Information technology


Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.[1] The term in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT).".[2] Some of the modern and emerging fields of Information technology are next generation web technologies, bioinformatics, cloud computing, global information systems, large scale knowledgebases, etc.

Contents

General information

Information and communication technology spending in 2005

IT is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages but are not limited to things such as processes, , and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the IT domain. IT provides businesses with four sets of core services to help execute the business strategy: business process automation, providing information, connecting with customers, and productivity tools.

IT professionals perform a variety of functions (IT Disciplines/Competencies) that ranges from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as management and administration of entire systems. Information technology is starting to spread further than the conventional personal computer and network technologies, and more into integrations of other technologies such as the use of cell phones, televisions, automobiles, and more, which is increasing the demand for such jobs.

In the recent past, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Association for Computing Machinery have collaborated to form accreditation and curriculum standards[3] for degrees in Information Technology as a distinct field of study as compared[4] to Computer Science and Information Systems today. SIGITE (Special Interest Group for IT Education)[5] is the ACM working group for defining these standards. The Worldwide IT services revenue totaled $763 billion in 2009.[6]

Technological capacity and growth

Hilbert and Lopez[7] identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines’ application-specific capacity to compute information per capita has roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986-2007; the per capita capacity of the world’s general-purpose computers has doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world’s storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled roughly every 12.3 years.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Longley, Dennis; Shain, Michael (1985), Dictionary of Information Technology (2 ed.), Macmillan Press, p. 164, ISBN 0-333-37260-3 
  2. ^ "information technology (subscription required)", Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.), Oxford University Press, 1989, http://dictionary.oed.com/, retrieved 20 November 2010 
  3. ^ ABET
  4. ^ Isbell, Charles; Impagliazzo, John; Stein, Lynn; Proulx, Viera; Russ, Steve; Forbes, Jeffrey; Thomas, Richard; Fraser, Linda et al. (December 2009), (Re)Defining Computing Curricula by (Re)Defining Computing, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM, ISBN 978-1-60558-886-5 
  5. ^ ACM-SIGITE
  6. ^ "Gartner Says Worldwide IT Services Revenue Declined 5.3 Percent in 2009", Gartner, http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1363713, retrieved 20 November 2010 
  7. ^ a b "The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal), 332(6025), 60-65; free access to the article through here: martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html

Further reading

  • Adelman, C. (2000). A Parallel Post-secondary Universe: The Certification System in Information Technology. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.
  • Allen, T., and M.S. Morton, eds. 1994. Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Shelly, Gary, Cashman, Thomas, Vermaat, Misty, and Walker, Tim. (1999). Discovering Computers 2000: Concepts for a Connected World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Course Technology.
  • Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin. (1986). Information Technology—A Luddite Analysis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • The Global Information Technology Report 2008–2009, World Economic Forum and INSEAD, 2009, ISBN 978-92-95044-19-7, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gitr/2009/gitr09fullreport.pdf 
  • Blais, Steven (December 2011). Business Analysis: Best Practices for Success. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1118076001. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • information technology — ► NOUN ▪ the study or use of systems such as computers and telecommunications for storing, retrieving, and sending information …   English terms dictionary

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  • information technology — noun the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information • Syn: ↑IT • Hypernyms: ↑engineering, ↑engineering science, ↑applied science, ↑technology * * * inforˌmation …   Useful english dictionary

  • information technology — N UNCOUNT Information technology is the theory and practice of using computers to store and analyse information. ...the information technology industry …   English dictionary

  • information technology — noun a) the practice of creating and/or studying computer systems and applications b) the computing department of an organization <! Is sense 2 real? It sounds odd. I cant imagine anyone using the full phrase information technology department… …   Wiktionary

  • information technology — infor,mation tech nology noun uncount * the study or use of computers and electronic systems for storing and using information. Information technology is often simply called IT …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • information technology */ — UK / US noun [uncountable] the study or use of computers and electronic systems for storing and using information. Information technology is often simply called IT …   English dictionary


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