Water supply and sanitation in Ghana

The water supply and sanitation sector in Ghana faces severe problems, partly due to a neglect of the sector until the 1990s. Tariffs were kept at a low level which was far from reflecting the real cost of the service. Economic efficiency still remains below the regional average, resulting in a lack of financial resources to maintain and extend the infrastructure. [cite paper
first =
last =
author = AMCW, AfDB, EUWI, WSP, UNDP
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Getting Africa on track to meet the MDGS on water and sanitation. A Status Overview of Sixteen African Countries
version =
publisher =
date = October 2006
url = http://www.wsp.org/filez/pubs/21200723636_MDGsAfrica.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-25
] Since 1994, the sector has been gradually modernized through the creation of an autonomous regulatory agency, introduction of private sector participation, and decentralization of the rural supply to 138 districts, where user participation is encouraged. The reforms aim at increasing cost recovery and a modernization of the urban utility Ghana Water Company Ltd. (GWCL), as well as of rural water supply systems. [cite web
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink = WaterAid
coauthors =
title = National Water Sector Assessment, Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wateraid.org/other/startdownload.asp?DocumentID=28&mode=plugin
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
]

Another problem which partly arose from the recent reforms is the existence of a multitude of institutions with overlapping responsibilities. The National Water Policy (NWP), launched at the beginning of 2008, seeks to introduce a comprehensive sector policy.cite web
last = Ghanaian Water Resources Commission
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Policy
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wrc-gh.org/nationalwaterpolicy.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
]

Access

The water supply and sanitation infrastructure is insufficient, especially in rural areas and concerning sanitation. There are substantial discrepancies between access data from various sources, partially because of different definitions being used by different institutions that are providing access data. According to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of UNICEF and WHO access is as follows:

However, according to the multi-donor Africa MDG assessment access to an improved water sources is much lower (56%) and access to improved sanitation is higher (35%).

The share of non-functional supply systems in Ghana is estimated at almost one third, with many others operating substantially below designed capacity. Moreover, domestic water supply competes with a rising demand for water by the expanding industry and agriculture sectors.cite paper
first =
last =
author = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
authorlink = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
coauthors =
title = African Economic Outlook 2007 - Ghana Country Note
version =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/51/38562673.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-25
, p. 294] Ghana aims at achieving 85% coverage for water supply and sanitation by 2015 [cite paper
first =
last =
author = AMCW, AfDB, EUWI, WSP, UNDP
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Getting Africa on track to meet the MDGS on water and sanitation. A Status Overview of Sixteen African Countries
version =
publisher =
date = October 2006
url = http://www.wsp.org/filez/pubs/21200723636_MDGsAfrica.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-25
, p. 25
] , which would exceed the Millennium Development Goals' target of 78%. [Citation
first =
last = Water-Aid Ghana
author-link =
first2 =
last2 =
author2-link =
editor-last =
editor-first =
editor2-last =
editor2-first =
contribution =
contribution-url =
title = Assessment of national sanitation policies: Ghana case. Final report.
year = 2005
pages =
place = Accra
publisher =
url = http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/projects/proj_contents0/WEJEH%20-%20Sanitation%20Policy/www/outputs/Ghana%20Sanitation%20Policy%20Assessment%20Report.pdf
doi =
id =
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 9
]

ervice quality

Continuity of supply

According to one estimate, only one quarter of the residents in Accra receive a continuous water supply, whereas approximately 30% are provided for 12 hours each day, five days a week. Another 35% are supplied for two days each week. The remaining 10% who mainly live on the outskirts of the capital are completely without access to piped water.cite web
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink = WaterAid
coauthors =
title = National Water Sector Assessment, Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wateraid.org/other/startdownload.asp?DocumentID=28&mode=plugin
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 2]

According to the water company Aqua Vitens Rand Ltd. (AVRL), a joint venture of the Dutch Vitens Rand water services BV and Aqua Vitra Ltd., residing in Accra, the situation is even worse: In February 2008 some communities within the Accra-Tema metropolis were served either once in a week, once in a fortnight or once in a month. [ [http://www.water-mwrwh.com/sub.htm#top AVRL: The Dodowa intervention] ]

Drinking water quality

The lack of clean drinking water and sanitation systems is a severe public health concern in Ghana, contributing to 70% of diseases in the country. Consequently, households without access to clean water are forced to use less reliable and hygienic sources, and often pay more.

Wastewater treatment

It is estimated that in 2000 the urban areas of Ghana generated about 763,698 m³ of wastewater each day, resulting in approximately 280 million m³ over the entire year. Regional capitals count for another 180 million m³. [cite conference
first = SK
last = Agodzo
authorlink =
coauthors = Huibers, FP; Chenini, F.; van Lier, JB; Duran A.
title = Use of wastewater in irrgigated agriculture. Country studies from Bolivia, Ghana and Tunisia. Volume 2: Ghana
booktitle =
pages =
publisher = WUR
date =
location = Wageningen
url = http://www.iwe.wur.nl/NR/rdonlyres/B87C7F6A-BACA-43CF-BC29-B223B0102B21/9226/fh030624GHANAfinal.PDF
doi =
isbn = 90 6754 704 2
accessdate = 2008-03-28
, p. 16-17
] Only a small share of the generated urban wastewater is collected, and an even smaller share is being treated. In Accra, the share of wastewater collected is approximately 10%. Moreover, less than 25% of the 46 industrial and municipal treatment plants in Ghana were functional according to an inventory undertaken by the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency in 2001. Treatment plants for municipal wastewater are operated by local governments, and most of them are stabilization ponds. [ [http://www.ruaf.org/system/files?file=Chap6-Sanitation.pdf RUAF Ghana sanitation report] ] A biological treatment plant has been built in the late 1990s at Accra's Korle Lagoon. However, it only handles about 8% of Accra's wastewater. [cite conference
first = Maxwell
last = Adu-Ahyiah
authorlink =
coauthors = Anku, Romi Ernest
title = Small Scale Wastewater Treatment in Ghana (a Scenerio)
booktitle =
pages =
publisher =
date =
location = Lund
url = http://www.vateknik.lth.se/Publications/exjobbsrapporter/Maxwell_Romi_scientifc%20paper.pdf
doi =
isbn =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
, p. 1-2
]

Water resources

Ghana is well endowed with water resources. The Volta river system basin, consisting of the Oti, Daka, Pru, Sene and Afram rivers as well as the white and black volta rivers, covers 70% of the country area. Another 22% of Ghana is covered by the southwestern river system watershed comprising the Bia, Tano, Ankobra and Pra rivers. The coastal river system watershed, comprising the Ochi-Nawuka, Ochi Amissah, Ayensu, Densu and Tordzie rivers, covers the remaining 8% of the country.

Furthermore, groundwater is available in mesozoic and cenozoic sedimentary rocks and in sedimentary formations underlying the Volta basin. The Volta Lake, with a surface of 8,500 km², is one of the world's largest artificial lakes. In all, the total actual renewable water resources are estimated to be 53.2 billion m³ per year. [cite paper
first =
last =
author = Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
authorlink = Food and Agriculture Organization
coauthors =
title = Ghana Country Overview
version =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/ghana/ghana_cp.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-25
, p. 3-4
]

Water use

In 2000, total water withdrawal was 982 million m³, of which two thirds were used for agricultural purposes. Another 10% was withdrawn for industry, leaving 24% or 235 million m³ for domestic use. Furthermore, 37,843 km³ are used for hydroelectricity generation at the Akosombo Dam each year. [cite paper
first =
last =
author = Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
authorlink = Food and Agriculture Organization
coauthors =
title = Ghana Country Overview
version =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/ghana/ghana_cp.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-25
, p. 4-5
]

History and recent developments

History

In 1928, the first piped water supply system was constructed at Cape Coast. The Water Supply Division of the Public Works Department was responsible for the service provision in rural and urban areas of Ghana. After Ghana's independence in 1957, the division was separated from the Public Works Department and placed under the Ministry of Works and Housing. In 1965, it was transformed into the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC), a legal public utility responsible for the provision of urban and rural water supply for public, domestic, and industrial purposes as well as the establishment, operation, and control of sewerage systems.

Since 1993, various reforms have been introduced to address the problems of the sector. The key objectives of the reforms were to separate rural and urban service, to introduce independent regulatory agencies, and to promote private sector participation.cite web
last = Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA)
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Strategic Investment Plan 2005 - 2015
work =
publisher =
date = August 2004
url = http://www.cwsagh.org/documents/SIP_2005-2015.pdf
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 7]

In order to pay more attention to water supply and sanitation in rural areas, the Community Water and Sanitation Division was founded as a semi-autonomous division of GWSC in 1994. Four years later, it changed its name to the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) and became fully independent. [cite web
last = Ghanaian Water Resources and Environmental Sanitation Project
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Water Supply & Sanitation in Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wresp.org/wsesingh.php#history
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
] In 1999, the GWSC was replaced by the publicly owned GWCL. At the same time, the responsibility for rural water supply and sanitation was decentralized to the District Assemblies. In addition, sanitation was separated from water supply and became a responsibility of the District Assemblies in urban and rural areas.

As a result, the GWCL remained responsible only for urban water supply, whereas more than 110 small towns' water systems were transferred to District Assemblies, which receive support from the CWSA. In terms of sanitation, District Assemblies are responsible in urban and rural areas. In the latter case, a demand-driven and community-managed approach was introduced. [cite journal
last = United Nations
first =
authorlink = United Nations
coauthors =
title = Freshwater Country Profile: Ghana
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2004
url = http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/ghana/waterghana04f.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-07
, p. 2
]

The regulation of water supply has been shifted from the government to independent agencies. Two commissions were created in 1997 to regulate the sector: [cite web
last = Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA)
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Strategic Investment Plan 2005 - 2015
work =
publisher =
date = August 2004
url = http://www.cwsagh.org/documents/SIP_2005-2015.pdf
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 8-9
] The Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) has been developed to formulate and approve appropriate pricing mechanisms aimed at full cost recovery, since the government began to phase out the subsidization of water services in 2003. The PURC has no authority over community-managed water systems and only regulates GWCL services. Besides the provision of tariff guidelines and the examination and approval of tariffs, it protects the interests of consumers and providers, promotes fair competition, and initiates, conducts, and monitors standards concerning the provided service.

Whereas the PURC takes responsibility for economic regulation of urban water supply and sanitation, the Water Resources Commission (WRC) regulates water resources: it is in charge of licensing water abstraction and wastewater discharges.

21st century

To carry out the private sector participation of GWCL, originally a 10-year lease contract was envisaged . In 2000, a lease contract between GWCL and the US company Azurix failed due to public opposition and accusations of corruption which led to the formation of the Coalition against Water Privatization. [cite journal
last = Rahaman;
first = Abu Shiraz
authorlink =
coauthors = Everett, Jeff; Neu, Dean
title = Accounting and the move to privatize water services in Africa
journal = Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Volume 20, Number 5, 2007 , pp. 637-670(34)
volume = 20
issue = 5
pages = 637–670
publisher = Emerald Group Publishing Limited
location =
date = 2007
url =
doi = 10.1108/09513570710778992
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 648-651
]

In October 2006, under the framework of the Urban Water Project (see below) a five-year management contract was signed between the GWCL and AVRL. The main objectives of this private sector participation are:
* Extending reliable water supply especially to low-income areas
* Making potable water affordable for low-income consumers
* Increasing cost recovery
* Ensuring investments based on low-cost and concession financing
* Supporting further involvement of the private sector
* Reducing non-revenue water
* Increasing water treatment

The project is financed by the World Bank, the Nordic Development Fund and the Republic of Ghana (see below). [Citation
first = Henry Wonder
last = Doe
title = Assessing the Challenges of Water Supply in. Urban Ghana: The case of North Teshie. (EESI Master Thesis)
year = 2007
pages =
place = Stockholm
publisher = Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
url = http://www.lwr.kth.se/Publikationer/PDF_Files/LWR_EX_07_06.PDF
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-27
, p. 35-36
]

In March 2008, severe water shortages in Accra were reported, leading Boniface Abubakar Saddique, the Minister for Water Resources, Works and Housing, to review whether AVRL is working in compliance with the management contract. However, he explained that the reason for the shortages was unforeseen power outages at two water treatment plants in Weija and Kpong. Saddique stated that the overall situation will improve notably by the end of 2008 due to several new boreholes and a more stable power supply. [Citation
last = Benson
first = Ivy
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Government maintains Aqua Vitens deal…to manage water supply in the country
newspaper = The Ghanaian Chronicle
pages =
year = 2008
date = 2008-03-12
accessdate = 2008-03-27
url = http://db.ghanaian-chronicle.com/thestory.asp?id=5993
.
]

National Water Policy

To overcome the lack of coordination between the numerous institutions which were created since 1993, Saddique launched a National Water Policy (NWP) at the end of February 2008, which focuses on the three strategic areas: (i) water resources management; (ii) urban water supply; and (iii) community water and sanitation.

Although the sector has made substantial progress, a lack of coherence in policy formulation resulted in a multitude of implementation strategies which led to new problems. The NWP thus aims to formulate a comprehensive sector policy which includes all relevant actors in the sector. According to the minister, the NWP could make it easier for development partners to provide the necessary support to the sector. [Citation
last = Appiah
first = Innocent
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Govt tackles water issue
newspaper = Ghanaian Times
pages =
year = 2008
date = 2008-02-28
url = http://www.newtimesonline.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14378&Itemid=181&month=2&year=2008
]

The NWP has been prepared by the Ghanaian Water Resources Commission (WRC) since 2002 and is based on the Ghanaian Constitution of 1992, the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS), international agreements and conventions, and other national programs. [cite web
last = Ghanaian Water Resources Commission
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Policy
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wrc-gh.org/nationalwaterpolicy.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
]

Responsibility for water supply and sanitation

According to a multi-donor review of Ghana's water supply sector, it is "quite well structured", with the government in charge of policy and regulation, while the private sector and communities play important roles in service delivery. The institutional framework for sanitation is much less clear, with responsibilities not being clearly defined.

Policy and regulation

At the moment, a number of institutions exist to supervise and regulate water supply and sanitation. The entire policy framework is based on the Ghana Poverty Reduction Stategy (GPRS), the Millennium Development Goals targets, and the Government's coordination with donor assistance. [Citation
first =
last = Water-Aid Ghana
author-link =
first2 =
last2 =
author2-link =
editor-last =
editor-first =
editor2-last =
editor2-first =
contribution =
contribution-url =
title = Assessment of national sanitation policies: Ghana case. Final report.
year = 2005
pages =
place = Accra
publisher =
url = http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/projects/proj_contents0/WEJEH%20-%20Sanitation%20Policy/www/outputs/Ghana%20Sanitation%20Policy%20Assessment%20Report.pdf
doi =
id =
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 28-29
]

General water sector policies for both rural and urban areas are set by the Water Directorate within the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH). Furthermore, the ministry solicits funding from external support agencies, monitors the sector, and advises the Cabinet.cite web
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink = WaterAid
coauthors =
title = National Water Sector Assessment, Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wateraid.org/other/startdownload.asp?DocumentID=28&mode=plugin
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 5] The Water Sector Restructuring Secretariat, created in 1997 in the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing, oversees the process of private sector participation in the sector. [Citation
first = Henry Wonder
last = Doe
title = Assessing the Challenges of Water Supply in. Urban Ghana: The case of North Teshie. (EESI Master Thesis)
year = 2007
pages =
place = Stockholm
publisher = Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
url = http://www.lwr.kth.se/Publikationer/PDF_Files/LWR_EX_07_06.PDF
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-27
, p. 33
]

The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development shares responsibility for setting sanitation policies and coordinating funding for the subsector with MWRWH. The government promotes decentralization so that sanitation policies are expected to be carried out by Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies. To enforce environmental quality laws, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Ministry of Environment and Science is expected to examine the impact of sanitation development activities on the environment.

ervice provision

Urban areas

The Ghana Water Company Ltd. (GWCL) is responsible for providing, distributing, and conserving water for domestic, public, and industrial purposes in 82 urban systems in localities with more than 5,000 inhabitants. Moreover, the company is mandated to establish, operate, and control sewerage systems in Ghana.cite web
last = Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA)
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Strategic Investment Plan 2005 - 2015
work =
publisher =
date = August 2004
url = http://www.cwsagh.org/documents/SIP_2005-2015.pdf
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 9-11]

Local private companies are in charge of meter installation, customer billing, and revenue collection. In the framework of the urban water project, since October 2006 the private operator AVRL supports GWCL under a five-year management contract to improve its performance and rehabilitate and extend the infrastructure.Citation
first =
last = Water-Aid Ghana
author-link =
first2 =
last2 =
author2-link =
editor-last =
editor-first =
editor2-last =
editor2-first =
contribution =
contribution-url =
title = Assessment of national sanitation policies: Ghana case. Final report.
year = 2005
pages =
place = Accra
publisher =
url = http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/projects/proj_contents0/WEJEH%20-%20Sanitation%20Policy/www/outputs/Ghana%20Sanitation%20Policy%20Assessment%20Report.pdf
doi =
id =
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 19]

Urban sanitation is a responsibility of local governments. [ [http://www.ruaf.org/system/files?file=Chap6-Sanitation.pdf RUAF Ghana Sanitation Report] ]

Rural areas

The Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) is in charge of coordinating and facilitating the implementation of the National Community Water and Sanitation Programme (NCWSP) in rural areas, which is carried out directly by the communities and their District Assemblies. The NCWSP focuses on three main objectives in order to achieve health improvements: safe water supply, hygiene education, and improved sanitation. [cite web
last = Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA)
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Strategic Investment Plan 2005 - 2015
work =
publisher =
date = August 2004
url = http://www.cwsagh.org/documents/SIP_2005-2015.pdf
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 15
]

The CWSA was created in 1994 under the framework of the Ghana decentralization policy and became autonomous in 1998. The institution does not directly construct, operate, and maintain utilities for water supply and sanitation. Instead, its role is to coordinate the work of a number of actors which carry out the services in rural areas, including public sector organizations, local beneficiary communities, private sector organizations, and NGOs. The CWSA is also expected to ensure that financial support from development partners is effectively used and to provide rural areas and small towns with hygiene education. To carry out its tasks, the agency operates ten regional offices besides its head office in Accra.

In communities with fewer than 50,000 inhabitants, water supply systems are owned and managed by the respective community on a demand-driven basis. According to the NCWSP, these systems do not receive any cross-subsidies and 5% of the cost of providing the facility is paid by the operating community. [Citation
last = Nyarko
first = Kwabena Biritwum
contribution = Institutional challenges for small towns' water supply delivery in Ghana
year = 2004
title = Water Resources of Arid and Semi Arid Regions, International Conference
editor-last = Chaoka
editor-first = T. R. et al.
volume =
pages = 217-226
place = London
publisher = Taylor and Francis Group
isbn = 04 1535 913 9
, p. 217-218.
] Therefore, the rural communities and small towns form gender-balanced voluntary groups which are represented by elected water and sanitation boards, including one or two village-based caretakers who received special training in repair and maintenance.cite journal
last = Komives
first = K.
authorlink =
coauthors = Akanbang, B.; Thorsten, R.; Tuffuor, B.; Wakeman, Wasser.; Larbi, E.; Bakalian, A; Whittington, D.
title = Post-construction Support and the Sustainability of Rural Water Projects in Ghana
journal = Paper presented at the 33rd WEDC International Conference - Access to Sanitation and Safe Water: Global Partnerships and Local Actions
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Accra
date = 2008
url =
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 2] Communities and the CWSA are enabled to contract external actors, such as private sector consultants or NGOs, to provide technical assistance, goods, or services. [Citation
first =
last = Water-Aid Ghana
author-link =
first2 =
last2 =
author2-link =
editor-last =
editor-first =
editor2-last =
editor2-first =
contribution =
contribution-url =
title = Assessment of national sanitation policies: Ghana case. Final report.
year = 2005
pages =
place = Accra
publisher =
url = http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/projects/proj_contents0/WEJEH%20-%20Sanitation%20Policy/www/outputs/Ghana%20Sanitation%20Policy%20Assessment%20Report.pdf
doi =
id =
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 31
] Local companies are regularly encouraged in the provision of boreholes and hand-dug wells, and local artisans are used to provide household latrines. Although the communities' water and sanitation boards are expected to independently operate and maintain their water supply systems, they do receive technical assistance by District Water and Sanitation Teams (DWST) at the district level, consisting of an engineer, a hygiene expert, and a community mobilizer.

Other stakeholders

The Ghana Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation (CONIWAS), created in 2001, "works in partnership with sector players to influence policies, remove barriers and promote access to potable water, sanitation and improved hygiene for the poor and vulnerable." According to the coalition , giving NGOs one voice for advocacy and lobbying has been one of its major benefits. [ [http://www.water-mwrwh.com/sub.htm#top CONIWAS] ]

Economic efficiency

Non-revenue water

According to the Water Sector Restructuring Secretariat non-revenue water in urban areas stands at approximately 50% of the produced water, i.e. it is lost, among other things, due to leakage and illegal connections. [Citation
last = Water Sector Restructuring Secretariat
first =
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Water for Ghana website
date =
year =
url = http://www.waterforghana.org/urban_water.asp
accessdate = 2008-03-27
.
] According to a Ghanaian radio station, a survey showed that 3,000 out of 15,000 connections were illegal while 20 minor leaks were found. [Citation
last =
first =
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Illegal water connections hampering GWCL
newspaper = Kessben FM radio station
pages =
year =
date = 2008-03-11
url = http://www.kessbenfm.com/news_read.php?nid=2060
accessdate = 2008-03-27
.
] Furthermore, most of those connected to water supply do not pay their bills. [Citation
last = Abayie
first = Henrietta
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Few People Pay For Water
newspaper = Daily Guide Newspaper
pages =
year =
date = 2008-03-10
url = http://www.dailyguideghana.com/portal/modules/news/article.php?storyid=4387
accessdate = 2008-03-27
.
] At least at the end of the 1990s, the Ghanaian government participated in that poor payment culture.cite web
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink = WaterAid
coauthors =
title = National Water Sector Assessment, Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wateraid.org/other/startdownload.asp?DocumentID=28&mode=plugin
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 4]

As part of the efforts to reduce system losses, in February 2008 the Accra East Region of AVRL-GWCL has caused the arrest of ten illegal connection syndicates in the Adenta community. They had constructed huge underground reservoirs which served as a source of water for private water tanker operators. The tanker operators buy water from these illegal sources and sell it to private individuals at Ashaley Botwe at high prices. [ [http://www.water-mwrwh.com/sub.htm#top AVRL:The Dodowa Intervention] ]

Labor productivity

It is estimated that in 2006, approximately 60 employees were responsible for 1,000 connections. This figure is extremely high compared both to international and regional levels. [cite paper
first =
last =
author = Kauffmann, Céline
authorlink =
coauthors = Pérard, Edouard
title = Stocktaking of the water and sanitation sector and private sector involvement in selected African countries
version =
publisher = NEPAD-OECD Africa Investment Initiative Roundtable
date = November 2007
url = http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/8/39679099.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-27
] International good practice is less than 4 employees per 1,000 connections.

Financial aspects

Tariffs and cost recovery

Water tariffs in Ghana are too low to recover the costs of the service. Water tariffs in rural areas tend to be higher than in urban areas.

Urban areas. Between 1990 and 1997, the average water tariff in Ghana's urban areas was in the range of US$0.10 to US$0.15 per m³. At that time, the Government was not willing to approve major tariff increases. However, the situation changed with the creation of the regulatory agency PURC which autonomously examines and approves public service tariffs, resulting in an average water tariff of about US$0.50 in 2004. In 2006, GWCL's tariff for the first 20m³ consumed was US$0.55 per m³, whereas US$0.76 were charged for each m³ exceeding 20m³ within a month. [Citation
first = Henry Wonder
last = Doe
title = Assessing the Challenges of Water Supply in. Urban Ghana: The case of North Teshie. (EESI Master Thesis)
year = 2007
pages =
place = Stockholm
publisher = Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
url = http://www.lwr.kth.se/Publikationer/PDF_Files/LWR_EX_07_06.PDF
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-27
, p. 32
] [1 Ghanaian Cedi = 0.0001132 US Dollar (2006-12-31); Source: http://www.oanda.com/]

Rural areas. According to the CWSA's policy, the water tariff in rural areas should recover the supply cost of the service, including operation, maintenance, major repairs, replacements, and extension to new areas. Tariffs are set by the District Assemblies in rural areas. However, the supply cost should be low enough to not result in a tariff of more than US$1 per m³. A study conducted in five community-managed piped systems in the
Ashanti region found an average tariff of about US$0.60 per m³ in 2003, which actually covers between 57 and 77% of the full supply cost. [cite journal
last = Nyarko
first = K. B.
authorlink =
coauthors = Oduro-Kwarteng, S.; Adama, I.
title = Cost recovery of community-managed piped water systems in the Ashanti region, Ghana
journal = Water and Environmental Journal
volume = 21
issue = 2
pages = 92–99
publisher = Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM)
location =
date = 2006
url =
doi =
id =
issn = 1747-6585
accessdate =
] Another study which was carried out in 2005 indicates an average monthly expenditure for water of US$0.99 in 97 sample villages in the Volta region and US$0.89 in 103 villages in the Brong Ahafo region per household. However, in nearly 70% of the villages in Volta and only 40% of the villages in Brong Ahafo, at least 90% of the interviewed households actually paid for water. Where water use is charged, it is done through a fixed system or a pay-as-you-fetch system. [cite journal
last = Komives
first = K.
authorlink =
coauthors = Akanbang, B.; Thorsten, R.; Tuffuor, B.; Wakeman, Wasser.; Larbi, E.; Bakalian, A; Whittington, D.
title = Post-construction Support and the Sustainability of Rural Water Projects in Ghana
journal = Paper presented at the 33rd WEDC International Conference - Access to Sanitation and Safe Water: Global Partnerships and Local Actions
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Accra
date = 2008
url =
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 4
]

Investment and financing

Since economic efficiency as well as cost recovery in the sector are extremely low, financing water and sanitation investments in Ghana relies heavily on external funding. According to one estimate 90% of the total investment in the sector in the 1990s was made by external agencies, [cite paper
first =
last = African Development Fund
author =
authorlink = African_Development_Bank#Group_Entities
coauthors =
title = Accra Sewerage Improvement Project (ASIP). Appraisal Report.
version =
publisher =
date = October 2005
url = http://www.afdb.org/pls/portal/url/ITEM/126478C8BF8B14D1E040C00A0C3D0235
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-28
, p. 6
] which contributed about US$500 million for the sector between 1990 and 2003. It is worth mentioning that sanitation generally receives much less attention. [cite web
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink = WaterAid
coauthors =
title = National Water Sector Assessment, Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.wateraid.org/other/startdownload.asp?DocumentID=28&mode=plugin
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-26
, p. 3
] According to another estimate, more than 96% of expected financing in 2006 will be from external donors. AMCW/AfDB/EUWI/WSP/UNDP: [http://www.wsp.org/filez/news/27200752243_MDGsAfrica.pdf Getting Africa on Track to meet the MDGs on Water and Sanitation] - A Status Overview of Sixteen African Countries, 2006, p. 27 ]

Despite the strong engagement of international donors, funding remains insufficient to achieve the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation, aiming at halving the share of the population without access to these services by 2015 compared to 1990. According to one estimate, the expansion and rehabilitation of urban infrastructure requires investments of US$1.3 billion over an unspecified period. Annual investment needs in water supply and sanitation are estimated by another source at US$ 150 million. Expected investment funding for 2006 was US$ 85 million, or 57% of the needs.

Actual annual investments in urban areas have been estimated by the Water Sector Restructuring Secretariat at around US$40 million per year, having "recently" declined to only US$17 million per year (without specifying which year). The US$ 40m figure for urban areas corresponds to about US$4 per capita, an average level compared to other low-income countries. [ [http://www.waterforghana.org/urban_water.asp Water for Ghana] . It is US$9 per capita in Nicaragua, more than US$4 per capita in Rwanda, US$3.7 per capita in Bolivia and less than US$1 per capita in Ethiopia]

External cooperation

African Development Bank (ADB)

The African Development Bank (ADB) contributes to the Accra Sewerage Improvement Project (ASIP) with a loan of US$69 million, while the Government of Ghana provides US$8.6 million. The project was approved by the ADB in 2006 and is expected to be implemented within five years. In this time, two treatment plants and eight pumping stations are expected to be built. Moreover, sewerage networks and sanitation facilities will be extended and rehabilitated. The project also supports environmental measures, institutional strengthening, engineering services, and project management. [cite paper
first =
last = African Development Fund
author =
authorlink = African_Development_Bank#Group_Entities
coauthors =
title = Accra Sewerage Improvement Project (ASIP). Appraisal Report.
version =
publisher =
date = October 2005
url = http://www.afdb.org/pls/portal/url/ITEM/126478C8BF8B14D1E040C00A0C3D0235
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) supports the water supply and sanitation sector in Ghana's northern regions through three projects:
# CIDA contributes US$11 million to the gender-balanced District Capacity Building Project (DISCAP), which aims at strengthening local capacities to manage water and sanitation resources, thus enabling local government bodies to provide water supply and sanitation services. DISCAP began in 2000 and will end in 2008. [cite web
last = Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
first =
authorlink = Canadian International Development Agency
coauthors =
title = District Capacity Building Project (DISCAP)
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/CIDAWEB/cpo.nsf/vWebCSAZEn/F2780B799147D0FC85257405003CECE1
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]
# The agency provides US$16.4 million for the Northern Region Water Sanitation Project (NORWASP), which began in 1999 and is expected to end in 2009. The main objective of the gender-balanced project is to increase access to water and sanitation through a demand-driven approach. At the end of the project, up to 250,000 communities in the eastern corridor section of the northern region are expected to have access to safe drinking water, including 420 which independently manage their new water systems. [cite web
last = Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
first =
authorlink = Canadian International Development Agency
coauthors =
title = Northern Region Water Sanitation Project (NORWASP)
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/CIDAWEB/cpo.nsf/vWebCSAZEn/DF59D73C4094A94885257019003185F3
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]
# The Northern Region Small Towns (NORST) project, which is being implemented from 2004 to 2014, is supported by CIDA with US$30 million. The project is expected to establish water supply and sanitation services in up to 30 small towns. [cite web
last = Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
first =
authorlink = Canadian International Development Agency
coauthors =
title = Northern Region Small Towns (NORST)
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/CIDAWEB/cpo.nsf/vWebCSAZEn/C9C1EFDFD2DF72C08525701900318551
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]

World Bank

The World Bank supports both rural and urban water supply in Ghana.

Community Water and Sanitation Program (CWSP)

The Second Community Water and Sanitation Program was initiated in 2000 with support of a World Bank IDA credit of US$21.9 million, aiming at increasing access and supporting effective and sustained use of improved community water supply and sanitation services in villages and small towns through a demand-driven approach. It built on lessons learned from the first Community Water and Sanitation Program which had been carried out from 1994 to 2000. A large-scale decentralization approach in the planning, implementation, and management of water supply and sanitation in Ghana was one of the main characteristics of the second program. Moreover, the communities were given technical assistance and hygiene education. Gender-balanced water and sanitation committees were set up to actively engage and include NGOs, private sector actors, and District Assemblies. As a result of the program, which ended in 2004, nealry 800,000 people were provided with potable water and almost 6,000 households and 440 schools were provided with latrines. [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World_Bank
coauthors =
title = A Demand-Driven Approach in Service-Delivery: The Community Water and Sanitation Program in Ghana
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://go.worldbank.org/U07D354UE0
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]

mall Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Project

The Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Project was approved by the World Bank in 2004 with a loan of US$26 million. In 2007 the World Bank decided to support the project with an additional credit of US$10 million. The German development agency GTZ contributes to the project with US$400,000, while the Government of Ghana provides US$4.6 million.

The project will end in 2009 and aims at increasing water supply and sanitation access to small towns in six Ghanaian regions, providing about 500,000 people with water supply facilities and about 50,000 people with sanitary facilities. Therefore, the project supports the planning, construction, and rehabilitation of water and sanitation systems in small towns and provides hygiene promotion, training, and technical assistance. In addition, the CWSA is supported by a management fee equal to 5% of the funds disbursed to support the incremental costs of the project. [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World_Bank
coauthors =
title = Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Project
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?Projectid=P084015&Type=Overview&theSitePK=40941&pagePK=64283627&menuPK=64282134&piPK=64290415
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]

Urban Water Project

In 2004, the World Bank's Board approved a credit of US$103 million for the Urban Water Project, which was later turned into a grant. The Nordic Development Fund contributes another US$5 million, while the Government of Ghana provides the remaining US$12 million of the US$120 million project. [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World_Bank
coauthors =
title = Ghana: World Bank Turns US$103 Million Ghana Urban Water Credit To Grant
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://go.worldbank.org/ZATGPT5LF1
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]

The main objectives of the program, which will end in 2010, are to (i) significantly increase access to water supply systems in the urban areas of Ghana with an emphasis on improving the service for the urban poor; and (ii) restoring the long-term financial stability, viability, and sustainability of the GWCL. It provides technical assistance and training. Moreover, the Urban Water Project supports private sector participation and thus contributed to the management contract between GWCL and AVRL. [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World_Bank
coauthors =
title = Urban Water Project
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?Projectid=P056256&Type=Overview&theSitePK=40941&pagePK=64283627&menuPK=64282134&piPK=64290415
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-03-28
]

References

External links

Policy setting

* [http://www.ghana.gov.gh/ministry_of_water_resources_works_housing Ghanaian Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing] :* [http://www.water-mwrwh.com/sub.htm#top Ghanaian Water Directorate]

Economic regulation

* [http://www.purc.com.gh/ Ghanaian Public Utilities and Regulatory Commission (PURC)]

ervice provision

* [http://www.cwsagh.org/ Community Water and Sanitation Agency]
* [http://www.ghanawater.com.gh/ Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL)] :* [http://www.waterforghana.org/documents/management_contract.doc The management contract between GWCL and Aqua Vitens Rand Ltd]


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