Infinite product


Infinite product

In mathematics, for a sequence of numbers "a"1, "a"2, "a"3, ... the infinite product

:prod_{n=1}^{infty} a_n = a_1 ; a_2 ; a_3 cdots

is defined to be the limit of the partial products "a"1"a"2..."a""n" as "n" increases without bound. The product is said to "converge" when the limit exists and is not zero. Otherwise the product is said to "diverge". The value zero is treated specially in order to obtain results analogous to those for infinite sums. If the product converges, then the limit of the sequence "a""n" as "n" increases without bound must be 1, while the converse is in general not true. Therefore, the logarithm log "a""n" will be defined for all but a finite number of "n", and for those we have

:log prod_{n=1}^{infty} a_n = sum_{n=1}^{infty} log a_n

with the product on the left converging if and only if the sum on the right converges. This allows the translation of convergence criteria for infinite sums into convergence criteria for infinite products.

For products in which each a_nge1, written as, for instance, a_n=1+p_n,where p_nge 0, the bounds

:1+sum_{n=1}^{N} p_n le prod_{n=1}^{N} left( 1 + p_n ight) le exp left( sum_{n=1}^{N}p_n ight)

show that the infinite product converges precisely if the infinite sum of the "p""n" converges.

The best known examples of infinite products are probably some of the formulae for π, such as the following two products, respectively by Viète and John Wallis (Wallis product):

:frac{2}{pi} = frac{ sqrt{2} }{ 2 } cdot frac{ sqrt{2 + sqrt{2 }{ 2 } cdot frac{ sqrt{2 + sqrt{2 + sqrt{2} }{ 2 } cdots:frac{pi}{2} = frac{2}{1} cdot frac{2}{3} cdot frac{4}{3} cdot frac{4}{5} cdot frac{6}{5} cdot frac{6}{7} cdot frac{8}{7} cdot frac{8}{9} cdots = prod_{n=1}^{infty} left( frac{ 4 cdot n^2 }{ 4 cdot n^2 - 1 } ight).

Product representations of functions

One important result concerning infinite products is that every entire function "f"("z") (that is, every function that is holomorphic over the entire complex plane) can be factored into an infinite product of entire functions, each with at most a single root. In general, if "f" has a root of order "m" at the origin and has other complex roots at "u"1, "u"2, "u"3, ... (listed with multiplicities equal to their orders), then

:f(z) = z^m ; e^{phi(z)} ; prod_{n=1}^{infty} left(1 - frac{z}{u_n} ight) ;exp leftlbrace frac{z}{u_n} + frac12left(frac{z}{u_n} ight)^2 + cdots + frac1{lambda_n}left(frac{z}{u_n} ight)^{lambda_n} ight brace

where λ"n" are non-negative integers that can be chosen to make the product converge, and φ("z") is some uniquely determined analytic function (which means the term before the product will have no roots in the complex plane). The above factorization is not unique, since it depends on the choice of values for λ"n", and is not especially elegant. However, for most functions, there will be some minimum non-negative integer "p" such that λ"n" = "p" gives a convergent product, called the canonical product representation. This "p" is called the "rank" of the canonical product. In the event that "p" = 0, this takes the form

:f(z) = z^m ; e^{phi(z)} ; prod_{n=1}^{infty} left(1 - frac{z}{u_n} ight).

This can be regarded as a generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, since the product becomes finite and φ("z") is constant for polynomials.

In addition to these examples, the following representations are of special note:


Sine function
sin pi z = pi z prod_{n=1}^{infty} left(1 - frac{z^2}{n^2} ight)
Euler - Wallis' formula for π is a special case of this.

Gamma function
1 / Gamma(z) = z ; mbox{e}^{gamma z} ; prod_{n=1}^{infty} left(1 + frac{z}{n} ight) ; mbox{e}^{-z/n}
Schlömilch

Weierstrass sigma function
sigma(z) = zprod_{omega in Lambda_{* left(1-frac{z}{omega} ight)e^{frac{1}{2omega^2}z^2+frac{1}{omega}z}Here Lambda_{*} is the lattice without the origin.


Riemann zeta function
zeta(z) = prod_{n=1}^{infty} frac{1}{(1 - p_n^{-z})}Here "p""n" denotes the sequence of prime numbers.

Note that the last of these is not a product representation of the same sort discussed above, as ζ is not entire.

ee also

*Infinite products in trigonometry
*Infinite series
*Continued fraction
*Iterated binary operation

External links

* [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/InfiniteProduct.html Infinite products from Wolfram Math World]


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