History of County Wexford

Infobox Irish Place
name = County Wexford
gaeilge = Contae Loch Garman
crest

motto = Exemplar Hiberniae
map

area = 2,352 km²
county town = Wexford
code = WX
population = 131,615
census yr = 2006
province = Leinster
web = www.wexford.ie
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County Wexford ( _ga. Contae Loch Garman) is a county located in the south-east of Ireland, in the province of Leinster. It takes its name from the principal town, Wexford, named 'Waesfjord' by the Vikings - meaning 'inlet (fjord) of the mud-flats' in the Old Norse language. In pre-Norman times it was part of the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, with its capital at Ferns.

The County was formed in Norman times. It was created in 1210 by King John during his visit to Ireland. [Parliamentary Gazetteer, Vol. 3., p. 534.]

Pre-history

Evidence of early human habitation of Co. Wexford is widespread. [ See: Essay 1, Geraldine Stout, "Wexford in Prehistory 5000 B.C. to 300 AD" in "Wexford: History and Society", pp 1 - 39. This is the best coverage of this period for Co. Wexford.]

Ireland was inhabited sometime shortly after the ending of the last Ice Age, approximately 10,000 - 8,000 B.C. [ See: .] Conservative estimates place the arrival of the first humans in Co. Wexford as occurring between 5000 B.C. - 3000 B.C., referred to as the Mesolithic period in Ireland, "Wexford: History and Society", pp 3 - 4.] though they may have arrived slightly earlier. Its proximity to Britain and Europe means that Co. Wexford was probably one of the earliest areas of Ireland to be inhabited by humans. Evidence of this period is scarce and much remains to be discovered through Archaeology and Research. "Wexford: History and Society", pp 3 - 4.]

"Portal tombs" (sometimes called Dolmens) exist at Ballybrittas (on Bree Hill) [ [http://www.megalithomania.com/show/image/2148/Ballybrittas.htm See: Photo of Ballybrittas Portal Tomb.] ] and at Newbawn - and date from the Neolithic period.

Evidence of the Bronze Age period is far more widespread - an Early Bronze Age Axehead was found at Bree and a Gold Disc at Kilmuckridge, for example. ["Wexford: History and Society", pp 8 - 26 & p. 35.] Cist Burials (also dating from the Bronze Age period) have been discovered in many locations - such as at the Deeps, Enniscorthy, and Misterin. ["Wexford: History and Society", pp 36 - 37.] There are also numerous Standing Stones in the county and one Stone Circle (at Robinstown Great - classified as a four poster monument). [ [http://www.megalithomania.com/show/image/2153/Robinstown+Great.htm See: Photo of Robinstown Great Stone Circle.] ] [ "Wexford: History and Society", pp 38 - 39.]

The remains of numerous "Raths" are scattered throughout rural Co. Wexford. [A "Rath" was a fortified wooden dwelling - the wooden dwelling(s) were enclosed by a circular mound of earth on which there was a palisade fence (generally wooden, though sometimes of stone). These mounds of earth are what survive in the landscape today - except in a few cases where stone was used (usually called "Duns").] An Ogham Stone was found on the Hook Peninsula in the 19th century. [Journal R.S.A.I. 1930- 31. pp 52 - 55.] "Ogham Stones" have also been found elsewhere in the County. ["Wexford: History and Society", p. 17: "A total of four stones in the county [of Wexford] have inscriptions in Ogham".] Pre-Christian Ireland worshipped a variety of deities, including the sun. Druidism survived in Ireland much longer than Britain and Gaul, as Ireland was never conquered by the Romans.

Classical references

On Ptolemy's mid-2nd century 'Map' of Ireland - dating from circa AD 150 ["Freeman", p. 150.] - Carnsore point appears as the "Sacred Cape", the river Barrow as the "Birgos" (or "Birgus"), most of the area of Co. Wexford is shown as inhabited by a tribe called the "Brigantes" and a tribe called the "Coriondoi" (or "Koriondoi") are shown as occupying north Co. Wexford. ["Freeman", p. 69.]

Some authorities also equate the town named "Menapia" (or "Manapia") as Wexford town - others place it further north along the east coast, roughly near Wicklow town. A river called the "Modonnu(s)", whose estuary is near "Menapia", is often said to be the "Slaney" - others think it is the "Avoka river". It is because the "Slaney" is the only major river in the south-east that many as a result think that it is the "Modonnu(s)" river, thereby making "Menapia" equal to Wexford town (this theory only seems to work if Hook Head is made the "Sacred Cape"). Most authorities seem to agree that "Menapia" is not Wexford, but is a town located further north along the coast. However, this is not certain. ["Freeman", pp 64 - 84.]

The Roman historian Tacitus in his "Life of Agricola", states that the "Brigantes" tribe was the most populous tribe in Britain in the mid-1st century A.D., [ Agricola 17 & 31; (See: p. 68 & 82).] who then occupied almost all of northern England. [The Brigantes dwelt in an area that was north of a line drawn roughly from Manchester to York but south a line occupied by the then soon to be built Hadrian's Wall.] Nevertheless, the Irish and English "Brigantes" tribes may or may not be related - as unconnected Celtic placenames were often similar. [Freeman, p. 77.]

Tacitus also states, referring to AD 82 [the "Agricola" was completed before AD 98.] , that many of Ireland's "approaches and harbours have become better known from merchants who trade there." ["Agricola" 24; (See: p. 75).] This almost certainly means that Roman traders from Britain were trading in some of Co. Wexford's ports at that time. ["Freeman", pp 59 - 60.]

Gaelic tribes (or clans)

The Uí Cheinnselaig are believed to have arrived in southern Leinster (from the west, probably through the Pass of Gowran, from Ossory) in the 5th century ["Nolan & Kavanagh", p. 49 (Footnote).] , first establishing themselves in Co. Carlow (their main base there was at Rathvilly [Byrne," Irish Kings", p. 131.] ) and then some time afterwards gaining a foothold in Co. Wexford. Prior to their arrival the "Uí Bairrche" are believed to have been the dominant tribe in the region. ["Nolan & Kavanagh", p. 49 (Footnote).] "Furlong", p. 15.] By the mid-8th century the Uí Cheinnselaig had established their main base at Ferns. ["Furlong", p. 18.]

The name "Uí Cheinnselaig" derives from "Énna Cennsalach" (in English, Enna Kinsella), "Furlong", p. 15.] King of Leinster in the early 5th century, of whom the tribe were descendants. [Best, Bergin, & O'Brien, eds. "Book of Leinster". Vol. 1. Ríg Lagen (39b - 39d), pp 181 - 184, and Ríg Hua Cendselaig (40a - 40b), pp 184 - 186. The exact date of his reign is uncertain.] Énna Cennsalach claimed descent from Cathair Mór [Byrne," Irish Kings", p. 288.] , said to have been High King of Ireland in the 2nd century AD [Byrne, "Irish Kings", p. 142, & pp 288 - 290.] ["A.F.M." [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005A/text026.html M119-122] ] , and historically this seems fairly plausible. Byrne, "Irish Kings", p. 142.] Cathair Mór was said to have descended from "Labhraidh Loingseach" [Geoffrey Keating, "Foras Feasa ar Éirinn" (literally "Foundation of Knowledge on Ireland", more usually translated, or known as, "The History of Ireland") [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100054/text050.html 1.40] ] , also said by some to have been a much earlier High King of Ireland ["A.F.M." [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005A/text026.html M119-122] ] - this is less certain, however, as at this point history and legend become intertwined. [Byrne, "Irish Kings", p. 11.]

A famous early King of Uí Cheinnselaig was Brandub mac Echach, who defeated the High King of Ireland at the battle of "Dún Bolg", AD 598, thereby halting Uí Néill expansion into Leinster. Byrne, "Irish Kings", p. 142.]

Early Irish tribes, forming the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnselaig (named after the dominant and ruling tribe), included the "Beanntraige", "Uí Dego", "Sil mBrain", "Uí Bairrche", "Fotharta Mara", and the "Síl Maíluidir". [Francis J. Byrne, "Irish Kings and High Kings" (Dublin, 1973-2001), p. 133 (Map).] This list dates from circa AD 900. The area forming the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnselaig was slightly larger than the modern Co. Wexford.

Common Irish surnames with their origin in the county include Kinsella, Cosgrave, Murphy [Kavanagh. "Mount Leinster", pp 4 - 6.] and Larkin. "Furlong", p. 23.]

Coming of Christianity

The county was one of the earliest areas of Ireland to be Christianised, under Palladius (who preceded Saint Patrick) in the early 5th century. Prosper of Aquitaine in his "Chronicle" states that "Palladius" was sent to the Irish "believing in Christ" as their first bishop, AD 431. This means there were some Christians in Ireland already - before the arrival of "Palladius". Ibar and Kierán are often mentioned as possible predecessors of "Palladius".

Early churches and monasteries were located at Begerin (formerly an island in Wexford harbour before its reclamation) [ Begerin was one of the earliest foundations - founded by Ibar.] , Taghmon, Adamstown, Camross, Ardlathran [Probably Ardamine on the north-east coast of Co. Wexford.] , Ferns, Templeshanbo, New Ross, Clonmore, Templeshannon, Donaghmore, St. Kearns, and on the Hook Peninsula. Early missionaries included Ibar, Aidan (Maodhóg or Mogue), Fintan (or Munna, or Munnu), Senan, Abban, Evin, Kierán, and Dubhan.

Aidan (Maodhóg or Mogue) was the first Bishop of the Diocese of Ferns. The Diocese of Ferns was created AD 598 ["Grattan Flood", p. ix.] , the same year that Aidan was consecrated Bishop. He died AD 632.

The boundaries of the Diocese of Ferns were set at the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1118 [ John Lanigan, "An Ecclesiastical History of Ireland", p. 38 & footnote p. 41, convincingly states that the Synod of Rathbreasail had to have taken place 1118 and that it couldn't have taken place as early as 1111, the date normally given by many authors.] [ Grattan Flood, "History of the Diocese of Ferns", p. ix, also gives 1118 as the date for Rathbreasail; See also [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08098b.htm Online Catholic Encyclopedia] .] - its territory roughly corresponded to that of the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig as it existed at that time. Grattan Flood, in his "History of the Diocese of Ferns", states that at Rathbreasail, the Diocese of Ferns was mapped out as "from Begerin to Mileadhach, on the west of the Barrow; and from Sliabh Uidhe Laighean south to the sea." [ Grattan Flood, "History of the Diocese of Ferns", p. ix.]

Vikings

From 819 onwards, the Vikings plundered many Christian sites in the County and Wexford town became a Viking settlement.

The first recorded raid by the Vikings in Co. Wexford occurred in 819, when Begerin and Camhain's Oak Island (Dairinis Caemhain) [near Ardcavan.] in Wexford Harbour were plundered by them. A.F.M.] In 835 Ferns was plundered and in 839 it was burned by them. ["Annals of Ulster"]

At least as early as 888, the Vikings had established a settlement of some sort at Wexford, and they fought a battle that year in which they were defeated. A.F.M.]

In 917 Ferns and Taghmon were plundered by them. In 919 Ferns was again burned by them. In 919 "the foreigners of Loch Garman" are again mentioned, and again in 1088. A.F.M.]

There had been a settlement named "Loch Garman" at Wexford town prior to their arrival and the Vikings' new settlement was initially a separate one. Initially it would have been a Longphort, over time becoming more permanent - and was called "Waesfjord". Eventually the two settlements became one. The name "Waesfjord" became "Wexford", and gave its name to the town. ["Furlong", p. 22.]

The Surname 'Doyle', particularly common in Co. Wexford, is said to be of Norse or "Viking" origin. "Furlong", p. 23.] There are also many Norse or Viking placenames in the County - for example, "Saltee" islands and "Selskar".

Arrival of the Normans

Wexford was the site of an invasion by Normans in 1169 at the behest of Diarmuid Mac Murrough, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and King of Leinster (Laigin), which led to the subsequent colonisation of the country by the Anglo-Normans.

Áed Úa Crimthainn writing three years earlier, in 1166, wrote the following in the "Book of Leinster" regarding Diarmuid's (or Diarmait's) expulsion:

Diarmait enlisted help abroad and received it principally in Wales. In 1169, a group of Normans commanded by Robert Fitz-Stephen landed near Bannow in three ships (at "Bannow Island", since joined to the mainland by the process of silting).
Diarmait himself had returned to Ireland shortly before this, possibly as early as August 1167, with a small force - that included Richard FitzGodebert, and a small number of Knights and Archers. Another force under Raymond le Gros landed at Baginbun (then called Dún Domhnaill) in 1170. [Giraldus Cambrensis, "Expugnatio Hibernica", p. 300 (footnote). Giraldus calls it "Dundunnolf".] Mac Murrough died in 1171 and was buried at Ferns. His Kingdom, since regained, passed to Strongbow (Richard de Clare), contrary to Irish custom. Strongbow had married Aoife (or Eva), Diarmait's daughter, in 1170. Strongbow, after first submitting to the King, parcelled out these lands to his followers according to feudal law.

A 1247 list of Knight's fees includes the following names of the new 'owners': "de Heddon" (Hayden), "Howel", "de London", "de Bosco", "Chever" (Cheevers), "Brun" (Browne), "Ketting" (Keating), "Purcell", "de Wythay" (Whitty), "Cod" (Codd), "de Prendelgast" (Prendergast), and "de Rupe" (Roche) [this is not the full list] . In 1324 the names "Deverous" (Devereux), "le Poeur" (Power), "Synod" (Synott or Sinnott), "Hey" (Hay or Hayes), and "FitzHenry", are also listed [ Brooks, "Knight's Fees"] - as are many others not included here. Most of these names are still widespread in the County today. Furlong, Sutton, and Lambert were, and are, also prominent Norman names in Co. Wexford.

Wexford, particularly the baronies of Bargy and Forth, saw one of the most heavy concentrations of medieval English settlements in Ireland. This area was once known as the 'Wexford Pale'. An old dialect of English, known as Yola, was spoken uniquely in Wexford up until the 19th century. The north of the county remained Gaelic Irish in character, predominantly under the control of the MacMurrough Kavanagh clan.

During the Norman period, important towns existed at Bannow and Clonmines. However, these declined in importance over time. The Norman town of Bannow was almost entirely reclaimed by the sea - though an early Norman Church can still be seen there today.

Templars suppressed and the Black Death

In 1307 the Knights Templar were suppressed. In Co. Wexford the Knights were established at one location - on the Hook Peninsula. Their preceptory there, named Kilcloggan, [centred around Templetown, to which they gave their name.] and its lands, [their lands consisted of almost the entire Hook Peninsula. The preceptory at Kilcloggan was subordinate to that at Kilmainham, where the headquarters of the Templars in Ireland was located.] which had been granted to them during the reign of Henry II, were confiscated and a few years later, in 1312, they were granted to the Knights Hospitaller - who already had a manor in the county, probably at Ballyhoge. The "Knights Hospitaller" had been introduced to the county by Strongbow about 1175. Pope Innocent III confirmed possession of the church of "St. Mary of Slefculture" ["Knights' Fees", p. 10.] to the "Knights Hospitaller", 1212 (this was located near Slievcoiltia) - a number of other churches in the county (including many in Wexford town) were confirmed to them on the same date. A Co. Wexford family, of Norman origin, with strong associations with the "Knights Hospitaller" during their period of existence in the county and in Ireland was the "Keatings".

The Black Death ravaged Ireland 1348-49. One the most vivid accounts of the plague was written by Friar John Clyn at Kilkenny, who thought that all mankind might die. He reports that particularly in the months of September and October, 1348, people came from all over Ireland to "St. Mullins", Co. Carlow, including many no doubt from Co. Wexford, out of fear, to seek divine protection from the 'pestilence' as he calls it - as it was then very prevalent. He comments on how it was rare for only one member of a family to die, but that usually the entire family was wiped out. John Clyn himself is believed to have died in 1349 from the plague. [See: Clyn and Dowling, "The Annals of Ireland". Ed. Butler.]

Gaelic resurgence

The native Irish began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century, especially in the north of the county. This was primarily due to Art MacMurrough Kavanagh, who became King of Leinster in 1377. [More correctly, King over part of Leinster.] King Richard II led two expeditions against him. Art MacMurrough Kavanagh claimed descent from Diarmuid Mac Murrough (d. 1171), through an illegitimate son of Diarmuid's named Domhnall. Domhnall was said to have been a student at a monastery dedicated to St. Caomhan, near Gorey - hence the name Cavanagh or Kavanagh came to refer to Domhnall and was used by many of his descendants ever since. The main branch of the MacMurrough Kavanaghs later lived at Borris House, Borris, Co. Carlow.

The Annals of the Four Masters differ as to the date, and the manner, of Art's death, recording it twice. Either entry in the Annals may be correct. They state that Art died in either 1416 or 1417. [ "A.F.M.": M1416.9: In 1416 they record that "Art Kavanagh (King of Leinster), the son of Art Kavanagh, who was son of Mortogh Kavanagh, son of Maurice Kavanagh, &c., only choice of the Irish of Ireland for hospitality and activity at arms, died in his own fortress, after the victory of penance." ] ["A.F.M.": M1417.1: In 1417 they state "Art, the son of Art, son of Murtough, son of Maurice, Lord of Leinster, a man who had defended his own province against the English and Irish from his sixteenth to his sixtieth year; a man full of hospitality, knowledge, and chivalry; a man full of prosperity and royalty; the enricher of churches and monasteries, by his alms and offerings, died (after having been forty-two years in the lordship of Leinster) a week after Christmas. Some assert that it was of a poisonous drink which a woman gave to him, and to O'Doran, Chief Brehon of Leinster, at Ros-Mic-Triuin, that both died. Donough, his son, assumed his place after him." By "Ros-Mic-Triuin" is meant "Ros Mhic Thriúin", Irish for "New Ross".] The date 1417 is the year given by most authors, who generally state that he died at New Ross. ["Nolan & Kavanagh", p. 149, for example.] He was buried at St. Mullins, Co. Carlow. His tombstone there states that he died 1417 - however, this was erected long after his death. The Annals of Ulster state that he died 1417, [Annals of Ulster. U1417.1: "Mac Murchadha, namely, king of Leinster, that is, Art, son of Art Caemanach, to wit, the Provincial who was best of hospitality and prowess and charity that was in his own time, died in his own stronghold this year, after victory of Unction and penance."] as do the "Annals of Loch Cé" [ Annals of Loch Cé. LC1417.1: "Mac Murchadha, i,e. the king of Laighen. i.e. Art son of Art Caemhanach, the best provincialist that was in his time for hospitality, and prowess, and charity, died in his own fortress this year, after the triumph of unction and penitence."] - however, neither states that he died at New Ross, and the details agree with the 1416 entry in the Annals of the Four Masters, differing only in date.

16th century

Under Henry VIII the great religious houses were dissolved, 1536-41. All their lands and possessions were confiscated and became the King's property, who subsequently granted them to new owners. In Co. Wexford the following were among the most important of those dissolved:
*Tintern Abbey - a Cistercian foundation. Its possessions were granted to Anthony Colclough in the mid-16th century.
*Dunbrody Abbey [See: [http://www.dunbrodyabbey.com/abbey.htm Dunbrody Abbey Website.] ] - another Cistercian foundation. Its possessions were granted in 1545 to "Osborne Itchingham" (or "Echingham"). In the mid-17th century it passed, through marriage, to Arthur Chichester. [ Thomas P. Walsh, "Dunbrody through the ages", in "Journal of the Wexford Historical Society (formerly The Old Wexford Society), No. 6 (1976-77)", pp 32-33.]
*The Augustinian Priory of Clonmines. [The chief difference between an Abbey and a Priory is that an Abbey has a Abbot as its head, but a Priory doesn't.] In 1546 the Silver mines at Clonmines were re-opened and were worked for the State. [Hore, History, Vol. 2., p. 233.] The rest of the Priory's lands (small in extent) were divided up and passed through several owners over time.
*The Knights Hospitaller's "manor of Kilcloggan" - became the possession of "Dudley Loftus" (son of Adam Loftus) near the end of the 16th century. [Collins, "Peerage", pp 33-57.]
*Glascarrig Priory.
*Selskar Abbey.

In the "Calendar of Carew Manuscripts" there is a description of Co. Wexford in 1596, as follows:

cquote|That part of the county north of the river Slane is possessed chiefly by the Irish called the Cavenaghes. "It hath on that north side also many English inhabitants;" sc., Synot of Clelande, Roth of Roth, Synot of Ballynerah in the Murros, Masterson at Fernes Castle (where also the Bishop's see is), Peppard at Glascarrig."

The Irish on that side the Slane are these: Donell Mortagh, Edmund O'Morowe of the O'Morowes' country, and others, "ever bad neighbours and rebellious people, under the government of William Synot, by lease from her Majesty."

"Other Irish nations are by east them to the sea. The countries are called the Kinshelaghes, Kilconelin, Kilhobock, Farinhamon, inhabited by Art McDermot, McDa More, Mc-Vadock, Darby McMorish, all under the government of Mr. Masterson."

On the south-west of the Slane are four English baronies, called Fort, Barge, Shelberre, and Shelmalen, and an Irish barony called the Duffree. The principal men in the English are Browne of Malrancon, Devoureux of Balmagir, Chevers of Ballyhale, Forlong of Horton, FitzHarryes of Kilkevan, [the] Bishop of Fernes, Sir Thomas Colclough of Tyntern, Sir Dudley Losthowse [this is Dudley Loftus. The name Loftus was originally Lofthouse (not Losthouse, as given here).] of Kilclogan. In the Durffey dwell Sir Harry Wallop at Iniscorth, Piers Butler, the Viscount Mountgarret. [Calendar of Carew Mss., Vol. 3, p. 190 (Given as written). This is part of a collection of Manuscripts belonging to George Carew, dating from his time in Ireland. Also included in the 1596 description of Co. Wexford is Arklow - "Arclo, the Earl of Ormond's manor and castle" - Wicklow was not created as a separate county until early in the 17th century.]

17th century wars and confiscations

A Plantation of English settlers took place, 1612-13, east of the river Slaney in Co. Wexford. The lands were distributed in pockets over various parts of this large area - roughly 1,000 Irish (or Plantation) acres on average were granted to each indiviual (though some received more). Some of those granted land were: Francis Annesley, Francis Blundell, Richard Cooke, Lawrence Esmond, Edward Fisher, Adam Loftus, Henry Pierse and George Trevelyan - however, this is just a partial list. ["Wexford: History and Society"]

On 23 October 1641, a major Rebellion broke out in Ireland. In 1649, Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army first arrived in Co. Wexford to deal with the rebels located there. [See Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.] Ferns and Enniscorthy were captured by them near the end of September 1649. Wexford town was sacked by Cromwell and his Army, 11 October 1649 - hundreds of civilians were killed in the process. Cromwell was blamed for the massacre by the people of Co. Wexford and of Ireland in general. Reports of the numbers killed vary considerably. ["Furlong", p. 78.]
New Ross, under the command of Lucas Taffe, surrendered to Cromwell 19 October 1649. Taffe and most of the garrison were allowed to march away as part of the terms of surrender. Taffe also wrote to Cromwell requesting "liberty of conscience as such shall stay" [ Carlyle, "Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches", p. 394. (Letter dated 19 October 1649) - that is, liberty of conscience for those residents of the town that chose to stay in the town instead of leaving.] However, Cromwell wrote a noteworthy reply, indicative of what was to come in subsequent years:

The capture of Ross meant that all of Co. Wexford was effectively in Cromwell's hands, with the exception of the Fort of Duncannon - which held out until August 1650, before surrendering.

About 1655 the county was mapped under the Down Survey. [The Down Survey officially commenced 11 December 1654 and ended in early March, 1656, for those counties it covered.] The county was also covered by the Civil Survey, which was conducted 1654-56 (but which recorded land ownership in 1640-41). These surveys were conducted to aid the confiscation and re-distribution of lands. The lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. In other counties Adventurers were alloted lands, but the lands in County Wexford were to go primarily to soldiers. [ See: Prendergast, "Cromwellian Settlement".] It was only the landowners who were ordered west of the Shannon and who went into exile on the Continent - the ordinary people were allowed to stay on in their homes to serve as tenants for their new landlords. [Prendergast, "Cromwellian Settlement", pp 164-165: Initially Wexford was one of five counties where it was planned to transplant all Catholics, but the new owners objected to this, as they needed tenants to till the land and pay rents - so the plan was dropped.] However, many soldiers (though not all) sold their lands almost immediately. Cromwell's death in 1658 meant that some of the grants of land that he had made were cancelled and a small number of the old proprietors were restored to their estates under Charles II. Other beneficiaries were Charles II's supporters, especially those who had helped 'restore' him to the English throne. [ For example, George Monck and Arthur Annesley received large grants of land in Co. Wexford under Charles II - of whom they were staunch supporters. Monck had effectively restored Charles II to the throne.] All this is borne out by the "Books of Survey and Distribution". More dispossessions were made when James II was defeated and dethroned, near the end of the 17th century, primarily the lands of his supporters. It was at Duncannon, in the south-west of the county that James II, after his defeat at the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and then to exile in France.

Also in this century, the first Magpies in Ireland were recorded as having appeared in the County of Wexford about 1676. Robert Leigh, of Rosegarland (near Clongeen), writing 1684 states:

Wolves were very common at the time of Cromwell in Ireland. However, Government rewards offered to kill them and for their capture meant they became very rare within fifty years and extinct in Ireland before the end of the 18th century. [See: Prendergast, "Cromwellian Settlement", pp177 - 180.] The most reliable evidence suggests that Wolves became extinct in Co. Wexford in the 1730s, and that the last Wolf in Ireland was killed near Mount Leinster in Co. Carlow in 1786.

The Penal Laws & the 18th century

Though there had been many earlier laws enacted against Catholics in Ireland, the year 1695 marked the real beginning of what were called the "Penal laws". These laws primarily discriminated against Catholics, and did not begin to be relaxed until the end of the 18th century.

In late 1709 a number of Protestant families from the Palatinate region of Germany were settled on the lands of Abel Ram of Gorey, a large landowner, at Old Ross and at Gorey. Some of the surnames of these new settlers included names such as Frizelle, Hornick, Jekyll, Poole, and Rhinehardt. They had travelled via Rotterdam to London, and arrived at Dublin, 10 September 1709. Another large group were settled at Co. Limerick, and others were settled elsewhere in Ireland. They are referred to as 'Palatines'. [Browne, "Old Ross", pp 37 - 43.]

In 1752, Richard Pococke travelled through a large part of Co. Wexford and left a written record of his tour.

In the early 1770s, the Whiteboys were briefly active in north-west Co. Wexford - though they are said to have had little impact on the rest of the county. [ "Hay", p. 12.] According to "George Taylor" they first appeared in Co. Wexford in 1774 but "they were soon quelled, and two of the ringleaders, named Owen Carroll and John Daggan, were found guilty of some heinous offence, and executed near "Newtownbarry" [Newtownbarry was a British name used for Bunclody.] , on the 28th of September, 1775." ["Taylor", p. 7.] Their chief grievance seems to have been the payment of "Tithes" - a tax towards the upkeep of the Established Church. The Established Church was Protestant and the Whiteboys were Catholic.

In 1777 there were only three Post Offices in the county - Gorey, Enniscorthy, and Wexford. The Royal Mail from Dublin entered the county only two days in the week, and returned on each succeeding day. [Griffiths, "Chronicles", p. 15.]

In 1778, the Colclough family formed the first Volunteer Company in Ireland, at Enniscorthy.

Arthur Young travelled throughout Ireland at this period. His book, "A Tour in Ireland, 1776-1779", includes many details on Co. Wexford - which he visited during that time. [ See: [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22387/22387-h/22387-h.htm A Tour in Ireland, 1776-1779, by Arthur Young - Online Edition at Project Gutenberg.] .]

In 1793 an serious 'incident' took place near Wexford town. A large group of people, who had recently joined a secret organization called the "Right Boys", [not Defenders, as "Taylor" states.] [Hay, p. 21, implies the organization involved was Munster-based.] ["Codd", p. 20. The RC Bishop of Ferns, James Caulfield (d. 1814), called them 'Right Boys' in a 1796 Relatio to Rome.] from the north-west and west of Co. Wexford approached the town in an attempt to free two prisoners. On 11 July 1793, a large body of them [about two or three thousands according to "Taylor".] approached the town - armed with guns, pikes, scythes, and similar weapons. They had a Lieutenant Buckby as their prisoner, who they had captured earlier. At about two o'clock on the same day, the military - the 56th regiment of infantry, commanded by Major Vallotton [A soldier who had served at the Siege of Gibraltar] - were sent out to meet them, "at the sight of which it was imagined they would disperse". ["Taylor", p. 12.] They met near John street. A parley was agreed and Vallotton stepped forward on his side and the "Right Boys" sent forward, as their leader, John Moore of Robinstown. For some reason Vallotton lost his cool and struck Moore with his sword, wounding him severely. Moore wounded him in the groin with a scythe - Vallotton died a few days later. The soldiers opened fire and the group dispersed - 11 of the protestors were killed on the spot but many more later died from their wounds in the fields around the town (perhaps another 90 or so) - some of these were killed by local militia under the command of "James Boyd". [Furlong, p. 97.] Lieutenant Buckby escaped. Moore died that day and was buried at Carnagh. He was only 22 years old. Many of the "Right Boys" were made prisoners, "five of whom, James Kenney, Patrick Flannery, Patrick Neil, Michael Carty, and John Crawford, were found guilty at the ensuing assizes and executed" ["Taylor", p. 13.] , 26 July 1793. Vallotton had a monument erected to his memory at Wexford town. Within the county this whole affair is sometimes referred to as the 'First Rebellion' (1798 being the second). ["Codd", pp 17 - 33, provides the most detailed account of the 1793 'Rebellion'.]

It was towards the end of the 18th century that the Irish language began to largely die out in the county, in those areas where it was spoken.

The 1798 Rebellion

County Wexford was the most important area in which the 1798 rebellion was fought, during which significant battles were fought at Enniscorthy and New Ross. The famous ballad Boolavogue was written in remembrance of the Wexford Rising. Numerous 1798 memorials are scattered throughout the county. The French Revolution was a big influence on many of the Rebels who took part. Many were also "United Irishmen". The Society of United Irishmen had been founded in 1791 at Belfast. A common weapon used by the Wexford Rebels was the Pike, made by local Blacksmiths - one modification usually included was a hook, used primarily to cut a horse's reins. The Iron or Steel spearhead was attached to a long wooden shaft - made of Ash. A type of torture known as Pitchcapping was widely employed by British troops in Co. Wexford.

The Rebellion in Co. Wexford began on the evening of 26 May 1798. All through that night and the morning of 27 May 1798 several incidents took place, the first of which occurred just north of Scarawalsh Bridge, on the River Slaney. The area of countryside around Ferns and Camolin was principally involved in the initial outbreak. Fires were lit on nearby hills (including Carrigrew Hill) this night to signal to those in the surrounding countryside that the Rebellion had commenced. The famous John Murphy, a Catholic Priest, emerged as an important Rebel leader at this early stage of the Rebellion.

The Rebels were victorious at the Battle of Oulart Hill on 27 May 1798. On the 28 May 1798 the Rebels were again victorious at the "Battle of Enniscorthy". They established one of their main Rebel Camps at Vinegar Hill, adjacent to the town. Now, with the recent successes, more and more men flocked to the Rebel standards. On 30 May 1798 the Rebels were again victorious at the Battle of Three Rocks, near Wexford town. The Government and Loyalist forces at Wexford town panicked and almost the entire garrison fled by a circuitous route, avoiding the Rebels, towards Duncannon Fort. The Rebels entered the town in triumph - now the county town was theirs.Defeat for the Rebels came 1 June 1798 at the Battle of Bunclody (or Newtownbarry). However, on the 4 June 1798 they were again victorious at the "Battle of Tubberneering" and they occupied nearby Gorey town the same day.

On 5 June 1798, the Rebels fought for ten hours at the Battle of New Ross, but failed to take the town. There was huge loss of life and blood literally ran in the streets. Later that day about 120 loyalist priosoners, were killed at Scullabogue, near the Rebel Camp on Carrigbyrne Hill.

On 9 June 1798, Co. Wexford Rebels, joined by Rebels from Co. Wicklow, were defeated at the Battle of Arklow, Co. Wicklow. On 20 June 1798 a number of loyalists were killed on the Bridge at Wexford town. Also on On 20 June 1798 the Rebels were defeated at the Battle of Foulksmills (or Goff's Bridge). At this stage, Government and Loyalist troops were now closing in on the Rebels from all sides.

The Rebels were defeated at the Battle of Vinegar Hill, 21 June 1798. That was the last major action in Co. Wexford. However, a detachement of Government and Loyalist forces, consisting of Ancient Britons, Fifth Dragoon Guards, Gorey Yeoman Cavalry, Ballaghkeen Yeoman Cavalry, and some supplementary mounted Yeomen, was ambushed and defeated at Ballyellis, Co. Wexford (near the border with Co. Wicklow), 30 June 1798. The number killed was probably 44 - of whom 25 were Ancient Britons. A number of others were wounded. [ Wheeler & Broadley, pp 210-211 & p. 216.] ["Brewer", p. 365, states that 30 of the Ancient Britons were killed.] There were no Rebel casualties. This engagement became known as the Battle of Ballyellis.On the morning of 5 July 1798 the Rebels fought the Army (under James Duff) for two hours at the "Battle of Ballygullen" (near Craanford), where a large number of Rebels were killed and wounded. This Battle marked the end of the Rebellion in Co. Wexford. However, groups of Rebels escaped from Co. Wexford and continued to fight on elsewhere in Ireland for some time afterwards. Some like Miles Byrne never gave up and were never caught. After Emmet's failed Rebellion of 1803, in which Byrne was involved, he escaped to France. There he enlisted in the French Army and fought the British in this guise on many subsequent occasions.

19th century

In 1803, Edward Hay, of "Ballinkeele", published one of the first accounts of the 1798 Rebellion, along with a detailed map of the county.

In 1807, a famous duel [The weapons used were Pistols.] took place at Ardcandrisk between John Colclough and William Alcock. The main cause was an election that was about to be held - each being opposing candidates. Colclough was killed and a huge crowd subsequently attended his funeral at Tintern Abbey. This was mainly because the Colcloughs were generally popular and considered liberal landlords and also because Colclough was the people's candidate. [Cloney, "Narrative", pp 170 - 176.] The Colclough family had been granted the former Abbey (part of which they used as a dwelling) and its extensive lands in the mid-16th century.

In 1811, "Valentine Gill" published his map of the county. He published another edition in 1816. ["Wexford: History and Society", p. 454.] He was a brother of "John Gill", killed on "Vinegar Hill" during the 1798 Rebellion. [ Cloney, "Narrative", p. 3.]

Edward Hay, of "Ballinkeele", died at Dublin, 1826.

Many areas of the county were very much involved in the Tithe War (1831-36). This can be seen from the many people, from many areas of the county, included in the lists of those who refused to pay Tithes, known as the "Tithe Defaulter Schedules". Co. Wexford wasn't as badly affected as some other areas by the Famine in the 1840s, but it still had a major impact on the county.

Nicholas Furlong, illustrating the effects of the Famine, states "In 1841 the population of Co. Wexford was 202,033. In 1851 it was 180,158, a drop of 21,875. The population continued to decline for the rest of the century." ["Furlong", p. 116.]

Griffiths' Valuation for Co. Wexford was published in 1853 - it now serves as an important Census substitute, as almost all the 19th century Census returns have since been destroyed.

Newspapers became widespread in this century - for example, the "Wexford People" began around 1853.

In 1859 the "Pomona", an emigrant ship, sank off the Wexford coast and all onboard were killed - estimated at about 400 people.

In the mid-19th century many of the county's towns received gas lighting for the first time - Enniscorthy, for example, around the 1850-60s. [Lacy, "Sights and scenes in our fatherland", p. 476] The 19th century also saw the arrival of the Railways in the county.

The Bridge at New Ross, over the River Barrow, was carried away by a flood and a great flow of ice, 1867. [Griffiths, "Chronicles", p. 324.]

Later in the 19th century, the Land War had a widespread impact on the county. A large number of tenants were famously evicted at Coolgreany, 1887. ["Furlong", p. 120.]

20th century to present

The first fully surviving Census of Population for Co. Wexford dates from 1901. [ [http://www.leitrim-roscommon.com/1901census/census.shtml Search 1901 Census for Co. Wexford] (Not all areas of the county are yet Online).]

In the early decades of the 20th century, many people from Co. Wexford emigrated to the USA - most travelled from Cobh (then called Queenstown), Co. Cork, via passenger Ship to Ellis Island, New York. [ [http://www.ellisisland.org/ Search Ellis Island Records Online for Free.] (Free Registration required for some areas of this Website).] Some remained in the USA, but many others later returned home.

County Wexford (1914-1923)

In 1916, a small "Rebellion" occurred at Enniscorthy [See: "Furlong and Hayes", pp 46 - 70.] on cue with that at Dublin. On Thursday, 27 April 1916, Enniscorthy town was taken over by about 600 armed rebels. [” [British] Commanding Officer’s Report - G.A. French, May 2, 1916”, in "Furlong and Hayes", p 61.] The government responded by sending a force of more than 1,000 men to retake Enniscorthy. On Monday, 1 May 1916, the Enniscorthy rebels surrendered unconditionally. There had been no fatalities and relatively little damage to property. Some of the leaders were sentenced to death, but all had their sentences commuted. "Furlong and Hayes" state, "270 were arrested, of whom 150 were interned at Frongoch in north Wales". "Furlong and Hayes", p. 46.] Frongoch internment camp was located at Frongoch, three miles from the town of Bala in Merionethshire, North Wales. [Coogan, "Michael Collins", p. 49.]

Michael O'Hanrahan of New Ross, who played a prominent role in the Easter Rising at Dublin, was executed 4 May 1916 at Dublin.

During World War 1, at least 504 men from Co. Wexford, who were enlisted in the British Army, died fighting in the land War. [ See List at [http://homepage.eircom.net/~taghmon/histsoc/vol3/chapter6/chapter6.htm World War 1 - The Wexford Casualties] (Online Edition of Journal of the Taghmon Historical Society).] German U-boats were very active off Wexford's southern coast during the War. Zeppelins were based at Johnstown Castle, ["Furlong and Hayes", pp 80 - 84.] and used to deal with the U-boat threat. From 25 February 1918, American seaplanes operated out of an Air Base located at Ferrycarrig, Wexford. ["Furlong and Hayes", pp 94 - 103.] One famous U-boat that operated off Wexford's coasts was U-20, commanded by Walther Schwieger. On 6 May 1915 it torpedoed and sunk both "SS Centurion" and "SS Candidate" off the south Wexford coast, but the crews were unharmed. The next day, this same U-boat torpedoed and sunk S.S. Lusitania, a large passenger liner, off the coast of Co. Cork. ["Furlong and Hayes", p. 85.] The main shipping route between Britain and America passed through Wexford coastal waters. Britain was incredibly dependent on this route for supplies. A huge number of ships were sunk off Wexford's coasts during the War. [ [http://www.irishwrecksonline.net/pages/PageH6.htm Search: Shipwrecks off Co. Wexford coast at www.irishwrecksonline.net] .] The area of sea around Tuskar Rock came to be referred to as "The Graveyard" - the graveyard of Allied ships. ["Furlong and Hayes", p. 94.] A number of German U-boats were also sunk in Wexford coastal waters. One of these was "UC-44", [ [http://uboat.net/wwi/boats/index.html?boat=UC+44 UC-44 details online] . The 'UC' type of U-boats were a smaller type of U-boat used mainly for laying mines.] sunk off the Hook Peninsula on 4 August 1917 by a mine. The only survivor was the U-boat's commander. The rest of the crew - 28 men - died. ["Gibson and Prendergast", pp 196 –197.] [See also: [http://www.gwpda.org/naval/sml00001.htm U-boats - German Submarine Losses From All Causes During World War One] .] ["Furlong and Hayes", p. 87. Here it is incorrectly called U-44, a different U-boat that sank off Norway later that same month. This page conatins a B&W Photo of UC-44.]

John Redmond, leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party, died at London, 6 March 1918. He was interred in the Redmond family vault at St John’s Graveyard, John Street, Wexford, later that same month. ["Furlong and Hayes", pp 115 - 116.] At the 1918 General Election for the House of Commons at Westminster, Co. Wexford returned two Sinn Féin candidates, James Ryan and Roger Sweetman - who replaced the Redmondites who had previously held these seats, Peter Ffrench and Thomas Esmonde. However, Sinn Féin refused to take their seats in the British Parliament, instead setting up their own Parilament, Dáil Éireann, at Dublin. It met 21 January 1919 for the first time. Only members of Sinn Féin attended. The Dáil set up a Department of Defence, represented by the Irish Republican Army (I.R.A.). Michael Collins and Cathal Brugha were the main leaders of the I.R.A. World War 1 had effectively ended 11 November 1918 with the signing of the armistice of that date. However, while peace came to Europe, troubled times lay ahead for Co. Wexford and Ireland as a whole. On the same day that the First Dáil met, the Irish War of Independence began.

The "Irish War of Independence" (1919-1921) was a guerilla war fought by the I.R.A. in an attempt to end British rule of Ireland and thereby establish an independent Irish state. The War in Co. Wexford saw numerous attacks on Royal Irish Constabulary (R.I.C.) Barracks - some of which were abandoned by the R.I.C. Post Offices were also attacked and some attacks on the Railways also occurred. A force called the Black and Tans were soon introduced to Ireland and Co. Wexford, by the British, to deal with the problem. The Black and Tans, because of how they mistreated people, quickly became extremely unpopular. "Furlong and Hayes", p. 117.] Many people were imprisoned. Probably the most high profile death of the War in Co. Wexford was that of Percival Lea-Wilson, a District Inspector in the R.I.C. who was stationed at Gorey. He was shot dead by the I.R.A. outside his Gorey home on 15 June 1920. ["Furlong and Hayes", pp 131 - 132.] [See also: Coogan, "Michael Collins", pp 44-45.] The greatest number of casualties of the War in Co. Wexford occurred on 12 October 1920, when 5 men were killed and 9 others injured, when explosives being prepared by the I.R.A. accidentally detonated in an old unoccupied house located at St. Kearns, Saltmills. ["Furlong", pp 137 - 138.] [ Ryan, "Comrades", p. 216-217.] On 4 January 1921, Co. Wexford was placed under Martial law. The Irish War of Independence ended on 11 July 1921 - when both sides agreed to a truce. The conflict had reached a stalemate.

Michael Collins visited Wexford town 8-9 April 1922. During a speech he made at Wexford, Collins stated:

On 28 June 1922 the Irish Civil War (1922-1923) began. Co. Wexford's Civil War was far more viciously fought than its War of Independence - with many more deaths (on both sides). Again it was a guerilla war. After the signing of the Treaty, the I.R.A. as a whole in Co. Wexford was divided. The "North Wexford and South Wicklow Brigade" of the I.R.A., led by Joseph Cummins, supported the Treaty, but the "South Wexford Brigade" of the I.R.A., led by Thomas O’Sullivan, opposed it. ["Kissane", p. 4.] Anti-Treaty I.R.A. units in the county were organized into the Enniscorthy, Murrintown, Kyle, and New Ross Flying Columns, consisting of about 12-20 men each. ["Furlong and Hayes", p. 202.] Numerous attacks on the county's Railways by anti-Treaty I.R.A. units were a major feature of the War in Co. Wexford. A vicious circle of reprisal killings soon ensued - a sample of these are as follows. On 24 July 1922, an anti-Treaty I.R.A. unit ambushed a train near Killurin Railway Station and 3 Free State soldiers were killed. ["Furlong and Hayes", pp 205-206.] On 10 October 1922, a senior Free State army officer, Commandant Peter Doyle, of Ballinakill, Marshalstown, was shot in the grounds of St. Aidan’s Cathedral, Enniscorthy, by anti-Treaty I.R.A. ["Furlong and Hayes", p. 193 & p. 233.] On 13 March 1923, the Free State side executed 3 anti-Treaty I.R.A. prisoners held in Wexford Jail - James Parle, John Creane, and Patrick Hogan. ["Furlong and Hayes", p. 231.] In a reprisal killing, on 23 March 1923 anti-Treaty I.R.A. took 3 Free State soldiers from a Public House at Ballagh, parish of Adamstown. They were taken to the village of Adamstown where they were shot dead early next morning, on 24 March 1923. The 3 men were Parick Horan, Edward [or possibly Patrick, as the Army documents give these two different names.] O'Gorman, and Thomas Jones. A fourth Free State soldier, John Croke, was also wounded at the Pub. ["Furlong and Hayes", pp 223-226.] There were many other killings also. Some of these were stated to be 'accidental'. A number of large houses were burnt down by anti-Treaty I.R.A. units - most notably "Castleboro" (February 1923), owned by the Carews, "Wilton" (March 1923), owned by the Alcocks, and "Ballynastragh" (March 1923), owned by the Esmondes. The Free State side also imprisoned many suspects.

The anti-Treaty side declared a nationwide ceasefire, 30 April 1923. On 24 May 1923 the War ended, as anti-Treaty I.R.A. units were ordered to dump their arms, which most of them did. The Free State side had won. Normal political activity began to take hold in Ireland from this point forward. Political parties such as Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael, the Labour Party, and others, eventually began to dominate Irish politics.

World War 2

Ireland remained officially neutral during World War 2. During the War, on 26 August 1940, the German Luftwaffe bombed Campile. Three women were killed. [ "Furlong", p. 143.] On 11 October 1941 a German Luftwaffe Bomber (Heinkel He 111H-6) crashed into the Blackstairs mountains near Kiltealy, killing all of its four-man crew, having taken off earlier from France. [The four men who died were Kurt Tiggemann, Wilhelm Böhmer, Ehrfried Kolwe, and Hans Szuflita.] A number of other planes - German and Allied - crashed on Co. Wexford soil and in its coastal waters during the War, and in many cases there were fatalities. German U-boats were again active in Wexford's coastal waters in World War 2. On 11 November 1940, "SS Ardmore" struck a mine near the Saltee Islands - all of the 24-man crew died.

In Ireland, the Wartime period is referred to as The Emergency. There was a scarcity of goods, as trade between Britain and Ireland was badly disrupted - though some households had stocked up on certain supplies before the outbreak of War. Most of Ireland's imports at that time, unlike today, then came from Britain.

Post 1950

A huge change came in the 1950s, when most rural areas of the county received electricity for the first time - though some had received it earlier, these were relatively few in number.

In 1963 John F. Kennedy, then President of the United States, visited the county and his ancestral home at Dunganstown, near New Ross. His great grandfather left Co. Wexford in 1848 and settled at Boston, USA.

Some of the county's Railway-lines were closed in the 1960s - Ballywilliam Station, for example, closed in 1963.

On Sunday, 24 March 1968, an Air Lingus aircraft (called "Saint Phelim") crashed into the sea near Tuskar Rock on its way from Cork to London. The exact cause of the crash is to some extent left unxeplained - though a 'structural failure of the port tailplane' is the generally stated reason. All 61 people onboard, consisting of 57 passengers and 4 crewmembers, were killed. ["Furlong", pp 149-150.] The crash is often referred to as the Tuskar Rock Air Disaster. [See also: [http://www.transport.ie/viewitem.asp?id=4106&lang=ENG&loc=1079 Tuskar Rock Crash] .] Ireland joined the European Economic Community (E.E.C.), now known as the European Union (E.U.), in 1973.

In the late 1970s, plans to build a Nuclear Power Station at Carnsore were abandoned after extensive protests from the public resulted due to environmental and health concerns.

Emigration was also heavy during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s - mainly due to unemployment. The numbers involved in Agriculture steadily declined from that period onwards.

In March 1993, Jim Bolger [ [http://www.primeminister.govt.nz/oldpms/1990bolger.html Jim Bolger - Former Prime Minister of New Zealand] ] , then Prime Minister of New Zealand visited his parent's homes at Ballyconran and Knockbrandon, Co. Wexford. [His father was Daniel Bolger from Ballyconran and his mother was Cecelia Doyle (1902-2006), of Knockbrandon, Craanford, Gorey. They were married October 91930, in Kilanerin Parish Church. Later that day they left Co. Wexford and soon afterwards settled in New Zealand. [http://www.aucklandirish.co.nz/news.php?extend.112.6] ] In 1998 the 200th anniversary of the 1798 Rebellion was commemorated by Wexford people throughout the year, in a variety of different ways.

The President of Ireland, Mary McAleese, visited New Ross, January 2007.

The last 10-15 years has seen an increase in prosperity. One change is the noticeable improvement in many of the county's major roads. It has also seen a huge influx of immigrants - immigration being previously almost non-existent. A huge number of 'holiday homes' have also been built in the coastal areas of the county. Another change is the decline in the emphasis placed on organized religion.

A number of Wind Farms have been recently constructed in the county and are now generating electricity.

References

Footnotes

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*Wheeler, Harold B.F. & Alexander M. Broadley. "The War in Wexford - An Account of the Rebellion in the South of Ireland in 1798, told from original documents". London & New York: John Lane, 1910.
*Whelan, K., ed., and W. Nolan, assoc. ed. "Wexford: History and Society". Dublin: Geography Publications, 1987. ISBN 0 906602 0-68.
*Wilde, W.R. "A Descriptive Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy". Vol. 1. Dublin & London, 1863.

External links

* [http://www.megalithomania.com/show/county/Wexford Megalithic Sites in Co. Wexford] .
* [http://www.botanicgardens.ie/herb/books/philips/wexford3.jpgLate 19th Century A.D. Map of Co. Wexford.]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/wexford/ Images of Wexford on Flickr.]
* [http://www.wexfordtourism.com/ County Wexford Tourism.]
* [http://www.countywexford.com/ County Wexford.]


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