- International Brigades
The International Brigades were Republican
militaryunits in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil Warbetween 1936 and 1939. An estimated 32,000Thomas (2003), pp 941-3] people from a "claimed 53 nations" volunteered. They fought against rebel Spanish Nationalistforces, who were led by General Francisco Francoand assisted by Nazi German and FascistItalian forces.
Formation and recruitment
:"For military structure and organization, see
International Brigades order of battle"Using foreign Communist Parties to recruit volunteers for Spain was first proposed in Moscowin September 1936 – perhaps at the suggestion of Maurice Thorez- by Willi Münzenberg, chief of Cominternpropaganda for Western Europe. As a security measure, non-Communist volunteers would first be interviewed by an NKVDagent.
By the end of September, the Italian and French Communist Parties had decided to set up a column.
Luigi Longo, ex-leader of the Italian Communist Youth, was charged to make the necessary arrangements with the Spanish government. The Soviet Ministry of Defense also helped, since they had experience of dealing with corps of international volunteers (during the Russian Civil War). The idea was initially opposed by Largo Caballero, but after the first setbacks of the war, he changed his mind, and finally agreed to the operation on 22 October. However, the Soviet Uniondid not withdraw from the Non-Intervention Committee, probably to avoid diplomatic conflict with Franceand the United Kingdom.
The main recruitment centre was in
Paris, under the supervision of Polish communist colonel Karol "Walter" Swierczewski. On 17 October 1936, an open letter by Stalinto José Díazwas published in "Mundo Obrero", arguing that liberation for Spain was a matter not only for Spaniards, but also for the whole of "progressive Humanity"; in a matter of days, support organisations for the Spanish Republic were founded in most countries, all more or less controlled by the Comintern.
Paths were arranged for volunteers: for instance, Josip Broz, who would became famous as Marshal
Tito, was in Paris to provide assistance, money and passports for the volunteers from Eastern Europe. Volunteers were sent by train or ship from France to Spain, and sent to the base at Albacete. However, many of them also went by themselves to Spain. The volunteers were under no contract, nor defined engagement period, which would later prove a problem.
Also many Italians, Germans, and people from other countries with repressive governments joined the movement, with the idea that combat in Spain was a first step to restore democracy or advance a revolutionary cause in their own country. There were also many unemployed workers (especially from France), and adventurers. Finally, some 500 Communists who had been exiled to Russia were sent to Spain (among them, experienced military leaders from the First World War like "Kléber" Stern, "Gomez" Zaisser, "Lukacs" Zalka and "Gal" Galicz, who would prove invaluable in combat).
The operation was met by Communists with enthusiasm, but by
Anarchists with skepticism, at best. At first, the Anarchists who controlled the borders with France were told to refuse Communist volunteers, and reluctantly allowed their passage after protests. A group of 500 volunteers (mainly French, with a few exiled Poles and Germans) arrived in Albaceteon 14 October 1936. They were met by international volunteers who had already been fighting in Spain: Germans from the Thälmann Battalion, Italians from Centuria Gastone Sozziand French from Commune de Paris Battalion. Among them was British poet John Cornford. Men were sorted according to their experience and origin, and dispatched to units.
Albacete soon became the International Brigades headquarters and its main depot. It was run by a "troika" of
Cominternheavyweights: André Martywas commander; Luigi Longo("Gallo") was Inspector-General; and Giuseppe Di Vittorio("Nicoletti") was chief political commissar. [Thomas (2003), 443]
French Communist Partyprovided uniforms for the Brigades. Discipline was extreme. For several weeks, the Brigades were locked in their base while their strict military training was under way.
First engagements: Siege of Madrid
The Battle of Madrid was a major success for the Republic. It staved off the prospect of a rapid defeat at the hands of Franco's forces. The role of the International Brigades in this victory was generally recognised and sometimes even exaggerated. For instance, the British Ambassador, Sir Henry Childon, declared that there were no Spaniards in the army which had defended Madrid; in fact, all but 3,000 of the 40,000 Republican troops in the city were Spanish. Fact|date=November 2007 Even though the International Brigades did not win the battle by themselves, nor significantly change the situation, they certainly did provide an example by their determined fighting, and improved the morale of the population by demonstrating the concern of other nations in the fight.
They also provide their experience of warfare accumulated by older members of the International Brigades during the first World War compared with a Spanish Army that remained neutral in 1914-18.
One of the strategic positions in Madrid was the
Casa de Campo. There the Nationalist troops were Moroccans, commanded by General José Enrique Varela. They were excellent fighters in the open, but were ill-trained for urban warfare, a role in which the Republican militia had shown prowess in from the early days of the war. Fact|date=April 2007 They were stopped by III and IV Brigades of the regular Republican Army.
On 9 November 1936, the
XI International Brigade- comprising 1,900 men from the Edgar André Battalion, the Commune de Paris Battalionand the Dabrowski Battalion, together with a British machine-gun company - took up position at the Casa del Campo. In the evening, its commander, General Kléber, launched an assault on the Nationalist positions. This lasted for the whole night and part of the next morning. At the end of the fight, the Nationalist troops had been forced to retreat, abandoning all hopes of a direct assault on Madrid by Casa de Campo, while the XIth Brigade had lost a third of its personnel.
On 13 November, the 1550-man strong
XII International Brigade, made up of the Thälmann Battalion, the Garibaldi Battalionand the André Marty Battalion, deployed. Commanded by General "Lukacs", they assaulted Nationalist positions on the high ground of Cerro de Los Angeles. As a result of language and communication problems, command issues, lack of rest, poor coordination with armoured units, and insufficient artillery support, the attack failed.
On November 19, Anarchist units of the Republican Army were forced to retreat, and Nationalist troops — Moroccans and
Spanish Foreign Legionnaires, covered by the Nazi Condor Legion— captured a foothold in the University City. The 11th Brigade was sent to drive the Nationalists out of the University City. The battle was extremely bloody, a mix of artillery and aerial bombardments, with bayonet and grenade fights, room by room. Anarchist leader Buenaventura Durrutiwas shot there on the 19 November 1936, and died the next day. The battle in the University went on until three quarters of the University City was under Nationalist control. Both sides then started setting up trenches and fortifications. It was then clear that any assault from either side would be far too costly; the nationalist leaders had to renounce the idea of a direct assault on Madrid, and prepare for a siegeof the capital.
13 December 1936, 18,000 nationalist troops attempted an attack to close the encirclement of Madrid at Guadarrama— an engagement known as the Battle of the Corunna Road. The Republicans sent in a Soviet armoured unit, under General Dmitry Pavlov, and both XI and XII International Brigades. Violent combat followed, and they stopped the Nationalist advance.
An attack was then launched by the Republic on the Cordoba front. The battle ended in a form of stalemate; a communique was issued, saying: " [t] oday, our advance continued without loss of land". Poets
Ralph Winston Foxand John Cornfordwere killed. Eventually, the Nationalists advanced, taking the hydro electric station at El Campo. André Martyaccused the commander of the Marseillaise Battalion, Gaston Delasalle, of espionage and treason and had him executed. (It is doubtful that Delasalle would have been a spy for Francisco Franco; he was denounced by his own second-in-command, André Heussler, who was executed for treason during World War II, by the French Resistance.)
Further Nationalist attempts after Christmas to encircle Madrid met with failure, but not without extremely violent combat. On
6 January 1937, the Thälmann Battalionarrived at Las Rozas, and held its positions until it was destroyed as a fighting force. On January 9, only 10 km had been lost to the Nationalists, when the XIII International Brigadeand XIV International Brigadeand the 1st British Company, arrived in Madrid. Violent Republican assaults were launched in attempt to retake the land, with little success. On January 15, trenches and fortifications were built by both sides, resulting in a stalemate.
The Nationalists did not take Madrid until the very end of the war, in March 1939. There were also some pockets of resistance during the consecutive months.
Battle of Jarama
6 February 1937, following the fall of Málaga, the nationalists launched an attack on the Madrid- Andalusiaroad, south of Madrid. The Nationalists quickly advanced on the little town Ciempozuelos, held by the XV International Brigade, which was composed of the British Battalion(British Commonwealth and Irish), the Dimitrov Battalion(miscellaneous Balkannationalities), the 6 Février Battalion(Belgians and French), the Canadian Mackenzie-Papineau Battalionand the Abraham LincolnBattalion (Americans, including African-American).An independent 80-men-strong (mainly) Irish unit, known as the Connolly Column, made up of people from both sides of the Irish border also fought. Several histories of the Irish in Spain record that they included an ex-Catholic Christian Brother and an ordained Church of Ireland( AnglicanProtestant) Clergyman, fighting and dying on the same side. (These battalions were not composed entirely of one nationality or another, rather they were for the most part a mix of many)
11 February 1937, a Nationalist brigade launched a surprise attack on the André Marty Battalion( XIV International Brigade), stabbing its sentries and crossing the Jarama. The Garibaldi Battalion stopped the advance with heavy fire. At another point, the same tactic allowed the Nationalists to move their troops across the river.
12 February, the British Battalion, XV International Brigadetook the brunt of the attack, remaining under heavy fire for seven hours. The position became known as "Suicide Hill". At the end of the day, only 225 of the 600 members of the British battalion remained. One company was captured by ruse, when Nationalists advanced among their ranks singing " The Internationale".
On 17 February, the Republican Army counter-attacked. On February 23 and 27, the International Brigades were engaged, but with little success. The Lincoln Battalion was put under great pressure, with no artillery support. It suffered 120 killed and 175 wounded. Amongst the dead was the Irish poet
There were heavy casualties on both sides, and although "both claimed victory ... both suffered defeats". [Thomas (2003), 579] . It resulted in a stalemate, with both sides digging in, creating elaborate trench systems.
22 February, 1937the League of Nations Non-Intervention Committeeban on foreign volunteers went into effect.
Battle of Guadalajara
After the failed assault on the Jarama, the Nationalists attempted another assault on Madrid, from the North-East this time. The objective was the town of Guadalajara, 50 km from Madrid. The whole Italian expeditionary corps — 35,000 men, with 80 battle tanks and 200 field artillery — was deployed, as
Mussoliniwanted the victory to be credited to Italy. On 9 March 1937, the Italians made a breach in the Republican lines, but did not properly exploit the advance. However, the rest of the Nationalist army was advancing, and the situation appeared critical for the Republicans. A formation drawn from the best available units of the Republican army, including the XI and XII International Brigades, was quickly assembled.
At dawn on
10 March, the Nationalists closed in, and by noon, the Garibaldi Battalion counterattacked. Some confusion arose from the fact that the sides were not aware of each other's movements, and that both sides spoke Italian; this resulted in scouts from both sides exchanging information without realising they were enemies.Fact|date=February 2007 The Republican lines advanced and made contact with XI International Brigade. Fascist tanks were shot at and infantry patrols came into action. There was reportedly an incident in which a fascist officer asked why Italian soldiers were shooting at his party, and they responded "Noi siamo Italiani di Garibaldi" (literally: "we are Garibaldi Italian"), at which point the Fascists surrendered.Fact|date=February 2007 The common language was used to advantage by the Republicans, who used loudspeakers and dropped leaflets from planes, to broadcast propaganda messages, including a promise to pay Fascist deserters.Fact|date=February 2007
On March 11, the Fascists broke the front of the Republican army. The
Thälmann Battalionsuffered heavy losses, but succeeded in holding the Trijueque- Torijaroad. The Garibaldi also held its positions. On March 12, Republican planes and tanks attacked. The Thälmann Battalionattacked Trijuetein a bayonet charge and re-took the town, capturing numerous prisoners.
The International Brigades also saw combat in the
Battle of Teruelin January 1938. The 35th International Divisionsuffered heavily in this battle from aerial bombardment as well as shortages of food, winter clothing and ammunition. The XIV International Brigadefought in the Battle of Ebroin July 1938, the last Republican offensive of the war.
The International Brigades were disbanded by the Republican government of
Juan Negrin, who announced the decision in the League of Nationson September 21 1938in an effort to get the Nationalist's foreign backers to withdraw their troops and to persuade the western democracies such as France and Britain to end their arms embargoon the Republic. By this time there were about an estimated 10,000 foreign volunteers still serving in Spain for the Republican side, and about 50,000 for the Nationalists (excluding another 30,000 Moroccans). [" [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,760250,00.html Exit] " - "Time", Monday, 03 October 1938]
Perhaps half of the International Bridgadists came from Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy or other countries, such as Hungary, which had authoritarian right wing governments at the time. These men could not safely return home and parts of them were instead given honorary Spanish citizenship and integrated in to Spanish units of the Popular Army. The remainder were repatriated to their own countries. The Dutch volunteers lost their citizenship because they had served in a foreign army.Fact|date=May 2008
:;For a military overview, see
International Brigades order of battle
The first brigades were composed mostly of French, Belgian, Italian, and German volunteers, backed by a sizeable contingent of Polish miners from Northern France and Belgium. The XIth, XIIth and XIIIth were the first brigades formed. Later, the XIVth and XVth Brigades were raised, mixing experienced soldiers with new volunteers. Smaller Brigades - the 86th, 129th and 150th - were formed in late 1937 and 1938, mostly for temporary tactical reasons.
About 32,000 people volunteered to defend the Spanish Republic. Many were veterans of the
World War I. Their early engagements in 1936 during the Siege of Madridamply demonstrated their military and propaganda value.
The international volunteers were mainly Communists, or under Communist authority, and a high proportion were Jewish. Some were involved in the fighting in
Barcelonaagainst Republican opponents of the Communists: the POUM ("Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista", an anti- StalinistMarxist party) and anarchists. However, overseas volunteers from anarchist, socialist, liberal and other political positions also served with the brigades.
To simplify communication, the battalions usually concentrated people of the same nationality or language group. The battalions were often (formally, at least) named after inspirational people or events. From Spring 1937 onwards, many battalions contained one Spanish volunteer company (about 150 men).
Later in the war, military discipline tightened and learning Spanish became mandatory. By decree of 23 September 1937, the International Brigades formally became units of the
Spanish Foreign Legion["Beevor (2006)", p309.] . This made them subject to the Spanish Code of Military Justice. The same decree also specified that non-Spanish officers in the Brigades should not exceed Spanish ones by more than 50 per cent [es icon Castells, "Los Brigadas Internacionales", pp 258-9]
:;For more information on composition and mustering, see
International Brigades order of battle
Abraham Lincoln Battalion: from the United States, Canadaand Irish Free State, with some British and Chilean who lived in New Yorkand were members of the Chilean worker club of New York.
Connolly Column: This mostly Irish republican group fought as a section of the Lincoln Battalion
Mickiewicz Battalion: predominantly Polish.
André Marty Battalion: predominantly French and Belgian, named after André Marty.
British Battalion: Mainly British but with many from the Irish Free State, Australia, New Zealand, South Africaand other Commonwealth countries.
Checo-Balcánico Battalion: Czechoslovakian and Balkan.
Commune de Paris Battalion: predominantly French.
Deba Blagoiev Battalion: predominantly Bulgarian, later merged into the Djakovic Battalion.
Dimitrov Battalion: Greek, Yugoslavian, Bulgarian, Czechoslovakian, Hungarian and Romanian. Named after Georgi Dimitrov.
Djure Djakovic Battalion: Yugoslav, Bulgarian, anarchist, named after the former Yugoslav communist party president Đuro Đaković.
Dabrowski Battalion: mostly Polish and Hungarian. Also Czechoslovakian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian and Palestinian Jews. See also Dąbrowszczacy.
Edgar André Battalion: mostly German. Also Austrian, Yugoslavian, Bulgarian, Albanian, Romanian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Dutch.
Español Battalion: Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Chilean, Argentinian and Bolivian.
Figlio Battalion: mostly Italian; later merged with the Garibaldi Battalion.
Garibaldi Battalion: Raised as the Italoespañol Battalionand renamed. Mostly Italian and Spanish.
George Washington Battalion: the second US battalion. Later merged with the Lincoln Battalion, to form the Lincoln-Washington Battalion.
Hans Beimler Battalion: mostly German; later merged with the Thälmann Battalion.
Henri Barbusse Battalion: predominantly French.
Henri Vuilleman Battalion: predominantly French.
Louise Michel Battalions: French-speaking, later merged with the Henri Vuillemin Battalion.
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion: the Mac-Paps, predominantly Canadian.
Marsellaise Battalion: predominantly French.
**Incorporated one separate British company.
Palafox Battalion: Yugoslavian, Polish, Czechoslovakian, Hungarian, Jewish and French.
**Naftali Botwin Company: a
Jewishunit formed within the Palafox Battalionin December 1937.
Pierre Brachet Battalion: mostly French.
Rakosi Battalion: mainly Hungarian, also Czechoslovakians, Ukrainians, Poles, Chinese, Mongoliansand Palestinian Jews.
Nine Nations Battalion(also known as the "Sans nons" and "Neuf Nationalités": French, Belgian, Italian, German, Austrian, Dutch, Danish, Swiss and Polish.
Six Février Battalion("Sixth of February"): French, Belgian, Moroccan, Algerian, Libyan, Syrian, Iranian, Iraqi, Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Palestinian Jewish.
Thälmann Battalion: predominantly German, named after German communist leader Ernst Thälmann.
Tom Mann Centuria: A small, mostly British, group who operated as a section of the Thälmann Battalion.
Thomas Masaryk Battalion: mostly Czechoslovakian.
Tschapaiew Battalion: Ukrainian, Polish, Czechoslovakian, Bulgarian, Yugoslavian, Turkish, Italian, German, Austrian, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Belgian, French, Greek, Albanian, Dutch, Swiss and Baltic.
Vaillant-Couturier Battalion: French, Belgian, Czechoslovakian, Bulgarian, Swedish, Norwegian and Danish.
Veinte Battalion: American, British, Italian, Yugoslavian and Bulgarian.
Zwölfte Februar Battalion: mostly Austrian.
tatus after the war
Since the Civil War was eventually won by the Nationalists, the Brigadiers were initially on the "wrong side" of history, especially since most of their home countries had a right-wing government (in France, for instance, the Popular Front was not in power any more).
However, since most of these countries found themselves at war with the very powers which had been fought in Spain, the Brigadists gained some prestige as the first guard of the democracies, having fought a prophetical combat. Retrospectively, it was clear that the war in Spain was as much a Spanish
civil waras a precursor of the Second World War.
Some glory was therefore accredited to the volunteers (a great deal of the survivors having also fought gallantly during World War II), but this soon faded in the fear that it would promote (by association)
In addition, the ambiguous stance regarding Germany of the Communist Parties in the West, during the period between the Hitler-Stalin pact and the German invasion of the Soviet Union, contributed to widespread uneasiness when evaluating the Brigadists' role in the politics of the Nazi era.
Since the fall of the Soviet bloc, the International Brigades have been generally regarded as anti-Fascist heroes, and the legitimacy of their fight has, for the most part, washed away the stain of summary executions and Stalinist manipulation, despite being non-governmental combatants Fact|date=February 2007.
An exception is among groups to the Left of the Communist Parties, for example anarchists. Among these groups the Brigades, or at least their leadership, are criticised for their alleged role in suppressing the
Spanish Revolution. An example of a modern work which promotes this view is Ken Loach's film " Land and Freedom". A well-known contemporary account of the Spanish Civil War which takes this view is George Orwell's book " Homage to Catalonia".
In East Germany
After the Second World War, the German Democratic Republic found itself in need of a '
founding myth' going beyond the conquest of Nazi Germany by the Soviet Red Army. The Spanish Civil War, and especially the role of the International Brigades, were considered ideal, and became a substantial part of East Germany's memorial rituals, aided by the fact that substantial numbers of Eastern European communist figures had served in the bridgades, and that Germany had provided many men for the brigades. [ [http://jch.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/39/4/531 "The Cult of the Spanish Civil War in East Germany" (abstract)] - Krammer, Arnold, Texas A&M University. Accessed 2008-05-14.)]
Switzerland, public sympathy was high for the Republican cause, but the federal government banned all fundraising and recruiting activities a month after the start of the war so as to preserve Swiss neutrality.cite news | title= No pardon for Spanish civil war helpers | date = February 27, 2008 | publisher = Swissinfo| author = Daniele Mariani | url = http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/news/social_affairs/No_pardon_for_Spanish_civil_war_helpers.html?siteSect=201&sid=8751871] Around 800 Swiss volunteers joined the International Brigades, among them a small number of women. Sixty percent of Swiss volunteers identified as communists, while the others included socialists, anarchists and antifascists.
Some 170 Swiss volunteers were killed in the war. The survivors were tried by military courts upon their return to Switzerland for violating the criminal prohibition on foreign military service. [cite swiss law | link = 321_0 | sr = 321.0 | en = Swiss Military Penal Code | art = 94] The courts pronounced 420 sentences which ranged from around two weeks to four years in prison, and often also stripped the convicts of their
political rights. In the judgment of Swiss historian Mauro Cerutti, volunteers were punished more harshly in Switzerland than in any other democratic country.
pardonthe Swiss brigadists on the account that they fought for a just causehave been repeatedly introduced in the Swiss federal parliament, so far to no avail. A first such proposal was defeated in 1939 on neutrality grounds. In 2002, Parliament again rejected a pardon of the Swiss war volunteers, with a majority arguing that they did break a law that remains in effect to this day. [ [http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/ff/2002/7781.pdf Report of the Judicial Committee of the National Council] , Off. J. 2002 pp. 7786 et seq.] Another bill of pardon has been introduced in 2006 by MP Paul Rechsteinerand remains pending.
In the US
USthe volunteers were labeled as "premature anti-fascists" by the FBI. It was the signal to assign them to non-combat units or inactive fronts and to deny them promotion. [ [http://www.alba-valb.org/lectures/1998_knox_bernard.html "Premature Anti-Fascist"] - Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives - Bill Susman Lecture Series. King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center - New York University, 1998 Accessed 2008-08-24.)]
26 January 1996the Spanish government gave Spanish citizenship to the Brigadists. At the time, roughly 600 remained. By the end of 1938, Prime Minister Juan Negrinhad promised Spanish citizenship to the Brigadists, a promise which could not have been kept since the Republic had lost the war.
Jacques Chirac, then French President, granted the former French members of the International Brigades the legal status of former service personnel ("anciens combattants") following the request of two French communist MPs, Mr Lefort and Mr Asensi, both children of volunteers. Before 1996, the same request was turned down several times including by Francois Mitterand, former Socialist French President.
ymbolism and heraldry
The International Brigades were inheritors of a Communist aesthetic, which explains the numerous very stylised posters about the subject.
The flags featured the colours of the Spanish Republic : Red, Yellow and Purple, often along with Communist symbols (Red flags,
hammer and sickle, fist,...). The emblem of the brigades themselves was the three-pointed red star, which is often featured.
Flags of the brigades
Flags taken from "Elite 53: International Brigades in Spain 1936–39" and are copyright of Osprey Publishing.
Notable associated people
International Brigade Memorial Trust
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Polish Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
Jewish Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
Arditi del Popolo"
* [http://www.geocities.com/irelandscw Ireland and the SCW]
References & Notes
*Beevor, Antony, "The Spanish Civil War", 1982
*Beevor, Antony, "The Battle for Spain", 2006
*Thomas, Hugh, "The Spanish Civil War", 1961
*Thomas, Hugh, "The Spanish Civil War", 4th Rev Ed, 2003.
*Marty, André attrib. S Álvarez, "Historia Política y Militar de las Brigadas Internacionales"
Further reading and media
*"The Spanish Civil War", Hugh Thomas ISBN 978-0141011615
*"British Volunteers For Liberty", Bill Alexander
*"Book of the 15th Brigade", (Ed. Frank Ryan )
*"Britons in Spain", Bill Rust
Michael O'Riordan, Dublin, New Books, 1979 (an account of the contribution of the Irish members of the Brigades)
* [http://www.geocities.com/irelandscw/ibvol-Monks.htm "With the Reds in Andalusia"] - a memoir by Irish vol. Joe Monks.
Homage to Catalonia", George Orwell, (an account of his time fighting with the POUM)
*"A Moment of War", Laurie Lee ISBN 978-0140156225
*"XV International Brigade" (ed. Frank Ryan ) Madrid, Commissariat of War, 1938.
*"Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939"
Antony Beevor, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006. ISBN 978-0297848325
For Whom the Bell Tolls", Ernest Hemingway
The Pursuit of Love", Nancy Mitford
*"The Aesthetics of Resistance",
*"Winter in Madrid",
C. J. Sansom
* [http://asso.acer.free.fr/Documents/Fond%20documentaire/photos/galeriephotos.htm asso.acer.free.fr]
* [http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/scw/photessay.htm english.uiuc.edu]
Land and Freedom, by Ken Loach. Although the subject of the film is not the International Brigades, it portrays international volunteers in the Spanish Civil War. The actual International Brigades are featured, largely as villains.
* [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0037680/ Sierra de Teruel] by
André Malraux(features the International bomber squadron in margin of the Brigades)
*For Whom the Bell Tolls - 1943 film by
Ernest Hemingwayabout a young American who fights in the International Brigades.
*Memories of a Future - 2007 film by Margaret Dickinson and Pepe Petos. This documentary follows a group of volunteers of the International Brigades, their friends and family travelling back to
Figueres Spainin 2006. The film interrogates the relevance of the veteran's deed and contextualises it in current social and political climate.
* [http://www.jewishtraces.org/search.php 300 German and Austrian brigadists in French Internment camps] search the various internment database
* [http://www.geocities.com/irelandscw Irish site on the SCW]
* [http://www.geocities.com/irelandscw/top-Contents-Rep.htm Webpages on the Irish IB members]
* [http://www.international-brigades.org.uk/ IBMT the international brigade memorial trust]
* [http://www.international-brigades.org.uk/british_volunteers/farewell.htm Farewell to the International Brigades]
* [http://www.alba-valb.org/ Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives]
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPinternational.htm Spartacus Educational]
* [http://www.geocities.com/roav1945/inter.html The International Brigades (Veterans' Stories)]
* [http://www.geocities.com/irelandscw/index.htm Ireland and the Spanish Civil War]
* [http://www.socialistproductions.org Reproduction of International Brigades flags, badges and t-shirts]
* [http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj84/durgan.htm Freedom fighters or Comintern army? The International Brigades in Spain by Andy Durgan]
* [http://www.geocities.com/irelandscw/docs-PatRead.htm Pat Read - an Irish Anarchist in the SCW.]
Martha Gellhorntalks about the Spanish Civil War( BBC Radio 4audio stream).
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20030403.shtml The Spanish Civil War - causes and legacy] part of the
BBC Radio 4In Our Time series.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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