oceans have a tremendous amount of energy and are close to many if not most concentrated populations. Many researches show that ocean energy has the potentiality of providing for a substantial amount of new renewable energyaround the world. [Carbon Trust, "Future Marine Energy. Results of the Marine Energy Challenge: Cost competitiveness and growth of wave and tidal stream energy", January 2006]
Renewable ocean energy
The oceans remain a vast untapped source of renewable energy in the form of fluid flow (currents, waves, and tides) and thermal and salinity gradients. Several means of extracting
energyfrom the ocean have been tried. Some are currently in deployment stage.
Marine current power
Ocean thermal energy conversion(OTEC)
Salinity gradient power
Wind power(offshore) is also included in the list of renewable ocean energies
Theoretical potential of renewable ocean energy
The theoretical global ocean energy resource is estimated [ International Energy Agency, Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems (IEA-OES), Annual Report 2007 ] to be on the order of:
* 2.000 TWh/year for osmotic energy
* 10.000 TWh/year for ocean thermal energy (OTEC)
* 800 TWh/year for tidal current energy
* 8.000 – 80.000 TWh/year for wave energy
This theoretical potential is several times greater than the actual global electricity demand, and equivalent to 4000 – 18000 MToE MToE (million tons of oil equivalent).
Non-renewable ocean energy
Petroleumand natural gasbeneath the ocean floor are increasingly important sources of energy. An ocean engineer directs all phases of discovering, extracting, and delivering offshore petroleum (via oil tankers and pipelines), a complex and demanding task. Also centrally important is the development of new methods to protect marine wildlife and coastal regions against the undesirable side effects of offshore oil extraction.
International Electrotechnical Commission
Renewable energy commercialization
European Ocean Energy Association
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