- Transport in Japan
Transportation in Japan is modern and infrastructure spending has been large.
Japan's road spending has been large. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9500E3DC1031F932A35750C0A961958260 Japan's Road to Deep Deficit Is Paved With Public Works] , New York Times in 1997] . The 1.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation. [ [http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c09cont.htm Chapter 9 Transport] , Statistical Handbook of Japan] Japan has left-hand traffic. A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and are operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive. Car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy-efficiency.Fact|date=September 2008
Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; for instance, 7 JR enterprises,
Kintetsu Corporation, Seibu Railway, and Keio Corporation. Often, strategies of these enterprises contain real estateor department stores next to stations. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansentrains connect major cities. All trains are known for punctuality.
There are 173 airports and flying is a popular way to travel between cities.Fact|date=September 2008 The largest domestic airport,
Haneda Airport, is the Asia's busiest airport. The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport(Tokyo area), Kansai International Airport(Osaka/Kobe/Kyoto area), and Chūbu Centrair International Airport(Nagoya area). The largest ports include Port of Yokohamaand Nagoya Port.
Japan, railways are a major means of passenger transportation, especially for mass and high-speed transport between major cities and for commuter transport in metropolitan areas. Seven Japan Railways Groupcompanies, once state-owned until 1987, cover most parts of Japan. There also are railway services operated by private rail companies, regional governments, and companies funded by both regional governments and private companies. Japanese trains are also famous for always being on time. Five stations ( Shinjuku Station, Ikebukuro Station, Shibuya Station, Umeda Station, and Yokohama Station) serve more than 2 million passengers each on an average day, making Japan the most railway using nation per capita (see Rail usage statistics by country).
Total railways of 23,670.7 km include entirely electrified 2,893.1 km of 1,435 mm
standard gaugeand 89.8 km of 1,372 mm narrow gauge, all of which is electrified. About the half of 20,656.8 km 1,067 mm gauge and 40 km of 762 mm gauge track are electrified.
Most Japanese people traveled on foot until the latter part of the 19th century. The first railway was built between
Tokyoand Yokohamain 1872 and many more developed. Japan now has one of the worlds most developed transportation networks. Mass transportation is well developed in Japan, but the road system lags behind and is inadequate for the number of cars. Road construction is difficult because of the high areas of population and the limited amount of usable land. Shinkansenare the high speed trains in Japan and they are known as bullet trains. About 250 Shinkansen trains operate daily. The fastest shinkansen trains are the N700 Seriesand 500 Series "Nozomi" which operate at a maximum speed of 300 km/h. Shinkansen trains are known to be very punctual. A train is recorded as late if it does not arrive at the specified time. In 2007, the average lateness per train on the Tokaido Shinkansenwas 6 seconds.
In Japan, railways are a major means of passenger transportation, especially for mass and high-speed transport between major cities and for commuter transport in metropolitan areas. Seven
Japan Railways Groupcompanies, once state-owned until 1987, cover most parts of Japan. There also are railway services operated by private rail companies, regional governments, and companies funded by both regional governments and private companies. The sixteen largest private rail companies are Keihin Electric Express Railway, Keio Corporation, Keisei Electric Railway, Odakyū Electric Railway, Sagami Railway, Seibu Railway, Tōbu Railway, Tokyo Metro, Tōkyū Corporation, Nagoya Railroad, Hankyū Railway, Hanshin Electric Railway, Keihan Electric Railway, Kintetsu Corporation, Nankai Electric Railway, and Nishi-Nippon Railroad. Japanese trains are also famous for always being on time. Five stations ( Shinjuku Station, Ikebukuro Station, Shibuya Station, Umeda Station, and Yokohama Station) serve more than 2 million passengers each on an average day, making Japan the most railway using nation per capita.
Total railways of 23,670.7 km include entirely electrified 2,893.1 km of 1,435 mm standard gauge and 89.8 km of 1,372 mm narrow gauge, all of which is electrified. About the half of 20,656.8 km 1,067 mm gauge and 40 km of 762 mm gauge track are electrified.
Fukuoka, Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Tokyo and Yokohama have subway systems.
Japan has 1,152,207 km of highways with 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways) paved and 289,204 km of unpaved ways (1997 est.). A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access
toll roads connects major cities on Honshū, Shikokuand Kyūshū. Hokkaidōhas a separate network, and Okinawa Islandhas a highway of this type. In the year 2005, the toll collecting companies, formerly Japan Highway Public Corporation, have been transformed into private companies in public ownership, and there are plans to sell parts of them. The aim of this policy is to encourage competition and decrease tolls.
Road passenger and freight transport expanded considerably during the 1980s as private ownership of motor vehicles greatly increased along with the quality and extent of the nation's roads. A way of transportation is the bullet train which is used a lot in Japan. Bus companies including the
JR Buscompanies operates long-distance bus service on the nation's expanding expressway network. In addition to relatively low fares and deluxe seating, the buses are well utilized because they continue service during the night, when air and train service is limited.
The cargo sector grew rapidly in the 1980s, recording 274.2 billion
tonne-kilometres in 1990. The freight handled by motor vehicles, mainly trucks, in 1990, was over 6 billion tonnes, accounting for 90 percent of domestic freight tonnage and about 50 percent of tonne-kilometres.
Recent large infrastructure projects were the construction of the
Great Seto Bridgeand the Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line(opened 1997).
Japan has many
airports. The main international gateways are Narita International Airport(Tokyo area), Kansai International Airport(Osaka/Kobe/Kyoto area), and Chūbu Centrair International Airport(Nagoya area). The main domestic hub is Tokyo International Airport(Haneda Airport), Asia's busiest airport; other major traffic hubs include Osaka International Airport(Itami Airport), New Chitose Airportoutside Sapporo, and Fukuoka Airport. 14 heliports are estimated to exist (1999).
The two main
airlines are All Nippon Airwaysand Japan Airlines. Other passenger carriers include Skymark Airlines, Skynet Asia Airways, Air Doand Star Flyer. United Airlinesand Northwest Airlinesare major international operators from Narita Airport.
Domestic air travel in Japan has historically been highly regulated. From
1972, the three major domestic airlines (JAL, ANA, and JAS) were allocated certain routes, with JAL and ANA sharing trunk routes, and ANA and JAS sharing local feeder routes. JAL also had a flag-carrier monopoly on international routes until 1986. Airfares were set by the government until 2000, although carriers had freedom to adjust the standard fares starting in 1995(when discounts of up to 50% were permitted). Today, fares can be set by carriers, but the government retains the ability to veto fares that are impermissibly high.
There are 1770 km of
Waterways in Japan; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas.
The twenty-two major
seaports designated as special important ports by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportinclude Chiba, Fushiki/Toyama, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kitakyūshū, Kobe, Kudamatsu, Muroran, Nagoya, Niigata, Osaka, Sakai/Senpoku, Sendai/Shiogama, Shimizu, Shimonoseki, Tokyo, Tomakomai, Wakayama, Yokkaichi, and Yokohama.
Japan has 662 ships of with a volume of GRT|1,000|first=yes or over, totaling GRT|13,039,488|first=yes or DWT|18,024,969|metric|first=yes. There are 146 bulk ships, 49
cargo ships, 13 chemicaltankers, 16 combination bulk, 4 with combination of ore and oil, 25 container, 45 liquefied gas, 9 passenger, 2 passenger and cargo combination ships, 214 petroleumtankers, 22 refrigerated cargo, 48 roll-on/roll-off ships, 9 short-sea passenger, and 60 vehicle carriers (1999 est.).
Ferries connect Hokkaidō to Honshū, and
Okinawa Islandto Kyūshū and Honshū. They also connect other smaller islands and the main islands. The scheduled international passenger routes are to China, Russia, South Koreaand Taiwan. Coastal and cross-channel ferries on the main islands decreased in routes and frequencies following the development of bridges and expressways but some are still operating (as of 2007.)
Japan has 84 km of pipelines for
crude oil, 322 km for petroleum products, and 1,800 km for natural gas.
* [http://www.hyperdia.com/ Hyperdia] - Travel planning tool supporting English and Japanese
* [http://www.jorudan.co.jp/english/norikae/e-norikeyin.html Jorudan] - Travel planning tool supporting English and Japanese
* [http://www.kotsu.metro.tokyo.jp/english/index.html Toei Transportation Information] - English information on Toei bus, subway, and trolley services and multilingual maps
* [http://digitalcommons.libraries.columbia.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1120&context=japan_wps Domestic aviation in Japan: Responding to market forces amid regulatory constraints]
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