James Ranald Martin
Sir James Ranald Martin (12 May 1796,
Isle of Skye-27 November 1874) [ Riddick, D. J. F. (2006) "The History of British India: A Chronology" Greenwood Publishing Group p 216 ISBN 0313322805] was a surgeon in the service of the Honourable East India Companyand was instrumental in bringing out the effects of deforestationthrough his reports.
Born in the
Isle of Skyein one of the oldest families living on the island, his father was Rev. Donald Martin and his mother was the daughter of Norman Macdonald and sister of Lieut-Gn. Sir John Macdonald. Martin was educated at St. George's and Windmill Street School. He became a C.C.S.in 1811 and entered the BengalMedical Service on 5 September 1817. He obtained commission of assistant-surgeon through the interest of his uncle, Sir John MacDonald. [http://books.google.com/books?id=_gsCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71 Biographical sketch in the London Lancet] ]
In 1818 he served in his Majesty's 17th and 59th Regiments forming the garrison of
Fort William. Here he came to see the effect of Cholera. He was then sent to Orissawhere a malignant fever had prevailed and destroyed more than half the inhabitants of Ganjam. He saw action in a number of military engagements during the 1820s. The most notable of these was the First Burmese Warfrom 1823–26. His war experiences, especially the fact that diseases affected the nativesand the Europeans differently, led him to believe that mapping of the medical features of the empire in much the same way as topographywas critical for military and economic development. His notes on the medical topography of Calcuttapioneered a genre of works that explored linkages between climate, public health and development. He was made the President of the East India Company's medical board in 1843. In 1856, he was substantially re-wrote and extended the then well-known treatise on diseases in the tropics, "Influence of Tropical Climates" originally authored by James Johnson. [Harrison, M. (1992) Tropical Medicine in Nineteenth-Century India "The British Journal for the History of Science" 25:3, p.302] He was also appointed as a member of the Sanitary Commission and contributed to the report of the Commission published in 1863. Smallpoxvaccination started in India around 1803 but Martin was the first major advocate of preventive medicinein India. He proposed in 1835 that Company medical officers should collect statistics of places so that they could be collated for study. [Hume Jr., John Chandler (1986) Colonialism and Sanitary Medicine: The Development of Preventive Health Policy in the Punjab, 1860 to 1900. Modern Asian Studies. 20(4):703-724.] His pioneering report [Martin, R. (1836) "The sanitary conditions of Calcutta"] on the need for public healthmeasures and the universal provision of clean water in Calcuttain 1836 called for a whole series of medico-topographical reports on India by the medical service. During the Burma War, a number of his colleagues in the Medical Department of the Bengal Army wrote topographies of Rakhine State, and in the following years other Company surgeons began to follow suit, producing detailed medical surveys of their town or district. The Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta, of which Martin was a prominent member, and its counterparts in other presidencies, encouraged the publication of such reports in their transactions. Many of these reports [ Stebbing, E.P (1922)"The forests of India" vol. 1, pp. 72-81] spoke about the rapid rates of deforestation since the early 1820s. Such reports were instrumental in institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British Indiathrough the establishment of Forest Departments which later became the Indian Forest Services.
* Grove, R. H. (1997) "Ecology, Climate and Empire" The White House Press, UK, pp. 237
* Sir Joseph Fayrer, Life of the Inspector General Sir James Ranald Martin (London, 1897) D.N.B., 12, pp. I 165-6.
* [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=rf12v-EL0dkC&source=web The Influence of tropical climates on European constitutions (1856)]
* [http://www.aasianst.org/absts/1999abst/sasia/s-94.htm Mark Harrison - Knowing the country]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
James Martin — or Jim Martin may refer to: Contents 1 Actors, musicians, and other performers 2 Jurists 3 Politicians … Wikipedia
Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta — The Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta was a society of British officials, mostly physicians, formed on March 1, 1823. The society published a quarterly journal and met at the Asiatic Society. The journal published articles on… … Wikipedia
Alexander Gibson (botaniste) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Alexander Gibson. Alexander Gibson est un botaniste et un chirurgien écossais, né en 1800 dans le Kincardineshire et mort en 1867. Biographie Il fait ses étude à Édimbourg. Il part en Inde pour le compte de la… … Wikipédia en Français
Liste Des Généraux De L'Union — Liste des officiers généraux de l’armée de l Union, durant la guerre de Sécession : Liens internes Liste des généraux de la Confédération Grades Général = général d armée, Lieutenant général = général de corps d armée, Major général =… … Wikipédia en Français
Liste des généraux de l'Union — Liste des officiers généraux de l’armée de l Union, durant la guerre de Sécession : Grades Général = général d armée, Lieutenant général = général de corps d armée, Major général = général de division, Brigadier général = général de brigade… … Wikipédia en Français
List of Privy Counsellors (1952–present) — This is a List of Privy Counsellors of the United Kingdom appointed since the accession of Queen Elizabeth II in 1952. Due to political ties, some Prime Ministers from Commonwealth realms also are ascended to the British Privy Council as… … Wikipedia
Clan Donald — Crest badge … Wikipedia
Oscar/Bestes adaptiertes Drehbuch — Als Drehbuch nach literarischer Vorlage (Adapted Screenplay) wird eine Form des Drehbuchs bezeichnet, bei dem das Skript auf einer zuvor veröffentlichten Publikation beruht (wie einem Roman, einem Theaterstück oder einem bereits verfilmten… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Oscars/Drehbuch nach Vorlage — Als Drehbuch nach literarischer Vorlage (Adapted Screenplay) wird eine Form des Drehbuchs bezeichnet, bei dem das Skript auf einer zuvor veröffentlichten Publikation beruht (wie einem Roman, einem Theaterstück oder einem bereits verfilmten… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Oscars/Drehbuch nach literarischer Vorlage — Als Drehbuch nach literarischer Vorlage (Adapted Screenplay) wird eine Form des Drehbuchs bezeichnet, bei dem das Skript auf einer zuvor veröffentlichten Publikation beruht (wie einem Roman, einem Theaterstück oder einem bereits verfilmten… … Deutsch Wikipedia