Protocol II


Protocol II

Protocol II: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.As of 14 January 2007 it had been ratified by 163 countries, with the United States, Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan and Iraq being notable exceptions. However, the United States, Iran and Pakistan signed it on 12 December 1977 with the intention of ratifying it.

According to an appeal by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1997, a number of the articles contained in both protocols are recognized as rules of customary law valid for all states, whether or not they have ratified them. [http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JNUX]

Introduction

Protocol II is an amendment to the Geneva Conventions.

Adopted on June 8, 1977 by the "Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts" presided over by Pierre Graber of Switzerland. The protocol entered into force on December 7, 1979 (six months after its adoption by the conference) for the original signatories, and otherwise does so six months after a party's ratification.

ee also

* Geneva Conventions
* First Geneva Convention of 1864 on the treatment of battlefield casualties
* Second Geneva Convention of 1906 on the treatment of casualties in war at sea
* Third Geneva Convention of 1929 on the treatment of prisoners of war
* Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 on the treatment of civilians during wartime
* Protocol I, 1977 Geneva Convention amendment about the protection of victims in international conflicts
* Protocol III, 2005 Geneva Convention amendment about the adoption of the Red Crystal emblem

External links

* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/d67c3971bcff1c10c125641e0052b545 Committee of the Red Cross: Full text of Protocol II with commentaries]
* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebSign?ReadForm&id=475&ps=P List of countries that have ratified Protocol II]
* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebSign?ReadForm&id=475&ps=S List of countries that have signed but not yet ratified Protocol II]
* [http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/section_review_1997_320?OpenDocument International Review of the Red Cross, 1997 - No. 320] Special issue: 20th anniversary of the 1977 Additional Protocols
* [http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1987/012987b.htm President Reagan's message to the Senate on Protocols I & II]


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