In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by some chemical or physical process. In the past it was also used to mean a compound that can be imagined to arise from another compound, if one atom is replaced with another atom or group of atoms, but modern chemical language now uses the term structural analogue for this meaning - thus eliminating ambiguity of both terms. The term "structural analogue" is common in organic chemistry. In biochemistry, the word is used for compounds that at least theoretically can be formed from the precursor compound.
Chemical derivatives may be used to facilitate analysis. For example, melting point (MP) analysis can assist in identification of many organic compounds. A crystalline derivative may be prepared, such as a semicarbazone or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (derived from aldehydes/ketones), as a simple way of verifying the identity of the original compound, assuming that a table of derivative MP values is available. Prior to the advent of spectroscopic analysis, such methods were widely used.
- ^ "Definition of Derivative". Chemicool. 2007-09-18. http://www.chemicool.com/definition/derivative.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
- ^ Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850673-2.
- ^ Williamson, Kenneth L. (1999). Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 3rd ed.. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. pp. 426–7. ISBN 0-395-90220-7.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Derivative (disambiguation) — Derivative, in calculus, is a measurement of how a function changes when the values of its inputs change. Derivative may also refer to: Derivative (finance), a contract whose value is derived from that of other quantities Derivative (chemistry),… … Wikipedia
derivative — /dəˈrɪvətɪv / (say duh rivuhtiv) adjective 1. imitative of others. 2. derived. 3. not original or primitive; secondary. –noun 4. something derived or derivative. 5. Grammar a form derived from another: atomic is a derivative of atom. 6. Chemistry … Australian English dictionary
derivative — In chemistry, a compound produced from or related to another … English dictionary of cancer terms
Precursor (chemistry) — In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound. In biochemistry, the term precursor is used more specifically to refer to a chemical compound preceding another in a metabolic… … Wikipedia
Outline of chemistry — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry: Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties,… … Wikipedia
Computational chemistry — is a branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses the results of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into efficient computer programs, to calculate the structures and properties of… … Wikipedia
Nuclear chemistry — is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides, radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as… … Wikipedia
Steady state (chemistry) — For other uses of the term steady state, see steady state (disambiguation) In chemistry, a steady state is a situation in which all state variables are constant in spite of ongoing processes that strive to change them. For an entire system to be… … Wikipedia
Organofluorine chemistry — Some important organofluorine compounds. A: fluoromethane B: isoflurane C: a CFC D: an HFC E: triflic acid F: Teflon G: PFOS H: fluorouracil I: fluoxetine Organofluorine chemistry describes the ch … Wikipedia
Radiation chemistry — is a subdivision of nuclear chemistry which is the study of the chemical effects of radiation on matter; this is very different from radiochemistry as no radioactivity needs to be present in the material which is being chemically changed by the… … Wikipedia