Adolph Green (
December 2, 1914ndash October 23, 2002) was an American lyricistand playwrightwho, with long-time collaborator Betty Comden, penned the screenplaysand songs for some of the most beloved movie musicals, particularly as part of Arthur Freed's production unit at MGM, during the genre's heyday. Many people thought the pair were married; they were not, but they shared a unique comic genius and sophisticated wit that enabled them to forge a six-decade-long partnership that produced some of Hollywoodand Broadway's greatest hits.
Early life and career
Green was born in the Bronx to Hungarian-
Jewishimmigrants Daniel and Helen Weiss Green. After high school, he worked as a runner on Wall Streetwhile he tried to make it as an actor. He met Comden through mutual friends in 1938 while she was studying drama at New York University. They formed a troupe called the Revuers, which performed at the Village Vanguard, a club in Greenwich Village. Among the members of the company was a young comedian named Judy Tuvim, who later changed her name to Judy Holliday, and Green's good friend, a young musician named Leonard Bernstein, frequently accompanied them on the piano. The act's success earned them a movie offer and the Revuers traveled west in hopes of finding fame in "Greenwich Village", a 1944 movie starring Carmen Mirandaand Don Ameche, but their roles were so small they barely were noticed, and they quickly returned to New York.
Their first Broadway effort joined them with Bernstein for "On the Town", a musical romp about three sailors on leave in New York City that was an expansion of a
balletentitled "Fancy Free" on which Bernstein had been working with choreographer Jerome Robbins. Comden and Green wrote the lyrics and book, which included sizeable parts for themselves. Their next two musicals, "Billion Dollar Baby" (1945) and "Bonanza Bound" (1947) were not successful, and once again they headed to California, where they immediately found work at MGM.
They wrote the screenplay for "Good News", starring
June Allysonand Peter Lawford, " The Barkleys of Broadway" for Ginger Rogersand Fred Astaire, and then adapted "On the Town" for Frank Sinatraand Gene Kelly, scrapping Bernstein's music at the request of Arthur Freed, who did not care for the Bernstein score.
They reunited with Kelly for their most successful project, the classic "Singin' in the Rain", about Hollywood in the final days of the silent film era. Considered by many film historians to be the best movie musical of all time, it ranked #10 on the list of the 100 Best American Movies of the 20th Century, compiled by the
American Film Institutein 1998. They followed this with another hit, " The Band Wagon", in which the characters of Lester and Lily, a husband-and-wife team that writes the screenplay for the show-within-a-show, were patterned after themselves. They were Oscar-nominated twice, for their screenplays for "The Band Wagon" and " It's Always Fair Weather", both of which earned them a Screen Writers Guild Award, as did "On the Town". Their stage work during the next few years included the revue " Two on the Aisle", starring Bert Lahrand Dolores Gray, " Wonderful Town", an adaptation of the comedy hit " My Sister Eileen", with Rosalind Russelland Edie Adamsas two sisters from Ohio trying to make it in the Big Apple, and "Bells Are Ringing", which reunited them with Judy Holliday as an operator at a telephone answering service. The score, including the standards "Just in Time," "Long Before I Knew You," and "The Party’s Over," proved to be one of their richest.
In 1958, they appeared on Broadway in "
A Party with Betty Comden and Adolph Green", a revue that included some of their early sketches. It was a critical and commercial success, and they brought an updated version back to Broadway in 1977. Among their other credits are the Mary Martinversion of "Peter Pan" for both Broadway and television, a streamlined " Die Fledermaus" for the Metropolitan Opera, and stage musicals for Carol Burnett, Leslie Uggams, and Lauren Bacall, among others. Their many collaborators included Garson Kanin, Cy Coleman, Jule Styne, and André Previn.
The team was not without its failures. In 1982, "
A Doll's Life", a misguided attempt to figure out what Nora did after she abandoned her husband in Henrik Ibsen's " A Doll's House", ran for only five performances, although they received Tony Awardnominations for its book and score.
Comden and Green received
Kennedy Center Honorsin 1991.
His Broadway memorial, with such luminaries as
Lauren Bacall, Kevin Kline, Joel Grey, Kristin Chenoweth, Arthur Laurents, Peter Stone, and, of course, Betty Comdenin attendance was held at the Shubert Theater on December 4, 2002.
Additional Broadway credits
The Will Rogers Follies" (1991)
*"Singin' in the Rain" (1985)
On the Twentieth Century" (1978)
Hallelujah, Baby!" (1967)
Fade Out - Fade In" (1964)
Subways Are For Sleeping" (1961)
*"Do Re Mi" (1960)
Say, Darling" (1958)
Theatre awards and nominations
*1991 Tony Award for Best Original Score ("The Will Rogers Follies", winner)
*1986 Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical ("Singin' in the Rain", nominee)
*1983 Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical ("A Doll's Life", nominee)
*1983 Tony Award for Best Original Score ("A Doll's Life", nominee)
*1978 Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical ("On the Twentieth Century", winner)
*1978 Tony Award for Best Original Score ("On the Twentieth Century", winner)
*1970 Tony Award for Best Musical ("Applause", winner)
*1968 Tony Award for Best Composer and Lyricist ("Hallelujah, Baby!", winner)
*1968 Tony Award for Best Musical ("Hallelujah, Baby!", winner)
*1961 Tony Award for Best Musical ("Do Re Mi", nominee)
*1957 Tony Award for Best Musical ("Bells Are Ringing", nominee)
*1953 Tony Award for Best Musical ("Wonderful Town", winner)
* [http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?ID=3911/ Adolph Green at IBDb]
* [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0337582/ Adolph Green at IMDb]
"Off Stage", a memoir by Betty Comden published in 1995
* [http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/the/theagree.xml Adolph Green Papers, 1944-2002 - The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts]
* [http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/the/thecomgr.xml Comden and Green Papers, 1933-2003 - The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/25/obituaries/25GREE.html Adolph Green, Playwright and Lyricist Who Teamed With Comden, Dies at 87] , "The New York Times", October 25, 2002
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/04/arts/theater/04MEMO.html A Broadway Memorial? That's Entertainment] , "The New York Times", December 4, 2002
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