Pāli; Sanskrit) is the Buddhist term for a "sense base" or "sense sphere." ["Sense base" is used for instance by Bodhi (2000b) and Soma (1999). "Sense sphere" is used for instance by VRI (1996) and suggested by [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:2840.pali Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), p. 105,] whose third definition for "Āyatana" is: :sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ & object; relation, order. -- [Aung & Rhys Davids (1910),] p. 183 says rightly: 'āyatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects'. -- These āyatanāni (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikāni) and outer (bāhirāni)....] In Buddhism, there are six "internal" sense bases (Pali: "ajjhattikāni āyatanāni"; also known as, "organs", "gates", "doors", "powers" or "roots"Pine 2004, pg. 102] ) and six "external" sense bases ("bāhirāni āyatanāni" or "sense objects"; also known as "vishaya" or "domains"Pine 2004, pg. 103] ). Thus, there are twelve sense bases in total (listed below in sense organ-object pairs):
:* eye and visible objects [The Pāli word translated here as "visible objects" is "rūpa". In terms of the Buddhist notion of the sense bases, rūpa refers to "visual" objects (or objects knowable by the eye through light). This should not be confused with the use of the word rūpa in terms of the Buddhist notion of aggregates where rūpa refers to "all" material objects, both of the world and the body. Thus, when comparing these two uses of rūpa, the rūpa aggregate ("rūpakkhandha") includes the rūpa sense-object ("rūpāyatana") as well as the four other material sense-objects (sound, odor, taste and touch).] :* ear and sound:* nose and odor:* tongue and taste:* body and touch:* mindThe Pāli word translated here as "mind" is "mano". Other common translations include "intellect" [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.023.than.html (e.g., Thanissaro, 2001a)] and "consciousness" [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.010.soma.html (e.g., Soma, 1999).] In the
Suttapitaka, "mano" does not necessarily refer to all mental processing. Other oft-mentioned complementary mental processes include "consciousness" (" viññāṇa") and "mental states" ("citta"). Nonetheless, in the Abhidhamma Pitakaand later texts, these terms are at times used synonymously.] and mental objects [The Pāli word translated here as "mental objects" is "dhammā". Other frequently seen translations include "mental phenomena" (e.g., Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1135"ff".), "thoughts," "ideas" [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.023.than.html (e.g., Thanissaro, 2001a)] and "contents of the mind" (VRI, 1996, p. 39) while some translators simply leave this word untranslated due to its complex overtones in the Pali literature.]
Buddhism, as well as other Indian epistemologies, [Hamilton (2001), p. 53, writes: "... six senses, including one relating to non-sensory mental activity, are recognized in Buddhism and other Indian schools of thought...."] See also Pine 2004, pg. 101. Red Pine argues that this scheme probably predates Buddhism, because it has ten external members (ear, sound, nose, odor, tongue, taste, body, touch) corresponding to the single external skandha (form), and only two internal members (mind and thought) corresponding to the four internal skandhas.] identifies six "senses" as opposed to the Western identification of five. In Buddhism, "mind" denotes an internal sense organ which interacts with sense objects that include sense impressions, feelings, perceptions and volition. [See, for instance, Bodhi (2000a), p. 288.]
"IAST|Saḷāyatana" (Pāli; Skt. "IAST|ṣaḍāyatana") refers to all six sense objects and six sense organs and is generally used in the context of the Twelve Causes ("nidāna") of the chain of Dependent Origination. [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:3909.pali Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), p. 699.] ]
In the Pali Canon
Four Noble Truths, the Buddhaidentifies that the origin of suffering (Pali, Skt.: " dukkha") is craving (Pali: "IAST|taṇhā"; Skt.: "IAST|tṛṣṇā"). In the chain of Dependent Origination, the Buddha identifies that craving arises from sensations that result from contact at the six sense bases. (See Figure 2 below.) Therefore, to overcome craving and its resultant suffering, one should develop restraint of and insight into the sense bases. [Bodhi (2005b), starting at time 50:00. Bodhi (2005b) references, for instance, Majjhima NikayaSutta No. 149, where the Buddha instructs::"... [K] nowing & seeing the eye as it actually is present, knowing & seeing [visible] forms... consciousness at the eye... contact at the eye as they actually are present, knowing & seeing whatever arises conditioned through contact at the eye — experienced as pleasure, pain, or neither-pleasure-nor-pain — as it actually is present, one is not infatuated with the eye... forms... consciousness at the eye... contact at the eye... whatever arises.... The craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now this & now that — is abandoned by him. His bodily disturbances & mental disturbances are abandoned. His bodily torments & mental torments are abandoned. His bodily distresses & mental distresses are abandoned. He is sensitive both to ease of body & ease of awareness..." [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.149.than.html (Thanissaro, 1998c).] ]
Pali Canon, the sense bases are referenced in hundreds of discourses. [The greatest concentration of discourses related to the sense bases is in the Samyutta Nikaya, chapter 35, entitled "The Book of the Six Sense Bases" ("IAST|Saḷāyatana-vagga"). For instance, in Bodhi (2000b) edition of the Samyutta Nikaya, this chapter alone has 248 discourses. The Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25) entry for [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:2840.pali "Āyatana" (p. 105)] also mentions other discourses in each of the Pali nikayas.] In these diverse discourses, the sense bases are contextualized in different ways including:
* Sextets (Pali: "chakka"):
The sense bases include two sets of six: six sense organs (or internal sense bases) and six sense objects (or external sense bases). Based on these six pairs of sense bases, a number of mental factors arise. Thus, for instance, when an ear and sound are present, the associated consciousness (Pali: "IAST|viññāṇa") arises. The arising of these three elements ("dhātu") – ear, sound and ear-related consciousness – lead to what is known as "contact" ("
phassa") which in turn causes a pleasant or unpleasant or neutral "feeling" or "sensation" (" vedanā") to arise. It is from such a feeling that "craving" ("IAST| taṇhā") arises. (See Figure 1.) Such an enumeration can be found, for instance, in the "Six Sextets" discourse ("Chachakka Sutta", MN 148), where the "six sextets" (six sense organs, six sense objects, six sense-specific types of consciousness, six sense-specific types of contact, six sense-specific types of sensation and six sense-specific types of craving) are examined and found to be empty of self. [IAST|Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), pp. 1129-36; and, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.148.than.html Thanissaro (1998a).] ]
* "The All" (Pali: "sabba"):
In a discourse entitled, "The All" (SN 35.23), the Buddha states that there is no "all" outside of the six pairs of sense bases. [Bodhi (2000b), p. 1140; and, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.023.than.html Thanissaro (2001b).] According to Bodhi (2000b), p. 1399, "n". 7, the Pali commentary regarding the "Sabba Sutta" states: "... [I] f one passes over the twelve sense bases, one cannot point out any real phenomenon." Also see [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:3261.pali Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 680, "Sabba" entry] where "IAST|sabbaŋ" is defined as "the (whole) world of sense-experience."] In the next codified discourse (SN 35.24), the Buddha elaborates that the All includes the first five aforementioned sextets (sense organs, objects, consciousness, contact and sensations). [Bodhi (2000b), p. 1140; and, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.024.than.html Thanissaro (2001a).] ] References to the All can be found in a number of subsequent discourses. [For instance, SN 35.25 through 35.29, including the famed "Fire Sermon" (SN 35.28).] In addition, the
Abhidhammaand post-canonical Pali literature further conceptualize the sense bases as a means for classifying "all" factors of existence. [Bodhi (2000b), p. 1122.]
* The Twelve Causes (Pali, Skt.: "nidāna"):
As described in the "Related Buddhist concepts" section below and illustrated in Figure 2, the sense bases are a critical link in the endless round of rebirth known as the Twelve Causes and as depicted in the Wheel of Becoming (Skt.: "bhavacakra"). [Note that the Twelve Causes and Six Sextets describe the relationship between the sense bases and consciousness in different ways. Relatedly, there are canonical discouses that put forth hybrid models of these various psychophysical factors, such as described in "The World Discourse" ("Loka Sutta", SN 12.44) [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.044.than.html (Thanissaro, 1998b;] and, Bodhi, 2005a, pp. 358-59) where the aforementioned six "sextets" (from the eye and form to craving) condition the last four "causes" (clinging, becoming, birth, old age & death) and suffering. In reference to this and similar "variant" discourses, Bodhi (2005a) notes::"These variants make it plain that the sequence of factors should not be regarded as a linear causal process in which each preceding factor gives rise to its successor through the simple exercise of efficient causality. Far from being linear, the relationship among the factors is always complex, involving several interwoven strands of conditionality." (Bodhi, 2005a, p. 316.)]
"Aflame with lust, hate and delusion"
In "The Vipers" discourse ("Asivisa Sutta", SN 35.197),
the Buddhalikens the internal sense bases to an "empty village" and the external sense bases to "village-plundering bandits." Using this metaphor, the Buddha characterizes the "empty" [In the context of SN 35.197, the term "empty" might simply be meant to convey "passive." It could also be used in the Buddhist sense of self-less, as in " anatta" ("see"). In fact, in SN 35.85, the Buddha applies this latter notion of emptiness ("suññata") to all internal "and" external sense bases (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1163-64; and [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.085.than.html Thanissaro, 1997c)] .] sense organs as being "attacked by agreeable & disagreeable" sense objects. [Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1237-1239 (where this discourse is identified as SN 35.238); Buddhaghosa (1999), p. 490 (where this discourse is identified as S.iv,175); and, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.197.than.html Thanissaro (2004)] .
Similarly, in the last sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya's "Salayatana-samyutta", entitled "The Sheaf of Barley" (which Bodhi, 2000b, identifies as SN 35.248 and Thanissaro, 1998d, as SN 35.207), the Buddha describes the sense organs as "struck" or "thrashed" by "agreeable and disagreeable" sense objects (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1257-59; [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.207.than.html Thanissaro, 1998d] ).]
Elsewhere in the same collection of discourses (SN 35.191), the Buddha's Great Disciple
Sariputtaclarifies that the actual suffering associated with sense organs and sense objects is not "inherent" to these sense bases but is due to the "fetters" (here identified as "desire and lust") that arise when there is contact between a sense organ and sense object. [Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1230-1231 (where this discourse is identified as SN 35.232); and, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.191.than.html Thanissaro (1997b)] .]
In the "
Fire Sermon" ("Adittapariyaya Sutta", SN 35.28), delivered several months after the Buddha's awakening, the Buddha describes all sense bases and related mental processes in the following manner::"Monks, the All is aflame. What All is aflame? The eye is aflame. Forms are aflame. Consciousness at the eye is aflame. Contact at the eye is aflame. And whatever there is that arises in dependence on contact at the eye — experienced as pleasure, pain or neither-pleasure-nor-pain — that too is aflame. Aflame with what? Aflame with the fire of passion, the fire of aversion, the fire of delusion. Aflame, I tell you, with birth, aging & death, with sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs." [ [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.028.than.html Thanissaro, 1993.] For other references to the sense bases as "the All," see [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.023.than.html Thanissaro (2001b)] and [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.024.than.html Thanissaro (2001a).] The sense bases are "the All" insomuch that all we know of the world is known through the sense bases.]
Extinguishing suffering's flame
The Buddha taught that, in order to escape the dangers of the sense bases, one must be able to apprehend the sense bases without defilement. In "Abandoning the Fetters" (SN 35.54), the Buddha states that one abandons the fetters "when one knows and sees ... as impermanent" (Pali: "anicca") the six sense organs, objects, sense-consciousness, contact and sensations. [Bodhi (2000b), p. 1148.] Similarly, in "Uprooting the Fetters" (SN 35.55), the Buddha states that one uproots the fetters "when one knows and sees ... as nonself" ("anatta") the aforementioned five sextets. [Bodhi (2000b), p. 1148. For a correspondence between impermanence and nonself, see
Three marks of existence.]
To foster this type of penetrative knowing and seeing and the resultant release from suffering, in the
Satipatthana Sutta(MN 10) the Buddha instructs monks to meditate on the sense bases and the dependently arising fetters as follows::"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases?:"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands the eye and material forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (eye and forms); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. ["In a similar manner:"] He understands the ear and sounds ... the organ of smell and odors ... the organ of taste and flavors ... the organ of touch and tactual objects ... the consciousness and mental objects.... :"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects ... and clings to naught in the world." [ [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.010.soma.html Soma (1999),] section entitled, "The Six Internal and the Six External Sense-bases."]
In post-canonical Pali texts
The "Vimuttimagga", the "
Visuddhimagga", and associated Pali commentaries [In terms of the Pali commentaries, for instance, there is overlap between the Visuddhimagga and the commentary to the Dhammasangani, "Atthasālinī" (e.g., cf. Vsm. XIV,49 [Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 446] and Asl. 310 [Rhys Davids, 1900, p. 178 n. 2] ).] and subcommentaries all contribute to traditional knowledge about the sense bases.
Understanding sense organs
When the Buddha speaks of "understanding" the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, what is meant?
According to the first-century CE Sinhalese meditation manual, "Vimuttimagga", the sense organs can be understood in terms of the object sensed, the consciousness aroused, the underlying "sensory matter," and an associated primary or derived element that is present "in excess." [In regards to defining the sense bases in terms of excess primary elements, the Visuddhimagga (Vsm. XIV, 42) is critical: :"... Others say that the eye is sensitivity of those [primary elements] that have fire in excess, and that the ear, nose, tongue, and body are [sensitivity] of those [primary elements] that have [respectively] aperture, air, water and earth in excess. They should be asked to quote a sutta. They will certainly not find one." (Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 444, para. 42.)] These characteristics are summarized in the table below.
eye visual objects visual consciousness "...the three small fleshy discs round the pupil, and the white and black of the eye-ball that is in five layers of flesh, blood, wind, phlegm and serum, is half a poppy-seed in size, is like the head of a louseling...." heat (fire) ear sounds auditory consciousness "...in the interior of the two ear-holes, is fringed by tawny hair, is dependent on the membrane, is like the stem of a blue-green bean...." space [Unlike the other elements in this column, "space" is not considered a "primary" element but is identified as "derived material" (that is, derived from the four primaries of earth, water, fire and air). The space element is characterized by: "what delimits matter is called the element of space" (Upatissa "et al"., 1995, pp. 238, 240).] nose odors olfactory consciousness "...in the interior of the nose, where the three meet, is dependent on one small opening, is like a "IAST|Koviḷāra" (flower in shape)...." air tongue tastes gustatory consciousness "...two-finger breadths in size, is in shape like a blue lotus, is located in the flesh of the tongue...." water body tangibles tactual consciousness "...in the entire body, excepting the hair of the body and the head, nails teeth and other insensitive parts...." earth Table 1. The "Vimuttimagga's" characterization of sense organs. [This table is based on Upatissa "et al". (1995), pp. 238-240.]
The compendious fifth-century CE "
Visuddhimagga" provides similar descriptors, such as "the size of a mere louse's head" for the location of the eye's "sensitivity" (Pali: "pasāda"; also known as, "sentient organ, sense agency, sensitive surface"), [Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 446, entry for "Pasāda" (retrieved 2008-04-16 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:2481.pali).] and "in the place shaped like a goat's hoof" regarding the nose sensitivity (Vsm. XIV, 47-52). [Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 445-6. While this Visuddhimagga chapter (XIV) actually pertains to the Five Aggregates, this characterization is referenced in the Visuddhimagga chapter (XV) on the Sense Bases (Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 489, verse 8).] In addition, the Visuddhimagga describes the sense organs in terms of the following four factors::* characteristic or sign ("lakkhaIAST|ṇa"):* function or "taste" ("rasa"):* manifestation ("paccupaIAST|ṭṭhāna"):* proximate cause ("padaIAST|ṭṭhāna")Thus, for instance, it describes the eye as follows::Herein, the eye's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of visible data; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kammasourcing from desire to see. Its function is to pick up [an object] among visible data. It is manifested as the footing of eye-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to see. [Vsm. XIV, 37 (trans. Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 443; square-bracketed text in original). The Pali (from the Burmese CSCD, retrieved 2008-04-16 from "VRI" at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/e0102n.mul2.xml) associated with this passage is::IAST|Tattha rūpābhighātārahatappasādalakkhaṇaṃ daṭṭhukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ vā cakkhu, rūpesu āviñchanarasaṃ, cakkhuviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, daṭṭhukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ.]
In regards to the sixth internal sense base of mind ("mano"), Pali subcommentaries (attributed to Dhammapāla Thera) distinguish between consciousness arising from the five physical sense bases and that arising from the primarily post-canonical notion of a "life-continuum" or "unconscious mind" ("bhavaIAST|ṅga-mana"): [Regarding "bhavaIAST|ṅga" being a primarily post-canonical concept, see Matthews (1995, p. 128) where he states for instance: "BhavaIAST|ṅga" does not occur in the
Sutta Pitaka, but its appearance in both the "DhammasaIAST|ṅgaIAST|ṇi" and the "PaIAST|ṭṭhāna" assured that it received much post-classical attention in the Theravāda." He further amplifies this in an endnote (p. 140, "n". 34): "... [A] lthough "bhavaIAST|ṅga" does appear in the Abhidhamma PiIAST|ṭaka, it is not until the post-classical era that it receives much attention." Citing ÑāIAST|ṇamoli and others, Matthews (1995, p. 123) defines the "classical age" as "ended about the 4th century A.D.," just prior to the "great age of commentaries."] :"Of the consciousness or mind aggregate included in a course of cognition of eye-consciousness, just the eye-base [not the mind-base] is the 'door' of origin, and the [external sense] base of the material form is the visible object. So it is in the case of the others [that is, the ear, nose, tongue and body sense bases] . But of the sixth sense-base the part of the mind base called the life-continuum, the unconscious mind, is the 'door' of origin...." [Soma (2003), p. 133. This excerpt is from the subcommentary to the Majjhima Nikāya, the "Līnatthapakāsanā Tīkā".]
The roots of wisdom
In the fifth-century CE exegetical "Visuddhimagga",
Buddhaghosaidentifies knowing about the sense bases as part of the "soil" of liberating wisdom. Other components of this "soil" include the aggregates, the faculties, the Four Noble Truthsand Dependent Origination. [Buddhaghosa & ÑāIAST|ṇamoli (1999), pp. 442-43.]
Related Buddhist concepts
*Aggregates (Pali, "khandha"; Skt., "skandha"):
In a variety of suttas, the aggregates, elements ("see below") and sense bases are identified as the "soil" in which craving and clinging grow. [See, for instance, SN 35.91 where the Buddha proclaims::"Whatever,
bhikkhus, is the extent of the aggregates, the elements, and the sense bases, [a right-practicing monk] does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'This is mine.' Since he does not conceive anything thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging, he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbāna..." (Bodhi, 2000b, p. 1171).] In general, in the Pali Canon, the aggregate of material form includes the five material sense organs (eye, ear, nose, tongue and body) and associated sense objects (visible forms, sounds, odors, tastes and tactile objects); the aggregate of consciousness is associated with the sense organ of mind; and, the mental aggregates (sensation, perception, mental formations) are mental sense objects. [See, for instance, Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1122-24. Beyond the five aggregates, " Nibbana" is also identified as a "mental object" perceivable by "mind" ("mano") (see, for instance, Bodhi, 2000a, p. 288).]
Both the aggregates and the sense bases are identified as objects of
mindfulnessmeditation in the Satipatthana Sutta. In terms of pursuing liberation, meditating on the aggregates eradicates self-doctrine and wrong-view clinging while meditating on the sense bases eradicates sense-pleasure clinging. [See, for instance, Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1124-26; and, Bodhi (2005b), starting at time 48:47. Also see the article on " upadana" for the canonical explanation of the four types of clinging: sense-pleasure, wrong-view, rites-and-rituals and self-doctrine.]
*Dependent Origination (Pali: "IAST|paṭicca-samuppāda"; Skt.: "pratitya-samutpada"):
As indicated in Figure 2 above, the six sense bases (Pali: "IAST|saḷāyatana"; Skt.: "IAST|ṣaḍāyatana") are the fifth link in the Twelve Causes ("nidāna") of the chain of Dependent Origination and thus likewise are the fifth position on the Wheel of Becoming ("bhavacakra"). The arising of the six sense bases is dependent on the arising of material and mental objects (Pali, Skt.: "nāmarūpa"); and, the arising of the six sense bases leads to the arising of "contact" (Pali: "phassa"; Skt.: "sparśa") between the sense bases and consciousness (Pali: "IAST|viññāṇa"; Skt.: "visjñāna") which results in pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feelings (Pali, Skt.: "vedanā").
*Elements (Pali, Skt.: "dhātu"): [The Pāli word referenced here as "element," "dhātu", is used in multiple contexts in the Pāli canon. For instance, Bodhi (2000b), pp. 527-8, identifies four different ways that "dhātu" is used including in terms of the "eighteen elements" and in terms of "the four primary elements" ("catudhātu").]
The eighteen elements include the twelve sense bases. The eighteen elements are six triads of elements where each triad is composed of a sense object (the external sense bases), a sense organ (the internal sense bases) and the associated sense-organ-consciousness ("IAST|viññāṇa"). [In Buddhist literature, when a sense object and sense organ make contact (Pali, "phassa"), sense-consciousness arises. (See for instance MN 148.)] In other words, the eighteen elements are made up of the twelve sense bases and the six related sense-consciousnesses.
*Karma (Skt.; Pali: "kamma"):
Samyutta Nikayadiscourse, the Buddha declares that the six internal senses bases (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind) are "old kamma, to be seen as generated and fashioned by volition, as something to be felt." [Bodhi (2005b), pp. 1211-12. See also [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.145.than.html Thanissaro (1997a).] ] In this discourse, "new kamma" is described as "whatever action one does now by body, speech, or mind." In this way, the internal sense bases provide a link between our volitional actions and subsequent perceptions.
Sadayatana- a lengthier discussion of the "Six Sense Bases"
Twelve Nidanas- the chain of endless suffering of which the sense bases are the fifth link.
Indriya- "faculties," which include a group of "six sensory faculties" that are similar to the six sense bases; additionally, in post-canonical Pali literature, both the six sense bases and the 22 faculties are deemed to be "soil" for wisdom
Skandha- "aggregates," a similar Buddhist construct with a section comparing these two concepts
Satipatthana Sutta- includes a meditation using sense bases as the meditative object
Heart Sutra-this central Mahayanatext shows that the ayatanas were important in Mahayana discourse.
* Aung, S.Z. & C.A.F. Rhys Davids (trans.) (1910). "Compendium of Philosophy (Translation of the Abhidhamm'attha-sangaha)". Chipstead:
Pali Text Society. Cited in Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5).
* Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2000a). "A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Ācariya Anuruddha". Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-02-9.
* Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000b). "The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya". (Part IV is "The Book of the Six Sense Bases (Salayatanavagga)".) Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
* Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2005a). "In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon". Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-491-1.
* Bodhi, Bhikkhu (18 Jan 2005b). "MN 10: Satipatthana Sutta (continued)" (MP3 audio file) [In this series of talks on the
Majjhima Nikaya, this is Bodhi's ninth talk on the Satipatthana Sutta. In this talk, the discussion regarding the sense bases starts at time 45:36] . Available on-line at http://www.bodhimonastery.net/MP3/M0060_MN-010.mp3.
Buddhaghosa, Bhadantācariya (trans. from Pāli by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli) (1999). "The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga". (Chapter XV is "The Bases and Elements (Ayatana-dhatu-niddesa)".) Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
* Hamilton, Sue (2001). "Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction". Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19285374-5.
* Matthews, Bruce (1995). "Post-Classical Developments in the Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravāda Buddhism," in Ronald W. Neufeldt (ed.), "Karma and Rebirth: Post-Classical Developments". Delhi, Sri Satguru Publications. (Originally published by the State University of New York, 1986). ISBN 81-7030-430-X.
*, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). "The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya". Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
* Rhys Davids, Caroline A.F. (  , 2003). "Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, of the Fourth Century B.C., Being a Translation, now made for the First Time, from the Original Pāli, of the First Book of the Abhidhamma-PiIAST|ṭaka, entitled Dhamma-IAST|Saṅgaṇi (Compendium of States or Phenomena)". Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-4702-9.
*Red Pine. "The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas" (2004) Shoemaker & Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4
* Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). "The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary". Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
* Soma Thera (trans.) (1999). "The Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness" (MN 10). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.010.soma.html.
* Soma Thera (2003). "The Way of Mindfulness: English translation of the SatipaIAST|ṭṭhāna Sutta Commentary". Kandy, Sri Lanka:
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* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). "Kamma Sutta: Action" (SN 35.145). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.145.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). "Kotthita Sutta: To Kotthita" (SN 35.191). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.191.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997c). "Suñña Sutta: Empty" (SN 35.85). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.085.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998a). "Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sextets" (MN 148). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.148.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998b). "Loka Sutta: The World" (SN 12.44). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.044.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998c). "Maha-salayatanika Sutta: The Great Six Sense-media Discourse" (MN 149). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.149.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998d). "Yavakalapi Sutta: The Sheaf of Barley" (SN 35.207). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.207.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001a). "Pahanaya Sutta: To Be Abandoned" (SN 35.24). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.024.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001b). "Sabba Sutta: The All" (SN 35.23). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.023.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2004). "Asivisa Sutta: Vipers" (SN 35.197). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.197.than.html.
*Upatissa, Arahant, N.R.M. Ehara (trans.), Soma Thera (trans.) and Kheminda Thera (trans.) (1995). "The Path of Freedom (Vimuttimagga)". Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0054-6.
* Vipassana Research Institute (VRI) (trans.) (1996). "IAST|Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: The Great Discourse on Establishing Mindfulness" (Pali-English edition). Seattle, WA: Vipassana Research Publications of America. ISBN 0-9649484-0-0.
* [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/index.html#salayatana "Salayatana Vagga — The Section on the Six Sense Bases"] of the
Samyutta Nikaya, on www.accesstoinsight.org
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