotten Realmssetting. [http://php.iupui.edu/~asimmon/drow.html]
* Kesh, in
Ursula K. Le Guin's novel " Always Coming Home
Krakish, in " Guardians of Ga'Hoole" by Kathryn Lasky
* Láadan (ldn), in
Suzette Haden Elgin's science fiction novel "Native Tongue" and sequels
* Lapine, in "
Watership Down" by Richard Adams
Lilliputianfrom Jonathan Swift's " Gulliver's Travels". Further samples of the language are provided in T. H. White's " Mistress Masham's Repose". In Gulliver's Travels, other fictional languages, spoken in other places Gulliver visits, are also presented, e.g. Brobdingnagian, Laputan, Balbinarbianand Houyhnhnmlanguages.
Mando'a, created by Karen Traviss, used by the Mandalorians in the " Star Wars" "Republic Commando" novels ' and '
Manganiin the Tarzannovels of Edgar Rice Burroughs
Marain, in The Culturenovels of Iain M. Banks
languages of Middle-earth(most notably Sindarin(sjn), Quenya(qya) and Khuzdûl) by J. R. R. Tolkien, partly published in " The Lord of the Rings", and posthumously discussed in " The History of Middle-earth" and other publications.
Molvanian from " Molvania, A Land Untouched By Modern Dentistry"
Nadsatslang, in " A Clockwork Orange" by Anthony Burgess
Newspeak, in " Nineteen Eighty-Four" by George Orwell(fictional constructed language)
* The "Nautilus Language", spoken on board
Jules Verne's famous fictional submarine, in token of crew members having completely renounced their former homelands and backgrounds. Every morning, after scanning the horizon with his binoculars, Nemo's second-in-command says: "Nautron respoc lorni virch". The meaning of these words is never clarified, but their constuction seems to indicate that the "Nautilus Language" (its actual name is not given) is based on European languages.
Old Solar, in " Out of the Silent Planet", " Perelandra", and " That Hideous Strength" by C. S. Lewis
Old Tonguefrom Robert Jordan's "Wheel of Time" series
Paluldonianin a Tarzannovel, Tarzan the Terrible, by Edgar Rice Burroughs. Used by the inhabitants of the realm of Pal-ul-don in Africa, separated from the outside world by inpenetrable marshes.
Parseltongue, the language of snakes, in the Harry Potterseries. The ability of humans to speak it is considered a magic ability.
* Pennsylvanisch, from
Michael Flynn's " The Forest of Time"
Pravicand Iotic, in " The Dispossessed" by Ursula K. Le Guin
Ptydepe, from Václav Havel's play " The Memorandum"
Quintagliofrom Robert J. Sawyer's " Quintaglio Ascension Trilogy"
Qwghlmian from Neal Stephenson's " Cryptonomicon" and " The Baroque Cycle"
Reformed Egyptianin the Book of Mormon[Standard language references such as Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, eds., "The World's Writing Systems" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) (990 pages); David Crystal, "The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language" (Cambridge University Press, 1997); and Roger D. Woodard, ed., "The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages" (Cambridge University Press, 2004) (1162 pages) contain no reference to "reformed Egyptian." "Reformed Egyptian" is also ignored in Andrew Robinson, "Lost Languages: The Enigma of the World's Undeciphered Scripts" (New York: McGraw Hill, 2002), although it is mentioned in Stephen Williams, "Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory" (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).]
* Rihannsu, spoken by the Rihannsu (
Romulans) in the " Star Trek" novels of Diane Duane
Spocanian, in Rolandt Tweehuysen's fictional country Spocania
* Stark (short for Star Common), a common interstellar English-based language from
Orson Scott Card's "Ender" series
Starsza Mowafrom Andrzej Sapkowski's Hexer saga
* Troll language from
Terry Pratchett's Discworld
Utopian language, appearing in a poem by Petrus Gillesaccompanying Thomas More's "Utopia"
* Whitmanite, spoken by members of a radical
Anarchist- Pacifistcult of the same name in Robert Heinlein' " The Puppet Masters". "Allucquere" is a female given name in Whitmanite.
Zaum, poetic tongue elaborated by Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksei Kruchonykh, and other Russian Futuristsas a "transrational" and "most universal" language "of songs, incantations, and curses".
* Several languages spoken by
Panurgein François Rabelais' Pantagruel (1532)
The Time Machine" featured an unnamed language for the Eloi people.
Jack Womack's Dryco novels feature a future form of English with a modified grammar.
Bordurianin some of Hergé's " The Adventures of Tintin", mostly in " The Calculus Affair"
Interlac, the universal language spoken in the 30th century in the Legion of Super Heroescomics
* Kryptonese, or Kryptonian, the language of Superman's home planet of Krypton
Syldavian, in some of Hergé's " The Adventures of Tintin", mostly in " King Ottokar's Sceptre"
Movies and television
* Two kinds of alien language, termed "Alienese" and "Beta Crypt 3" appear quite frequently in background sight gags in
* Ancient in the
Stargateuniverse (i.e. Stargate SG-1and Stargate Atlantis) is the language of the Ancients, the builders of the Stargates; it is similar in pronunciation to Medieval Latin. The Athosians say prayers in Ancient.
* Atlantean created by
Marc Okrandfor the film ""
Cityspeak, a "mishmash of Japanese, Spanish, German," plus Hungarian and French, spoken on the street of overcrowded and multi-lingual Los Angeles of 2019 in " Blade Runner". Similarly, used in many cyberpunkgenre role playing games.
* The Divine Language is a language invented by director
Luc Bessonand actress Milla Jovovichfor the 1997 movie The Fifth Element.
Enchanta, in the Encantadiaand Etheriatelevision series in the Philippines, created by the head writer Suzette Doctolero
Gelfling, spoken in Jim Henson's fantasy epic " The Dark Crystal"
* Goa'uld, the galactic "
lingua franca" from " Stargate SG-1", supposedly influenced Ancient Egyptian
Huttese, language of both alien species and people in some of George Lucas's Star Warsfilms
Irken, in " Invader Zim", by Jhonen Vasquez, "et al."
* Klingon (tlh), in the "
Star Trek" movie and television series, created by Marc Okrand
* Krakozhian from "
* Ku, a fictional African language in the movie "
The Interpreter" (2005)
Linguacode, a universal languagecode sometimes used by the United Federation of Planetsin the "" televisionseries.
Marklar, spoken by the people of Marklar in a " South Park" episode.
* Minbari from
Babylon 5, three related languages used together, corresponding to the areas of expertise of the three societal castes.
Nadsat, the fictional language spoken by Alex and his friends in "Clockwork Orange"
Nellish, a personal language from the main character of " Nell"
* Paku from "Land of the Lost"
PortuGreek, the trade language featured in " Waterworld"
* The pseudo-Spanish/Greek/Arabic language of Republica, as used in the fictional "
Chanel 9" program within the British comedy sketch show the " The Fast Show"
Quenya(qya) and Sindarin(sjn), the two Elven languages, spoken in the "Lord of the Rings" movies.
Slovetzian, the fictional Slavic language of Slovetziain the movie " The Beautician and the Beast"
* The "
Star Wars" series features several fictional languages, see: Languages in Star Wars
Tenctonesefrom the "Alien Nation" movie and television series, created by Van Lingand Kenneth Johnson
* Unas in "
Stargate SG-1", supposedly the first hosts of the Goa'uld
Ulam, language spoken by the prehistoric humans in Anthony Burgess' movie " Quest for Fire", created by melting roots of European languages.
Vampirelanguage used in the movie "Blade".
* Vulcan language from "
* In the
Janissaries seriesof science-fictionnovels by Jerry Pournelle, the human natives of the planet Tran speak a language apparently derived from Mycenaean. A form of Latin is also spoken in an empire resembling ancient Rome's, but only by scholars.
Riddley Walker, a 1980 novel by Russell Hoban, set in a post-apocalyptic future, is written entirely in a "devolved" form of English.
Luc Bessoninvented a Divine Language for Milla Jovovich's character "Leeloo" to speak in the film The Fifth Element.
* Gulevache: fictional
Romance Languageof the kingdom of Gulevandia on the bilingual opera Cardoso en Gulevandiaby the comedy group Les Luthiers
Kobaian, the language used by 70's French rock group Magma.
Vonlenska, sometimes known as "Hopelandic", the language sung by Jón Þór Birgissonof the Icelandic band " Sigur Rós" on many of their songs.
Loxian, featured on the Enyaalbum Amarantine.
* Unnamed language by Yves Barbieux, used in his song "
Sanomi" and performed by the Belgian group Urban Tradin the Eurovision Song contest in 2003.
* Mohelmot, a forbidden language used by
The Residentson the album .
* Unnamed language by Emmanuelle Orange, used in her song Pialoushka and performed by Montreal band
* Unnamed language featured in the chorus of
2NU's 1991 track " This is Ponderous".
Grammelot(Cirquish) is a "gibberish" that goes back to the 16th century, used by performers, including those of Cirque du Soleil
* In the
Halo seriesseveral alien languages are spoken by the Covenant."
* Al Bhed is a language used by the race of people known by the same name in the fictional world of Spira, in the games "
Final Fantasy X" & " Final Fantasy X-2"
Alaani, Angram(old dwarvish), Asdharia(high elvish), Isdira(elvish), Rogolan(dwarvish), Rssahh(language of the 'lizard-people') and others in the role-playing game" The Dark Eye"
Altmer, the old tongue of High Elves in The Elder Scrollsseries.
* Ancient Hylian is the ancient language used by the first Hylians in "The
Legend of Zelda"
* Animalese is one language spoken by the NPC characters of
Animal Crossing. There is also the option that they can speak Bebebese.
Bluddianfrom the video game "Captain Blood" by Cryo Interactive Entertainment
* Common, Darnassian, Draenei language, Dwarvish, Gnomish, Gutterspeak, Orcish, Taurahe, Thalassian, and Troll language, all from the
* D'ni, the language spoken by the subterranean
D'nipeople in Cyan Worlds' Mystseries of computer games and novels
* Dino, the language made by the Dinosaur Planet in
Star Fox Adventures
Gargish, used in the Ultima computer game series, by the gargoyle race
* [http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Hymmnos Hymmnos] , used by Reyvateils for Song Magic in
* [http://wiki.urbandead.com/index.php/Zamgrh kiZombie] , used by zombies in the
Urban Dead MMORPG
Lashonnuis the language of the Wealdings (the Forest People) in the Gondica role playing gameby Anders Blixt
Mando'a, created by Karen Traviss, used by the Mandalorians in ""
Or'zet, the rediscovered language of the Orks from the " Shadowrun" role playing game
* The unnamed language used by the
Protossin the " StarCraft" series
Simlishfrom the computer game " The Sims"
Sload, the language of the epynomous race in The Elder Scrollsseries.
Sperethiel, the language of the Elven nations of Tir Tairngire and Tir na Nog from the " Shadowrun" role playing game
Tho Fan, in the Xboxgame Jade Empire
* The unnamed language used by the
Zergrace in the " StarCraft" series
* The unnamed language used by the Blobs when they sing, in the
PlayStation PortableGame, " LocoRoco"
* The unnamed language used in the "
Klonoa" series up to "", and an expetation in " Namco X Capcom", uses normal Japanese. It is known as "Klonian" or more recently "Lunatean" from Klonoa 2: Lunatea's Veil.
*Panzerese, a mix of German, Japanese, and Latin, used in the Panzer Dragoon series of games.
Alltongue, magical language spoken in Arcadia in " The Longest Journey" series
* Vasudan, the language spoken by the Vasudan race in and in the other titles in the FreeSpace series.
Teonaht, by Sally Caves
* several languages created for the fictional planet of Almea by
Brithenig(bzt), created by the inventor of the alternate historyof Ill Bethisad, Andrew Smith
* Several North Slavic languages, inspired by the existence of West, East and
South Slavic languagesand the absence of a Northern branch
Wenedyk, a language of the alternate history of Ill Bethisadcreated by Jan van Steenbergen
* Talossan, by R. Ben Madison
Enochianby Edward Kelley
Lingua Ignota, by Hildegard of Bingen Language games
Língua do Pê
References and notes
International auxiliary language
List of languages
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