Jeep


Jeep

Infobox Company
company_name = Jeep
company_slogan = Have fun out there.
company_
company_type = Division of Chrysler (since 1987)
foundation = 1941
location_city = Toledo, Ohio
location_country = United States
key_people =
area_served =
industry = Automobile
products = Sport Utility vehicles
parent = Chrysler LLC
homepage = [http://www.jeep.com www.jeep.com]
footnotes =

Jeep is an automobile marque (and registered trademark) of Chrysler. It is the oldest off-road vehicle (also sport utility vehicle - SUV) brand, with Land Rover coming in a close second. The original vehicle which first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light 4 wheel drive car of the US Army and allies during the World War II and postwar period. Many vehicles serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created by many nations.


=History=

Origin of the term "jeep"

There are many explanations of the origin of the word "jeep", which have proven difficult to verify. Probably the most popular notion holds that the vehicle bore the designation "GP" (for "Gov. Purposes" or "General Purpose"), which was phonetically slurred into the word "jeep". However, R. Lee Ermey, on his television series "Mail Call", disputes this, saying that the vehicle was designed for specific duties, was never referred to as "General Purpose", and that the name may have been derived from Ford's nomenclature referring to the vehicle as GP (G for government-use, and P to designate its convert|80|in|mm|sing=on wheelbase). "GP" does appear in connection with the vehicle in the mode TM 9-803 manual, which describes the vehicle as a machine and the vehicle is designated a "GP" in TM 9-2800, Standard Motor Vehicles, September 1, 1949, but whether the average jeep-driving GI would have been familiar with either of these manuals is open to debate.

This account may confuse the jeep with the nickname of another series of vehicles with the GP designation. The Electro-Motive Division of General Motors, a maker of railroad locomotives, introduced its "General Purpose" line in 1949, using the GP tag. These locomotives are commonly referred to as Geeps, pronounced the same way as "Jeep."

Many, including Ermey, suggest that soldiers at the time were so impressed with the new vehicles that they informally named it after Eugene the Jeep, a cartoon character that "could go anywhere". [ [http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/more/372/ Wordorigins.org ] ]

The term "jeep" was first commonly used during World War I (1914–1918) by soldiers as a slang word for new recruits and for new unproven vehicles. This is according to a history of the vehicle for an issue of the U.S. Army magazine, "Quartermaster Review", which was written by Maj. E. P. Hogan. He went on to say that the slang word "jeep" had these definitions as late as the start of World War II.

"Jeep" had been used as the name of a small tractor made by Moline.

The term "jeep" would eventually be used as slang to refer to an airplane, a tractor used for hauling heavy equipment, and an autogyro. When the first models of the jeep came to Camp Holabird for tests, the vehicle did not have a name yet. Therefore the soldiers on the test project called it a jeep. Civilian engineers and test drivers who were at the camp during this time were not aware of the military slang term. They most likely were familiar with the character Eugene the Jeep and thought that Eugene was the origin of the name. The vehicle had many other nicknames at this time such as Peep (the term originally used in the Armored Force), Pygmy, and Blitz-Buggy, although because of the Eugene association, Jeep stuck in people's minds better than any other term.

"Words of the Fighting Forces" by Clinton A. Sanders, a dictionary of military slang, published in 1942, in the library at The Pentagon gives this definition:

:Jeep: A four-wheel drive car of one-half to one-and-one-half ton capacity for reconnaissance or other army duty. A term applied to the bantam-cars, and occasionally to other motor vehicles (U.S.A.) in the Air Corps, the Link Trainer; in the armored forces, the ½ ton command car. Also referred to as "any small plane, helicopter, or gadget."

Early in 1941, Willys-Overland demonstrated the vehicle's ability by having it drive up the U.S. Capitol steps, driven by Willy's test driver Irving "Red" Haussman, who had recently heard soldiers at Fort Holabird calling it a "jeep." When asked by syndicated columnist Katherine Hillyer for the "Washington Daily News" (or by a bystander, according to another account) what it was called, Irving answered, "It's a jeep."

Katherine Hillyer's article was published on February 20, 1941 around the nation and included a picture of the vehicle with the caption:

:LAWMAKERS TAKE A RIDE- With Senator Meade, of New York, at the wheel, and Representative Thomas, of New Jersey, sitting beside him, one of the Army's new scout cars, known as "jeeps" or "quads", climbs up the Capitol steps in a demonstration yesterday. Soldiers in the rear seat for gunners were unperturbed.

This exposure caused all other jeep references to fade, leaving the 4x4 truck with the name.

Willys-Overland Inc. was later awarded the sole privilege of owning the name "Jeep" as registered trademark, by extension, merely because it originally had offered the most powerful engine.

"(Compare "mayhem" and "commando" for words which changed their main meanings because of readers misunderstanding newspaper accounts.)"

The origins of the vehicle: the first jeeps

The first jeep prototype (the Bantam BRC) was built for the Department of the Army by American Bantam in Butler, Pennsylvania, followed by two other competing prototypes produced by Ford and Willys-Overland. The American Bantam Car Company actually built and designed the vehicle that first met the Army's criteria, but its engine did not meet the Army's torque requirements. Plus, the Army felt that the company was too small to supply the number needed and it allowed Willys and Ford to make second attempts on their designs after seeing Bantam's vehicle in action. Some people believe that Ford and Willys also had access to Bantam's technical paperwork.

Quantities (1,500) of each of the three models were then extensively field tested. During the bidding process for 16,000 "jeeps", Willys-Overland offered the lowest bid and won the initial contract. Willys thus designed what would become the standardized jeep, designating it a model MB military vehicle and building it at their plant in Toledo, Ohio.

Like American Bantam, Willys-Overland was a small company and, likewise, the military was concerned about their ability to produce large quantities of jeeps. The military was also concerned that Willys-Overland had only one manufacturing facility: something that would make the supply of jeeps more susceptible to sabotage or production stoppages.

Based on these two concerns, the U.S. government required that jeeps also be built by the Ford Motor Company, who designated the vehicle as model GPW (G = governmental vehicle, P showed the wheelbase, and W = the Willys design). Willys and Ford, under the direction of Charles E. Sorensen (Vice-President of Ford during World War II), produced more than 600,000 jeeps containing their cost slightly above 300 dollars per unit, due to its mass-production system economy.Besides just being a "truck" the jeep was used for many other purposes.

The jeep was widely copied around the world, including in France by Hotchkiss et Cie (after 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under license from Willys), and in Japan by Mitsubishi Motors. There were several versions created, including a railway jeep and an amphibious jeep. As part of the war effort, Jeeps were also supplied to the Soviet Red Army during World War II.During the jeep's service in Korea the name was referred to as "Just Enough Essential Parts" by the troops due to the very basic design.

The utilitarian good looks of the original Jeep have been hailed by industrial designers and museum curators alike. The Museum of Modern Art described the Jeep as a masterpiece of functionalist design, and has periodically exhibited the Jeep as part of its collection. [Leigh Brown, Patricia, "Where Do You Hang The 747?", New York Times, December 13, 1998] [MOMA Press Release, "The Museum of Modern Art Displays Entire Automotive Collection", page 2 (June 2002) http://www.moma.org/about_moma/press/2002/AUTObodies_6_01_02.pdf]

In the United States military, the jeep has been supplanted by a number of vehicles (e.g. Ford's M151 MUTT) of which the latest is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or "Humvee").

The M715

In 1965, Jeep developed the M715 1.25 ton army truck, which served extensively in Vietnam. Today it serves other countries, and is still being produced by Kia under license.

The Jeep marque

The marque has gone through many owners, starting in 1941 with Willys, which produced the first Civilian Jeep (CJ). Willys was sold to Kaiser in 1953, which became Kaiser-Jeep in 1963. American Motors (AMC) purchased Kaiser's money-losing Jeep operations in 1970. The utility vehicles complemented AMC's passenger car business by sharing components, achieving volume efficiencies, as well as capitalizing on Jeep's international and government markets.

The French automaker Renault began investing in AMC in 1979. However, by 1987, the automobile markets had changed and even Renault itself was experiencing financial troubles. At the same time, Chrysler Corporation wanted to capture the Jeep brand, as well as other assets of AMC. Chrysler bought out AMC in 1987, shortly after the Jeep CJ was replaced with the AMC-designed Jeep Wrangler or YJ. Chrysler merged with Daimler-Benz in 1998 to form DaimlerChrysler. DaimlerChrysler eventually sold most of their interest in Chrysler to a private equity company in 2007. Chrysler and the Jeep division now operate under the name Chrysler Holding LLC.

Toledo, Ohio has been the headquarters of the Jeep marque since its inception, and the city has always been proud of this heritage. Although no longer produced in the same factory as the World War II originals, two streets in the vicinity of the old plant are named Willys Parkway and Jeep Parkway.

American Motors set up the first automobile-manufacturing joint venture in the People's Republic of China on January 15, 1984 [Mann, Jim. (1997). Beijing Jeep: A Case Study of Western Business in China. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3327-X.] . The result was Beijing Jeep Corporation, Ltd., in partnership with Beijing Automobile Industry Corporation, to produce the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) in Beijing. Manufacture continued after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. This joint venture is now part of DaimlerChrysler and DaimlerChrysler China Invest Corporation. The original 1984 XJ model was updated and called the "Jeep 2500" toward the end of its production that ended after 2005. [ [http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/nov2007/gb2007112_737100.htm Dunne, Timothy. "Can Chrysler Rebound in China?" Business Week, November 2, 2007] . Retrieved on January 22, 2008.]

Jeep vehicles have "model designations" in addition to their common names. Nearly every civilian Jeep until the mid-2000s has an 'xJ' designation, though not all are as well-known as the classic CJ. Chrysler has now changed to an "xK" designation.

A division of Chrysler Holdings, the most recent successor company to Willys, now holds trademark status on the name "Jeep" and the distinctive 7-slot front grille design. The original 9-slot grille associated with all WW2 jeeps was designed by Ford for their GPW, and because it weighed less than the original "Slat Grille" of Willys, (an arrangement of flat bars) was incorporated into the "standardized jeep" design.

AM General

The history of the Humvee has ties with Jeep. In 1971, Jeep's Defense and Government Products Division was turned into AM General, a wholly-owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation, which also owned Jeep. In 1979, while still owned by American Motors, AM General began the first steps toward designing the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle. AM General also continued manufacturing the DJ, which Jeep created in 1953.

The General Motors Hummer and Chrysler Jeep have been waging battle in US courts over the right to use seven slots in their respective radiator grills. Chrysler Jeep claims it has the exclusive rights to use the seven vertical slits since it is the sole remaining assignee of the various companies since Willys gave their post-war jeeps seven slots instead of Ford's nine-slot design for the Jeep. So far, GM has won in both US federal trial and appellate courts such that the Hummer continues having the seven slit grille.

Off-Road abilities

Jeeps have always been known for their abilities off-road, and their popularity endures [ [http://news.top100.biz/shopping/Toledo-built-Jeeps-sales-results-abroad-mirror-those-in-North-American-market/ Toledo-built Jeeps' sales results abroad mirror those in North American market ] ] . Today, the Wrangler is the only light-duty vehicle offered in North America with solid axles front and rear. These axles are known for their durability due to their overall strength and lack of rubber boots to get torn on twigs and rocks. Solid-axled vehicles also generally articulate better, especially when traversing ruts. Even the two wheel drive models are equipped with "solid" axles in the front.

Another plus of solid axle vehicles is they tend to be easier and cheaper to "lift." This "lifting" increases the distance between the center of the axle hub and chassis of the vehicle. By increasing this distance, larger tires can be installed, which will increase the ground clearance of the Jeep, allowing it to traverse even larger and more difficult obstacles. Jeep is also known as a symbol of freedom because of the capacity of going almost everywhere. Many people equip theirs with roll-bars, extra lights, and maybe a winch to pull the vehicle out from the mud or sand when stuck.

Useful features of the smaller Jeeps are their short wheelbases, narrow frames, and great approach, breakover, and departure angles, allowing them to fit places where full - sized trucks could never go.

Jeep events

The Jeep Jamboree

Jamborees are two-day off-road events held throughout the year in which Jeep owners can bring their friends and families to meet other Jeepers, tour scenic trails, and test the limits of their vehicles. Any Jeep with a low-range transfer case is allowed, although Full Size Jeeps require prior approval. Only registered participants are allowed to take part in the trail rides and activities; no spectators are allowed. Participants can choose to camp at a local campground, stay in a motel, or find other lodging. The day starts off with breakfast, followed by a general meeting that discusses the trail of the day, as well as the driving techniques required. The trail run is concluded by sundown. Thirty Jamborees are planned for 2008.

Camp Jeep

Camp Jeep is an annual, three-day, multi-activity oriented event which includes mountain biking, fishing, kayaking, tubing, arts and crafts, and performances by top bands. Children are encouraged to participate as much as adults (events permitting). Man-made obstacle courses are also offered, as well as trail rides (although the latter must be reserved in advance). "Jeep 101" courses are offered for people just getting started in the off-road world, with experienced guides demonstrating proper driving techniques and the vehicles' 4x4 systems. There is no actual camping at Camp Jeep; participants may camp locally or stay at a motel.

Jeep related words

Jeeping

Jeeping is a popular verb used to describe the action and effect of driving a Jeep (mostly on difficult terrain), which was created to differentiate off-roading from street-driving.Fact|date=May 2008

Jeepers

Jeeper is a popular name given to someone who owns and "drives" a Jeep off-road; a Jeep enthusiast.Fact|date=May 2008

Jeep model list

Historical models

Historical Jeep models:
*1940 Bantam Pilot- Prototype
*1940 Bantam BRC-60- Prototype
*1940 Willys Quad- Prototype
*1940 Ford Pygmy- Prototype
*1940 Budd Ford- Prototype
*1941 Ford GP
*1941 Willys MA
*1941 Bantam BRC-40
*1942 Willys MB (slat grille)
*1942-1945 Willys MB (stamped grille)
*1942-1945 Ford GPW
*1942-1943 Ford GPA
*1944 Willys MLW-1- Prototype (Never Finished)
*1944 Willys MLW-2- Prototype
*1944 Agrijeep CJ-1
*1944-1945 CJ-2
*1945-1949 CJ-2A
*1946-1965 Willys Jeep Wagon
*1947-1965 Willys Jeep Truck
*1948-1950 VJ — Willys Jeepster
*1949-1953 CJ-3A
*1950 CJ-V35
*1950-1955 M-38 (MC)
*1950 X-98- Prototype
*1950 CJ-4- Prototype
*1950 CJ-4M- Prototype
*1950 CJ-4MA- Prototypes
*1952-1957 M38A1 (MD)
*1952-1957 M38A1C
*1953-1963 M170
*1953-1968 CJ-3B
*1953 BC Bobcat- Prototype
*1954-1983 CJ-5
** 1961-1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
** 1969 Camper
** 1969 462
** 1970 Renegade I
** 1971 Renegade II
** 1972-1983 Renegade Models
** 1973 Super Jeep
** 1977-1983 Golden Eagle
** 1977 Golden Eagle California Edition - limited production that were only available through California AMC Dealerships
** 1979 Silver Anniversary CJ-5 Limited Edition - estimated that perhaps only 1,000 were ever built
*1955 USAF DJ
*1955 M38A1D
*1955-1975 CJ-6
*1955-1964 DJ-3A
** Surrey Gala Package
*1955-1968 CJ-3B Long- Spain
*1956-1965 Jeep Forward Control
**FC-150
**FC-160- Spain, India
**FC-170
**M676
**M677
**M678
**M679
*1959-1978 M151 MUTT
** M151A1
** M151A1C
** M151A2
** M718 Ambulance
** M718A1 Ambulance
** M825
*1960-1968 Jeep M606
*1960-1977 Jeep Rural- Brazil
*1961-1975 Fleetvan
**FJ-3
**FJ-3A
**FJ-6
**FJ-6A
**FJ-8
**FJ-9
*1963-1983 SJ Wagoneer
*1963-1986 J-Series
**Jeep Gladiator
**Jeep Honcho
*1964-1967 CJ-5A/CJ-6A Tuxedo Park
*1965-1975 DJ-5
*1965-1973 DJ-6
*1966-1969 SJ Super Wagoneer
*1966-1971 C101- Jeepster Commando
*1972-1973 C104— Jeep Commando
*1974-1983 SJ Cherokee
** S
** Limited
** Classic
** Chief
** Sport
** Pioneer
** Laredo
*1967-1975 DJ-5A
*1970-1972 DJ-5B
*1973-1974 DJ-5C
*1975-1976 DJ-5D
*1976 DJ- 5E "Electruck"
*1976-1986 CJ-7
** 1982 — Jamboree Limited Edition (2500 examples)
*1977-1978 DJ-5F
*1979 DJ-5G
*1979 — CJ-5 Silver Anniversary Limited Edition - estimated that perhaps only 1000 were built)
*1981-1985 CJ-8 Scrambler
*1981-1985 CJ-10
*1982 DJ- 5L
*1984-1991 SJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer
** 1991 Final Edition
*1984-2001 XJ Cherokee
** 1984-2001 — Base "SE"
** 1984-1988 — Chief
** 1984-1990 — Pioneer
** 1985-1992 — Laredo
** 1987-1992/1998-2001 — Limited
** 1988-2001 — Sport
** 1991-1992 — Briarwood
** 1993-1997 — Country
** 1996-2001 — Classic
*1984-1990 XJ Wagoneer
** 1984-1985 — Broughwood
** 1984-1990 — Limited
*1986-1992 MJ Comanche
** 1986 — Custom
** 1986 — X
** 1986 — XLS
** 1987-1992 — Base SE
** 1987-1990 — Chief
** 1987-1992 — Laredo
** 1987-1990 — Pioneer
** 1987-1992 — SporTruck
** 1987-1992 — Eliminator
*1987-1995 Wrangler YJ
**1991-1993 Renegade
**1988-1995 Wrangler Long- Venezuela
*1993-1998 ZJ Grand Cherokee
** 1993–1995 – Base SE
** 1993–1998 – Laredo
** 1993–1998 – Limited
** 1995–1997 – Orvis "Limited Edition"
** 1997–1998 – TSi
** 1998 - 5.9 Limited
*1993 ZJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer
*1997-2006 Wrangler TJ
** 2002 TJ
** 2003 TJ Rubicon
** 2004 TJ Unlimited
** 2004-2005 - Willys Edition (2004-1997 made, 2005-2001 made)
** 2004 — Columbia Edition
*1999-2004 WJ Grand Cherokee
** 2002–2003 — Sport
** 2002–2004 — Special edition
** 2002–2004 — Overland
** 2004 — Columbia Edition
*2002-2007 KJ Liberty
**Sport
**Limited
**Renegade
**2003 Freedom Edition
**2004 Columbia Edition

Current models

The Jeep brand currently produces six models:

* Jeep Wrangler
** JK — The current version of the Wrangler, released as a 2007 model.
** JK Unlimited — The long wheelbase, 4-door version of the 2007 Wrangler.
* Jeep Grand Cherokee — Large family-oriented SUV.
** WK — The newest Grand Cherokee, 2005-present ("WK" is the designator for the new Grand Cherokee, it is one of the few non-J-designated Jeeps).
** 2005–present – Laredo
** 2005–present – Limited
** 2006–present – Overland
** 2006–present – SRT-8
* Jeep LibertyKK — A small SUV (replaced the "Cherokee" and kept the name outside North America).
* Jeep CommanderXK — A seven passenger SUV.
* Jeep Compass — A small crossover SUV based on the Dodge Caliber.
* Jeep Patriot — A small crossover SUV based on the Dodge Caliber.

Concept vehicles

* 1958 DJ-3A Pickup
* 1970 XJ001
* 1970 XJ002
* 1971 Jeep Cowboy
* 1977 Jeep II
* 1986 Cherokee Targa
* 1987 Comanche Thunderchief
* 1989 Jeep Rubicon Wrangler
* 1990 Jeep JJ
* 1990 Jeep Freedom
* 1991 Jeep Wagoneer 2000
* 1992 Jeep Concept 1
* 1993 Jeep Ecco
* 1997 Jeep Cherokee Casablanca
* 1997 Jeep Wrangler Ultimate Rescue
* 1997 Fender Jeep Wrangler
* 1997 Jeep Dakar
* 1997 Jeep Icon
* 1999 Jeep Journey
* 1999 Jeep Jeepster Concept
* 2000 Jeep Cherokee Total Exposure
* 2000 Jeep Varsity
* 2000 Jeep Commander Concept
* 2000 Jeep Willys
* 2001 Jeep Willys 2
* 2002 Jeep Wrangler Tabasco
* 2002 Jeep Wrangler Patriot
* 2002 Jeep Wrangler Mountain Biker
*2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee (WJ) Concierge
* 2004 Jeep Treo
* 2004 Jeep Rescue
* 2004 Jeep Liberator CRD
* 2005 Jeep Hurricane
* 2005 Jeep Gladiator Concept
* 2005 Jeep Aggressor (the Rezo)
* 2007 Jeep Trailhawk
*2008 Jeep Renegade

pecial vehicles

* 1936 Oscar-Mayer Wienermobile

Jeeps around the world

Jeeps have been built and/or assembled around the world by various companies. [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World.html Jeeps Around the World on The CJ3B Page ] ]

* Argentina - IKA Jeeps 1956-current; now owned by Chrysler [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Argentina.html Jeeps in Argentina on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Australia - Willys Motors Australia - 1940s-1980s [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Australia.html Jeeps in Australia on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Belgium -
* Brazil - Willys Overland do Brasil, purchased by Ford to become Ford do Brasil - 1957-1985 [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Brasil.html Jeeps in Brasil on The CJ3B Page ] ] and the Troller T4 is a fiberglass Jeep version built in Brazil. Troller was purchased by Ford do Brasil in 2007.
* Canada - Kaiser Jeep - 1959-1969 [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/Canada/CanadaKaiser.html Kaiser Jeep in Canada 1959-69 on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* China - Beijing Jeep Corporation - 1983 to present as Beijing-Benz DaimlerChrysler Automotive
* Colombia - Willys Colombia - at least until 1999 [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Colombia.html Jeeps in Colombia on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Egypt -
* France - Hotchkiss and Auverland - 1952-1962 [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/France.html Jeeps in France on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* India - Mahindra & Mahindra Limited - 1960s-current [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/India.html Mahindra Jeeps on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Israel - Automotive Industries which produces the AIL Storm (Sufa) series of Jeep Wrangler-derivatives
* Italy - 1950s [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Italy.html Jeeps in Italy on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Japan - Mitsubishi Jeeps - 1953-1998 [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Japan.html Jeeps in Japan on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Korea - Asia Motors, Ltd and SsangYong Motor Company. (don't use Jeep name) - 1980s-current [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Korea.html Jeeps in Korea on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Mexico - VAM Jeeps - 1946-1987 [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Mexico.html Jeeps in Mexico on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Netherlands - Nederlandse Kaiser-Frazer - 1954-1990s [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/NEKAF.html Jeeps in the Netherlands on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Philippines - Jeepneys [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Philippines.html Jeepneys of the Philippines on The CJ3B Page ] ] ; MD Juan Willys MB. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gv2YSHd1cglmC-_4BZGymtU4jL8A Afp.google.com, Philippine firm brings old WWII jeeps back to life] ] ; "E-jeepneys" or minibuses, LSV (low-speed vehicles) which uses electricity. [ [http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/216052,electric-minibuses-start-commercial-operations-in-philippines.html earthtimes.org, Electric minibuses start commercial operations in Philippines] ] [ [http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=police1_june30_2008 manilastandardtoday.com, Enforcers to drive E-jeeps] ]
* Portugal - Bravia - 1960s-1980s
* Spain - VIASA, later sold to Nissan - 1960-1990s [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Spain.html Jeeps in Spain on The CJ3B Page ] ]
* Turkey - Tuzla - 1954-1970s [ [http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/TurkeyTuzla.html Jeeps in Turkey on The CJ3B Page ] ]

ee also

* AMC/Jeep Transmissions
* American Motors
* Jeep four wheel drive systems
* Jeep trail
* Jeepney
* SUV and Compact SUV
* Willys
* Jeep parade

References

*"Jeep", written by Jim Allen, published in 2001 by MBI Publishing Company
*"Standard catalog of JEEP", written by Patrick Foster, published in 2003 by Krause Publications

Footnotes

External links

* [http://www.jeep.com/ Jeep Brand official website]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/autobiography_of_a_jeep Autobiography of a Jeep (1943)] . United Films, Prelinger Archives, Historical Public Domain video.


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