Harlan's muskox

name = Harlan's muskox
Woodland muskox
fossil_range = middle to late Pleistocene
regnum = Animalia

image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Bootherium bombifrons"
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Artiodactyla
familia = Bovidae
subfamilia = Caprinae
genus = †"Bootherium"
genus_authority = Leidy, 1852
species = †"B. bombifrons"
binomial = †"Bootherium bombifrons"
binomial_authority = (Harlan, 1825)

Harlan's muskox, or the woodland muskox [ [http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherFossils/bootherium.php The Academy of Natural Sciences] ] ("Bootherium bombifrons") is an extinct bovid from the middle to late Pleistocene of North America.McKenna & Bell, 1997, p. 442.]

Harlan's muskox was one of the most widely distributed musk oxen species in North America during the Pleistocene era. Fossils have been documented from Alaska to California and Texas, and even New Jersey. The species became extinct approximately 11,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. [ [http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherFossils/bootherium.php The Academy of Natural Sciences] ]

Harlan's muskox's closest relative is the extant muskox ("Ovibos mochatus"). However, unlike the tundra muskox, Harlan's muskox was physically adaped to a range of less frigd climates and appears to have been the only ox to have evolved in and remain restricted to the North American continent. [ [http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherFossils/bootherium.php The Academy of Natural Sciences] ] Harlan's musox was significantly taller and leaner than muskoxen found today in Arctic regions. Other differences were a thicker skull and considerably longer snout. The horns of Harlan's muskox were situated high on the skull, with a downward curve and were fused along the midline of the skull, unlike tundra muskoxen whose horns are separated by a medial groove.

Three other species of musk oxen co-inhabited North America during the Pleistocene era. Besides the surviving tundra muskox, the extinct shrub-ox ("Euceratherium collinum") and Soergel's ox ("Soergelia mayfieldi") were also present.



*McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. "Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level." Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
* http://nature.ca/notebooks/english/helmet.htm
* http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherFossils/bootherium.php

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • List of North American megafauna — Megafauna are large animals (for definitions, see Megafauna). This list includes extant and recently extinct (in the Pleistocene) native North American (north of Mexico) species with a body mass of 40 kg or greater, the minimal mass to be… …   Wikipedia

  • Quaternary extinction event — Late Pleistocene landscape of northern Eurasia The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly larger, especially megafaunal, species, many of which occurred during the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene epoch.… …   Wikipedia

  • List of mammals of North America — This is a list of North American mammals. It includes all mammals currently found in North America north of Mexico, whether resident or as migrants. It does not include species found only in captivity. Mammal species that went extinct since… …   Wikipedia

  • Pleistocene megafauna — is the set of species of large animals mdash; mammals, birds and reptiles mdash; that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and went extinct in a Quaternary extinction event. These species appear to have died off as humans expanded out of… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.