Mercaz HaRav massacre

Mercaz HaRav Massacre
Israel outline jerusalem.png
Red pog.svg
The attack site
Location The Mercaz HaRav Yeshiva at Kiryat Moshe, Jerusalem, Israel
Coordinates 31°47′16.15″N 35°11′48.54″E / 31.7878194°N 35.1968167°E / 31.7878194; 35.1968167
Date March 6, 2008
8:36 pm[1] – 8:56pm (GMT+2)
Attack type Mass murder
Massacre
School shooting
Weapon(s) AK-47
Death(s) 8 Israeli civilians[2] (+ 1 attacker)
Injured 11 Israeli civilians[2]
Perpetrator Lone Palestinian assailant (Alaa Abu Dhein)[3]

The Mercaz HaRav massacre, also called the Mercaz HaRav shooting, was an attack that occurred on 6 March 2008, in which a lone Palestinian gunman shot multiple students at the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, a religious school in Jerusalem, Israel, after which the gunman himself was shot dead. Eight students and the perpetrator were killed. Eleven more were wounded, five of them placed in serious to critical condition.[4][5][6]

The attack began at 8:36 p.m. local time and ended about twenty minutes later. According to survivor Mijael Mendelson, the attack lasted about 14 minutes. Mendelson reports he saw the time before the shooting started and shortly after knowing the gunman was dead.[1] The attacker was stopped by two Israel Defense Forces officers who were former Mercaz HaRav students themselves: Yitzchak Dadon and Captain David Shapira, who both dealt the fatal blow to the attacker with their personal firearms.[7][clarification needed]

The massacre was praised by Hamas and, according to a subsequent poll, was supported by 84 percent of the Palestinian population.[8] It was condemned in official statements by various countries around the world.

Contents

The shooting

The attacker, Alaa Abu Dhein, age 26, from the Arab neighborhood of Jabel Mukaber in East Jerusalem, who reportedly had worked as a driver at the yeshiva[9][10] entered the building carrying a box concealing an AKM along with several magazines, later firing as many as 500-600 rounds.[11] About twenty minutes after he started shooting, the attacker was shot by a part-time student, Yitzhak Dadon, and by Capt. David Shapira, an officer in the Israel Defense Force, and shortly thereafter confirmed dead at the scene.[12] A police patrolman who arrived at the scene before Yitzhak Dadon and David Shapira, remained outside in an effort to "freeze the situation" by preventing civilians from entering instead of making contact and stopping the shooting.[13]

Timeline

One of the yeshiva buildings
  • 8:36pm - First call received by a Magen David Adom operator from a yeshiva student inside the building requesting emergency services
  • 8:37pm - First ambulances dispatched
  • 8:40pm - The first police car arrives at the scene, does not enter.[14]
  • 8:41pm - First paramedic on site reports of one wounded
  • 8:42pm - Shapira enters the yeshiva.
  • 8:45pm - Two Detectives arrive on the scene
  • 8:45pm - Dadon and Shapira exchange fire with the attacker.
  • 8:51pm - 'A.R.A.N.' declared (multiple wounded event)
  • 8:57pm - MADA operator reports 'end of shooting' and orders paramedics into yeshiva.[1]

Victims

Aftermath of the terrorist attack.

Fatalities [15]

Name Age From Studied at
Neria Cohen 15 Jerusalem Yashlatz
Segev Pniel Avihail 15 Neve Daniel Yashlatz
Avraham David Moses 16 Efrat Yashlatz
Yehonatan Yitzhak Eldar 16 Shilo Yashlatz
Ro'i Roth 18 Elkana Mercaz Harav
Yohai Lipshitz 18 Jerusalem Yashlatz
Yonadav Chaim Hirshfeld 18 Kokhav HaShahar Mercaz Harav
Doron Mahareta 26 Ashdod Mercaz Harav

Wounded
In addition to those who were shot to death, ten other students were wounded, three seriously.

Perpetrator

The perpetrator, Alaa Abu Dhein

The gunman responsible, Alaa Abu Dhein, a resident of Jerusalem, was according to his family a driver who had delivered goods to the seminary.[16] This was denied by the head of the yeshiva. Abu Dhein's family said he was an intensely religious Muslim but was not a member of any militant group.

Abu Dhein, like other Arab residents of east Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship, carried an Israeli identity card that granted him freedom of movement and travel throughout Israel.[17][18][dead link] On January 5, 2009, Israeli High Court of Justice authorized to demolish his family's house, despite appeals by his father not to do so.[19]

Motive

Although Abu Dhaim left behind no statement describing his motive, his sister, Iman Abu Dhaim, told The Associated Press that he had been transfixed by the violence in Gaza, where 126 Palestinians were killed by Israeli forces from Wednesday through Monday,[9] in response to rocket fire from Palestinian terrorist groups based in Gaza.[20][21]

According to Ian Black, the attack seemed intended to send the message that Israeli attacks on its enemies, either in Gaza, Lebanon or Syria would not go unanswered. The seminary is identified with the spiritual leadership of the Jewish settlement movement in the West Bank, and especially with Gush Emunim. Jerusalem may have been chosen since there were no attacks in the city during 2007.[22]

Claims of responsibility

Hezbollah television network Al-Manar reported that a group calling itself Galilee Liberators Brigades — the Martyrs of Imad Mughniyeh has claimed responsibility for the attack, raising the possibility that the shooting was in retaliation for the assassination of Imad Mughniyeh. Israel had previously denied responsibility for that assassination.[23]

Hamas praised the attack on Thursday but did not claim responsibility for it. On Friday an anonymous phone call to the Reuters news agency took responsibility on Hamas's behalf. However, Fawzi Barhoum, a senior Hamas spokesman in Gaza, said that no claim was official unless made in a written statement signed by the military wing of Hamas.[9]

Reaction

Israeli

Ehud Olmert, Israel's Prime Minister, called the attack "horrible".[24][dead link] Olmert also said that the Mercaz Harav yeshiva had produced, "the finest soldiers for many generations; people who have realized the Zionist faith. This yeshiva — which was founded by Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook — has educated and nurtured tradition and legacy, as part of Israel's resilience."[25] A spokesman for Olmert said Israel would act after proper investigation and deliberation, and he condemned those, like Hamas, who celebrated the killings with parades in Gaza. "That Hamas calls this a heroic act, and praises it, this exposes them for what they are," the Olmert spokesman said.[9]

Avigdor Lieberman of Yisrael Beiteinu blamed Arab Knesset members maintaining that the "attack can not be disconnected from the Arab MKs incitement, which we hear daily in the Knesset." Women in Green called for the establishment of eight new settlements in the West Bank in memory of the eight students killed.[26]

Dalia Itzik of the ruling Kadima party, Speaker of the Knesset and acting president while Shimon Peres is overseas, called for the demolition of the mourning tent for the killer and the demolition of his family's home.[27]

Thousands in Israel mourned the deaths of those killed, observing Jewish traditions of mourning, with the murdered victims buried on Friday. [28][29]

A Channel 1 report that three alumni of the yeshiva were planning a revenge attack against a senior Arab official affiliated with a mosque on Jerusalem's Temple Mount, allegedly with permission from several rabbis, was dismissed by Public Security Minister Avi Dichter and the Shin Bet as baseless following their investigation. National Religious Party's MK Zevulun Orlev said he suspected the allegations were an attempt to "blemish religious Zionism."[30][31][32]

Yuli Tamir, Israel's Education Minister, who made a condolence visit to the yeshiva two days after the shooting, was forced to leave after she was kicked in the back twice, spat at, and verbally attacked by dozens of youths outside building, who called her a "murderer" and said that "the Left is to blame for everything."[33] She said: "This reminded me of the days before (former Prime Minister Yitzhak) Rabin's murder. It's unfortunate that there is a public which cannot put limits form [sic] itself. I only came to pay my respect to the murdered, not to engage in politics."[25] The next morning Yuli Tamir threatened to cut of funding for the yeshiva, claiming it did not have "democratic values."[34] The yeshiva told Ehud Olmert that he was not welcome, saying it wanted to "save him and us the embarrassment."[35]

The Israel Football Association called for a minute's silence prior to the weekend's football matches, though it was marred in Sakhnin where some supporters of the Arab team of Bnei Sakhnin booed. Sakhnin spokesman Mundar Haleileh said his club honored the moment of silence, "but we don't have full control over all fans. The association made the decision, and perhaps mixing politics with soccer is a matter to be discussed."[36]

On March 17, hundreds of right-wing activists attacked Arab homes in the east Jerusalem neighborhood Jebl Mukaber in an attempt to raze the house of the family of the gunman. For three hours, the activists chanted "revenge, revenge", vandalized property of the Arab village (which the police tried to prevent), and clashed with the police, whom they accused of "guarding the murderers." Many of the protesters were part of the settler movement and carried signs with slogans such as "Expel the Arab Enemy" and "The Land of Israel for the Jewish People" while others shouted "kill the Arabs". Despite a heavy police blockade at the entrance to Jebl Mukaber and a massive deployment of security forces in the area, the marchers managed to enter the village, stone residents' homes and damage a couple of cars belonging to villagers. The police declared the demonstration illegal, and finally forced the protesters to leave.[37]

At an event one month after the attack, former Sephardi Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu told some 1,000 attendants that in retribution for the massacre the government should establish a yeshiva or Jewish township for every one of the lives lost that evening. He went on to explain,

Even when we seek revenge, it is important to make one thing clear, the life of one yeshiva boy is worth more than the lives of 1,000 Arabs.

However, other National Religious voices were more moderate. In the same one-month commemoration event, the Chief Rabbi of Ramat Gan, Rabbi Yaacov Ariel, reminded his audience that,

We do not seek revenge, only retaliation… we are against killing innocent people or harming children.[38]

The Israeli human rights group B'Tselem released a statement condemning the attack which read: "B'Tselem severely condemns the Palestinian terror attack that took place in a yeshiva (religious school) in Jerusalem, in which 8 Israeli civilians, including 4 minors were killed and many other persons were injured. Attacks aimed at civilians are immoral, inhuman, and illegal."[39]

Palestinian

Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian National Authority, stated "We condemn all attacks against civilians, be they Palestinian or Israeli."[40] However, the Palestinian National Authority daily newspaper, Al-Hayat al-Jadida, honored the shooter with the status of "martyr." The paper also prominently placed a picture of the gunman on the front page, with the caption, "The Martyr Alaa Abu Dheim." In a front-page article on the killings, his act is again defined as a "martyrdom-achieving" action.[41]

Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri stated that "This heroic attack in Jerusalem is a normal response to the crimes of the occupier and its murder of civilians".[42]

In a poll taken two weeks later, 84 percent of Palestinians supported the attack on the Mercaz Harav yeshiva. The pollster, Mr. Shikaki was "shocked" and said the result was the single highest support for an act of violence in his 15 years of polling. [43]

Supranational

  •  United Nations: The United Nations Security Council failed to agree on a condemnation of the attack because of opposition from Libya who wished to link the condemnation to a resolution calling for censure of Israel over its assault on the Gaza Strip in the previous week.[44]

International

  • United States United States President George W. Bush condemned the attack, and expressed his solidarity with the families of the victims and the people of Israel.[47] Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice expressed her condolences on the attack. She also wrote that "The United States condemns tonight's act of terror and depravity."[48] United States Democratic presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama (IL) phoned Israeli foreign minister Tzipi Livni while she was visiting the US. Obama expressed his condolences to the Israeli people and to the bereaved families in the wake of the terror attack in the Mercaz Harav Yeshiva. He also stressed Israel's right to defend itself and made it clear that both the US and Israel were interested in ensuring that Iran will not be acquiring nuclear weapons.[49][50] United States Senator Hillary Clinton (D, NY), at the time a leading presidential candidate, said "My thoughts and prayers are with the victims and families who are suffering the loss and horror of this despicable act of terrorism. The United States and the international community must make clear that such deplorable acts of terrorism will not be tolerated and we must continue to stand with Israel in its fight against terror.”[51]

See also

External links

References

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