Hosta


Hosta

Taxobox
name = "Hosta"


image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Hosta" Bressingham Blue, a "Hosta" cultivar
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Asparagales
familia = Agavaceae
genus = "Hosta"
genus_authority = Tratt.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision =
*"Hosta albofarinosa"
*"Hosta capitata"
*"Hosta cathayana"
*"Hosta clausa"
*"Hosta fluctuans"
*"Hosta gracillima"
*"Hosta hypoleuca"
*"Hosta ibukiensis"
*"Hosta jonesii"
*"Hosta kikutii"
*"Hosta kiyosumiensis"
*"Hosta longipes"
*"Hosta longissima"
*"Hosta minor"
*"Hosta montana"
*"Hosta nakaiana"
*"Hosta nigrescens"
*"Hosta plantaginea"
*"Hosta pulchella"
*"Hosta pycnophylla"
*"Hosta rectifolia"
*"Hosta rupifraga"
*"Hosta shikokiana"
*"Hosta sieboldiana"
*"Hosta sieboldii"
*"Hosta tardiva"
*"Hosta tibae"
*"Hosta tortifrons"
*"Hosta tsushimensis"
*"Hosta ventricosa"
*"Hosta venusta"
*"Hosta yingeri"

"Hosta" (syn.: "Funkia") is a genus of about 23–40 species of lily-like plants native to northeast Asia. They were once classified in the family Liliaceae but are now included in the family Agavaceae by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. The scientific name is also used as the common name; in the past they were also sometimes called the Corfu Lily, the Day Lily, or the Plantain lily, but these terms are now obsolete. The name Hosta is in honor of the Austrian botanist Nicholas Thomas Host. [Mikolajski, A. (1997). "Hostas - The New Plant Library", Canada: Lorenz Books. ISBN 1-85967-388-0] The Japanese name Giboshi is also used in English to a small extent. The rejected generic name "Funkia", also used as a common name, can be found in some older literature.

Description

Hostas are herbaceous perennial plants, growing from rhizomes or stolons, with broad lanceolate or ovate leaves varying widely in size by species from 1–15 in (3–40 cm) long and 0.75–12 in (2–30 cm) broad. Variation among the numerous cultivars is even greater, with clumps ranging from less than 4 in (10 cm) across to more than 6.5 ft (2 m) across. Leaf color in wild species is typically green, although some species (e.g., "H. sieboldiana") are known for a glaucous waxy leaf coating that gives a blue appearance to the leaf. Some species have a glaucous white coating covering the underside of the leaves. Natural mutations of native species are known with yellow-green ("gold") colored leaves or with leaf variegation (either white/cream or yellowish edges or centers). Variegated plants very often give rise to "sports" that are the result of the reshuffling of cell layers during bud formation, producing foliage with mixed pigment sections. In seedlings variegation is generality maternally derived by chloroplast transfer and is not a genetically inheritable trait.

The flowers are produced on erect scapes up to 31 in (80 cm) tall that end in terminal racemes. The individual flowers are usually pendulous, 0.75–2 in (2–5 cm) long, with six tepals, white, lavender, or violet in color and usually scentless. The only strongly fragrant species is "Hosta plantaginea", which is also unusual in that the flowers open in the evening and close by morning. This species blooms in late summer and is sometimes known as "August Lily".

Taxonomy

Taxonomists differ on the number of species; as such, the list at the right may be taken loosely. The genus may be broadly divided into three subgenera. Interspecific hybridization is generally possible, as all species have the same chromosome number (2n = 2x = 60) with the exception of "H. ventricosa", a natural tetraploid that sets seed through apomixis. Many varieties formerly described as species have been taxonomically reduced to cultivar status, while retaining Latin names resembling species (e.g., H. 'Fortunei').

Cultivation and uses

Though "Hosta plantaginea" originates in China, most of the species that provide the modern shade garden plants were introduced from Japan to Europe by Philipp Franz von Siebold in the mid-19th century. Newer species have been discovered on the Korean peninsula as well.

Hostas are widely-cultivated ground cover plants, particularly useful in the garden as shade-tolerant plants. Hybridization within and among species and cultivars has produced numerous cultivars, with over 3000 registered and named varieties, and perhaps as many more that are not yet registered. Cultivars with golden- or white-variegated leaves are especially prized. Popular cultivars include 'Francee' (green leaves with white edges), 'Gold Standard' (yellow leaves with green edges was discovered by Pauline Banyai) 'Undulata' (green leaves with white centers), 'June' (blue-green leaves with creamy centers), and 'Sum and Substance' (a huge plant with chartreuse-yellow leaves). Newer, fragrant cultivars such as 'Guacamole' are also popular. Pictures of hosta species and cultivars, along with other information, may be found at http://www.hostalibrary.org.

The [http://www.hosta.org American Hosta Society] and the [http://www.hostahem.org.uk British Hosta and Hemerocallis Society] support Hosta Display Gardens, often within botanical gardens.

Hostas are notoriously a favourite food for deer, slugs and snails, which commonly cause extensive damage to hosta collections in gardens. Poisoned baits using either metaldehyde or the safer iron phosphate work well for the latter, but require repeated applications. Deer control tends to be variable, as anything other than fencing tends to work for a few years then cease to work as they become accustomed to it.

, which leave streaks of dead tissue between veins, have become an increasing problem since changes in attitudes about pesticides since the mid-1990s in many countries have caused a resurgence in this once-controlled pest. There are no effective means for eliminating nematodes in the garden, although they can be controlled to the point where little or no symptoms are seen. A virus called Hosta Virus X has become common since 2004 and plants that are infected must be destroyed. It can take years for symptoms to show, so symptomless plants in infected batches should also be considered infected.

Otherwise they are generally easy and long-lived garden plants, relatively disease free, requiring little care other than watering and some fertilizer to enhance growth. Some varieties are more difficult to grow, as can be expected with 5,000+ cultivars, but most are easy enough for beginners.

References


*

External links

* [http://www.hosta.org American Hosta Society]
* [http://hostalibrary.org/ Hosta Library] 13000 Hosta Photographs
* [http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/plant2/EP132.pdf Hosta Virus X, Kansas State University]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hosta — prop. n. A genus of robust East Asian clump forming perennial herbs having racemose flowers: plantain lilies; sometimes placed in the family {Hostaceae}. Syn: genus {Hosta}, Funka, genus {Funka}. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hosta — steht für: Hosta (Unternehmen), ein Unternehmen der Süßwarenbranche Hosta (Ort), ein Ort im Departement Pyrénées Atlantiques, Frankreich die Pflanzengattung der Funkien Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Untersc …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hosta — Tratt. (Funkia Spreng.), Gattung der Liliazeen, Pflanzen mit kurzem, dickem, holzigem Rhizom, gestielten, lanzettlichen, ei oder herzförmigen Blättern, einem Blütenschaft mit ziemlich großen, weißen oder blauen, einseitswendigen, hängenden,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • hosta — 1828, plant genus of the lily family, coined 1812 in Mod.L. for Austrian physician and botanist Nicolaus Thomas Host (1761 1834) …   Etymology dictionary

  • hosta — [häs′tə, hō′stə] n. PLANTAIN LILY …   English World dictionary

  • Hosta — Para otros usos de este término, véase Hosta (Pirineos Atlánticos).   Hosta …   Wikipedia Español

  • hósta — e ž (ọ̑) 1. z drevjem strnjeno porasel svet; gozd: kupil je poslopje, njive, travnike in hosto; šel je v hosto delat / hrastova hosta; hosta mladih gabrov ∙ pog. bil je v hosti pri partizanih // drevje, ki raste strnjeno skupaj: hosta zarašča… …   Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika

  • Hosta — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Hosta est un genre de plantes vivaces de la famille des Liliaceae ou des Agavaceae. Hosta est une commune française des Pyrénées Atlantiques. Catégorie  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • hosta — /hoh steuh, hos teuh/, n. any of various plants belonging to the genus Hosta, of the lily family, which includes the plantain lily. [ < NL (1797), after Nicolaus Thomas Host (1761 1834), Austrian botanist; see A2] * * * Any of about 40 species of …   Universalium

  • Hosta — Vease texto Hosta es un género con unas 40 especies de plantas parecidas a los lirios, de la família Agavaceae, nativas del noreste de Asia. El nombre científico tambien se usa como nombre común; en el pasado se conocian a veces como lirio… …   Enciclopedia Universal


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.