Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (variously abbreviated PNIPA, PNIPAAm, PNIPAA or PNIPAm) is a temperature-responsive polymer that was first synthesized in the 1950s. It can be synthesized from NIPAM which is commercially available.
It forms a three-dimensional hydrogel when crosslinked with N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAm) or N,N’-cystamine-bis-acrylamide (CBAm). When heated in water above 32°C, it undergoes a reversible lower critical solution temperature phase transition from a swollen hydrated state to a shrunken dehydrated state, losing about 90% of its mass. In dilute solution, it undergoes a corresponding coil-to-globule transition at similar conditions).. Since PNIPAm expels its liquid contents at a temperature near that of the human body, PNIPAm has been investigated by many researchers for possible applications in tissue engineering  and controlled drug delivery. The renal glomerular filtration cut-off of copolymers of PNIPAm is situated around 32,000 g/mol.
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