- 1980 Summer Olympics boycott
The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott of the Moscow Olympics was a part of a package of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan. It preceded the 1984 Summer Olympics boycott carried out by the Soviet Union and other Communist friendly countries.
- 1 Background
- 2 Response by athletes
- 3 Non-participating countries
- 4 Altered participants
- 5 Aftermath
- 6 See also
- 7 References
The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20, 1980 that the United States would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.
The pros and cons of the boycott were further discussed in several interventions at the 1980 Bilderberg meeting held towards the end of April in Aachen. The debate partly surrounded the perception that the action could be perceived on the worldwide stage as a sentimental rather than a strategic act. An African representative at the event stated that a boycott would be an effective symbolic protest because of its magically dramatic visibility to the citizens of the Soviet Union, regardless of whether or not the action provoked a response.
The United States was joined in the boycott by some other countries – including Japan, West Germany, China, the Philippines, Argentina and Canada. Some of these countries competed at the Olympic Boycott Games in Philadelphia. Notably, United Kingdom, France and Australia supported the boycott but allowed their athletes to participate if they wished (the U.S. did not) and left the final decisions to participate in the Games to their respective National Olympic Committees and the individual athletes of the countries concerned. The United Kingdom and France sent a much smaller delegation of athletes than usual. Nevertheless, the delegation of the United Kingdom was the largest among Western Europe, with 170 athletes applying to compete. Spain, Italy, Sweden, Iceland and Finland were other principal nations representing western Europe, though Italian athletes belonging to military corps did not attend the Games, due to the government's support of the boycott, which severely affected many events. Some American-born athletes who were citizens of other countries, such as Italy and Australia, did compete in Moscow.
At the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, athletes from a number of countries, including Australia, Andorra, Belgium, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Puerto Rico, San Marino, Spain, and Switzerland, marched under the Olympic Flag, instead of their national flags, a fact that the Soviet TV coverage alternately ignored and criticized. Moreover, although the government of New Zealand officially supported the boycott, four athletes from that country competed independently and marched under their NOC's flag. Altogether, the athletes of 16 countries were not represented by their national flags, and the Olympic Anthem replaced their national anthems at medal ceremonies. As a result, there were a few ceremonies where three Olympic Flags were raised.
Because Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau was unable to travel to Moscow due to the boycott, Sandra Henderson and Stéphane Préfontaine, the final torchbearers at the previous games, were sent in his stead to participate in the Antwerp Ceremony at the opening ceremony, and at the closing ceremony, the Los Angeles city flag – rather than the United States flag – was raised to symbolize the next host of the Olympic Games.
Even though only 80 nations participated, more world records were set in Moscow than in 1976 in Montreal.
Response by athletes
On May 24, 1980 in Buffalo, New York at the United States Olympic Trials for the marathon, Gary Fanelli led the pack for 15 miles (24 km) while protesting the boycott with a shirt that read "The Road to Moscow Ends Here". 
Sixty-five countries did not participate in the Olympics despite being invited. While most of these did not go to Moscow because of the boycott, a number didn't participate for economic reasons.
*Qatar did not attend the Games because they were not invited by the International Olympic Committee.
**Chinese Taipei / Taiwan did not attend because of the 1979 Nagoya Resolution, in which the People's Republic of China agreed to participate in the IOC if the Republic of China/Taiwan were referred to as "Chinese Taipei".
Sixteen nations participated in the Games, but paraded into the Olympic stadium without their national flags.
Nations that did not participate in the Opening Parade
Seven countries attending the Games did not participate in the Opening parade:
National teams paraded by their own officials
Nations under the Olympic Flag by their own athletes
Nations that competed under their NOC flag
The succeeding 1984 Summer Olympics, held in Los Angeles, United States saw another boycott, this time led by the Soviet Union. On May 8, 1984, the Soviet Union issued a statement that the country would boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles due to "chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet hysteria being whipped up in the United States." Thirteen Soviet allies joined the boycott, giving a total of fourteen nations that boycotted the Olympics. Iran was the only country that did not participate in either Moscow or Los Angeles.
- ^ Smothers, Ronald (July 19, 1996). "OLYMPICS;Bitterness Lingering Over Carter's Boycott". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/19/sports/olympics-bitterness-lingering-over-carter-s-boycott.html.
- ^ The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/sports/year_in_sports/01.20.html.
- ^ Bilderberg meeting report Aachen, 1980. Accessed 06/16/2009. Archived 06/19/2009.
- ^ a b 1980 Summer Olympics Official Report from the Organizing Committee, vol. 2, p. 190
- ^ 1980 Moscow
- ^ USA Track & Field (2004). "2004 USA Olympic Team Trials: Men’s Marathon Media Guide Supplement" (pdf). Santa Barbara, California: USA Track & Field. p. 9. http://www.usatf.org/events/2004/OlympicTrials-Marathon-Men/mediaInfo/MensMarathonMediaGuide_part2.pdf. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- ^ Lidz, Franz (December 14, 1987) "Having A Costume Ball: Gary Fanelli runs for laughs in outlandish outfits" Sports Illustrated http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1066849/index.htm. Retrieved February 2, 2011
- ^ Stewart, Phil (August 2008). "Tony Sandoval Wins the 1980 U.S. Men's Olympic Trials But Not a Trip to Moscow". Running Times. http://runningtimes.com/Print.aspx?articleID=6418. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- ^ a b c "Partial Boycott – New IOC President". Keesing's Record of World Events 26: 30599. December 1980.
- ^ Burns, John F. (May 9, 1984). "Moscow Will Keep Its Team From Los Angeles Olympics; Tass Cites Peril, U.S. Denies It; Protests Are Issue". New York Times.
Olympic Games controversies Boycotts Alternative competitions EventsBlood in the Water match (1956) · Tlatelolco massacre (1968) · Black Power salute (1968) · Munich massacre (1972) · Basketball Gold Medal Match controversy (1972) · Kozakiewicz's gesture (1980) · Figure skating scandal (2002) · 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal (2002) · Underage gymnasts controversy (2008) · Death of Nodar Kumritashvili (2010) · Quadruple jump controversy (2010)
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