- Syria (Roman province)
Syria was a
Roman province, conquered in 64 BCby Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence after pursing victory in the Third Mithridatic War. It remained under Roman, and subsequently Byzantine, rule for seven centuries, until 637when it fell to the Islamic conquests.
The Syrian army accounted for three legions of the
Roman army, defending the Parthianborder. In the 1st century, it was the Syrian army that enabled Vespasian's coup. Syria was of crucial strategic importance during the crisis of the third century.
From the later
2nd century, the Roman senateincluded several notable Syrians, including Claudius Pompeianusand Avidius Cassius. In the 3rd century, Syrians even reached for imperial power, with the Severan dynasty.
In 193, the province was divided into "Syria Coele" and "Syria Phoenice".In the
4th century, under Theodosius I, "Syria Coele" was further subdivided into "Syria", "Syria Salutaris", and "Syria Euphratensis"), while "Syria Phoenice" was divided into "Phoenice" and "Phoenicia Libanesia".
The region remained an important province of the
Byzantine Empirewell into the 6th century, although frequently plagued by Sassanidincursions.In 637, Antioch was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate army.
History of Syria
Assyria (Roman province)
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