Serbian revolution


Serbian revolution

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Serbian Revolution
partof=Modern Serbia


caption=Flag of Revolutionary Serbia
date=18041817
place=The Balkans (mainly Serbia and Bosnia)
territory=
result= Serb victory, establishment of the Principality of Serbia.
combatant1Serb victory, establishment of the Principality of Serbia.
combatant1 = flagicon|SRB|1941 Serb revolutionaries Flagicon|Austria Volunteers from Habsburg Empire
Flagicon|Russia Russian Empire
combatant2=flag|Ottoman Empire|1453
flagicon|France First French Empire
commander1=flagicon|SRB|1941 Karađorđe Petrović flagicon|SRB|1941 Miloš Obrenović flagicon|SRB|1941 Mateja Nenadović flagicon|SRB|1941 Veljko Petrović flagicon|SRB|1941 Stanoje Glavaš
commander2=flagicon|Ottoman Empire|1453 Sultan Selim III
flagicon|Ottoman Empire|1453 Marashli Pasha
flagicon|Ottoman Empire|1453 Sultan Mahmud II
flagicon|France Napoleon Bonaparte
strength1 = 80,000 SerbsFact|date=March 2008
strength2 = 300,000 OttomansFact|date=March 2008
casualties1 = 50,000 SerbsFact|date=March 2008
casualties2 = 75,000 OttomanFact|date=March 2008

Serbian revolution or "Revolutionary Serbia" refers to the national and social revolution of the Serbian people between 1804 and 1817, during which Serbia managed to fully emancipate from the Ottoman Empire and exist as a sovereign European nation-state. The term was invented by a famous German historian Leopold von Ranke in his book "Die Serbische Revolution", published in 1829. [ English translation: Leopold Ranke, A History of Servia and the Servian Revolution. Translated from the German by Mrs Alexander Kerr (London: John Murray, 1847)] These events marked the foundation of modern Serbia. [L. S. Stavrianos, The Balkans since 1453 (London: Hurst and Co., 2000), p. 248-250.]

The abovementioned timeframe covers several phases of the revolution:

*First Serbian Uprising (1804- 1813), led by Karađorđe Petrović
*Hadži Prodan's revolt (1814)
*Second Serbian Uprising (1815) under Miloš Obrenović

"The Proclamation" [http://www.douklia.net/povest/proglasenije.html Povest - Prikljucenije ] ] (1809) by Karadjordje in the capital Belgrade represented the peak of the revolution. It called for unity of the Serbian nation, emphasising the importance of freedom of religion, Serbian history and rule of law- all of which Ottoman Empire couldn't- or has denied to provide, beeing a non-secular Muslim state. It also called on Serbs to stop paying taxes to the Porte because they were based on religious affiliation.

The ultimate result of the uprisings was Serbia's suzerainty from the Ottoman Empire. Principality of Serbia was established, governed by its own Parliament, Government, Constitution and its own royal dynasty. [cite web |url=http://www.royalfamily.org/ustanak/USTANAK_ENG.htm |title=The First Serbian Uprising |accessdate= |author=Čedomir Antić |date=1998 |publisher=The Royal Family of Serbia |language=English] Social element of the revolution was achieved through introduction of the bourgeois society values in Serbia, [http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Yugoslavia/Hx_Yugoslavia.html The History of Yugoslavia Serbia and Montenegro until 2006 ] ] which is why it was considered the world's easternmost bourgeois revolt, [ [http://www.royalfamily.org/ustanak/USTANAK_ENG.htm 200 godina ustanka ] ] which culminated with the abolition of feudalism in 1806- just 15 years after the French revolution. [http://www.nbs.bg.ac.yu/view_file.php?file_id=57] First constitution in the Balkans and its oldest university- Belgrade's Great Academy (1808) added to the achievements of the young Serb state. [ [http://www.bg.ac.yu/en_istorijat.php University of Belgrade ] ] De jure independence of the Principality was internationally recognized during the second half of the 19th century.

Background (1791-1804)

The withdrawal of the Austrians from Serbia in 1791 marked the end of the Kočina Krajina Serb rebellion, which was ignited by Austria. Ottoman Empire annexed the Pashaluk of Belgrade, retaliated against the perpertrators of the uprising and their families, thus forcing thousands into exile in Austria. Reforms made by the Porte to ease the pressure on Serbs were only temporary; by 1799 the Janissary corps have returned, suspended the Serb autonomy and drastically increased taxes, enforcing martial law in Serbia.

Serb leaders from both sides of the Danube began to conspire against the dahias. When they found out, they rounded up and murdered tens of Serbian noblemen on the main square of Valjevo in an event known today as "Seča knezova" (Massacre of Serbian knights on February 4, 1804). The massacre outraged the Serbian people and incited the revolt across the Pashaluk of Belgrade. Within days, in the small Šumadija village of Orašac, the Serbs gathered to proclaim the uprising, electing Karađorđe Petrović as the leader. That afternoon, a Turkish inn (caravanserai) in Orašac was burned and its residents fled or were killed, followed by similar actions country-wide. Soon the cities Valjevo and Požarevac were liberated, and the siege of Belgrade launched.

Revolution erupts: First Serbian Uprising

During almost 10 years of the First Serbian Uprising (1804-1813), Serbia perceived itself as an independent state for the first time after 300 years of Ottoman and short-lasting Austrian occupations. Revolutionary Serbia responded to the Ottoman Massacre of Serbian knights by establishing its separate institutions, such as the government ("Praviteljstvujusci Sovjet"), Serbian Prince, Parliament ("Zbor") and University of Belgrade. Following the French invasion in 1812 the Russian Empire witdrew its support for the Serb rebels; unwilling to accept Ottoman conditions, Serbs were fought into submission following the brutal Ottoman incursion into Serbia.

Hadži Prodanova buna

Despite the lost battle, the tensions nevertheless persisted. In 1814 an unsuccessful "Hadži Prodan's revolt" was launched by Hadži Prodan Gligorijević, one of the veterans of the First Serbian Uprising. He knew the Turks would arrest him, so he thought it would be the best to resist the Ottomans; Milos Obrenović, another veteran, felt the time was not right for an uprising and did not provide assistance.

Hadži Prodan's Uprising soon failed and he fled to Austria. After the failure of this revolt, the Turks inflicted more persecution against the Serbs, such as high taxation, forced labor, and rape. In March 1815, Serbs had several meetings and decided upon a new revolt.

econd Serbian Uprising

The Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817) was a second phase of the national revolution of the Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, which erupted shortly after the brutal annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire and the failed Hadži Prodan's revolt. The revolutionarry council proclaimed an uprising in Takovo on April 23 1815, with Milos Obrenović chosen as the leader. When the Ottomans discovered this they sentenced all of its leaders to death. The Serbs fought in battles at Ljubic, Čačak, Palez, Požarevac and Dublje and managed to reconquer the Pashaluk of Belgrade.

Negotiations with the Porte

In mid 1815, the first negotiations began between Obrenović and Marashli Ali Pasha, the Ottoman governor. The result was acknowledgment of a Serbian Principality by the Ottoman Empire. Although a suzerain of the Porte (yearly tax tribute), it was, in most means, an independent state.

By 1817, Obrenović succeeded in forcing Marashli Ali Pasha to negotiate an unwritten agreement, thus ending the Second Serbian uprising. The same year, Karadjordje, the leader of the First Uprising (and Obrenović's rival for the throne) returned to Serbia and was assassinated by Obrenović's orders; Obrenović consequently received the title of "Prince of Serbia".

The "Convention of Ackerman" (1828), the "Treaty of Adrianople" (1829) and finally, the Hatt-i Sharif (1830), formally recognised the suzerainty of Principality of Serbia with Miloš Obrenović I as its hereditary Prince.

References

ee also

*Principality of Serbia
*Pashaluk of Belgrade
*Vojvodina of Serbia and Tamis Banat
*Habsburg Serbia
*List of Serbian monarchs
*Military history of Serbia
*History of the Serbian-Turkish wars


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