Scotch-Irish American


Scotch-Irish American

Infobox Ethnic group
group = Scotch-Irish American


caption = Andrew Jackson - Robert Redford - John McCain Mickey Cochrane - Ulysses S. Grant - Woodrow Wilson
poptime = Scotch-Irish 5,289,309 Americans cite web |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201TPR&-TABLE_NAMEX=&-ci_type=A&-ds_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_&-reg=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201:556;ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201PR:556;ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201T:556;ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201TPR:556&-_lang=en&-format=|coauthors=United States Census Bureau|title=US demographic census|accessdate=2007-04-28] 1.8% of the US population
popplace = Appalachia, Southern United States
langs = American English, especially Southern Appalachian and South Midland or Highland Southern dialects of Southern American English
rels = Predominantly Protestant, Presbyterian, Baptist
related = British Americans ("Scottish Americans, English Americans, Welsh Americans"), Irish Americans
Ulster Scots, Irish, Scottish,

Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and, by some, of Canada who are of Ulster Scottish descent. The term may be qualified with "American" (or "Canadian") as in "Scotch-Irish American" or "American of Scots-Irish ancestry".

Prior to the mid-nineteenth century, Irish immigration to the United States was predominantly Protestant, Calvinistic, and usually Presbyterian or Congregationalist. (This was in contrast to the later waves of Irish Catholic immigration following the Great Irish Famine and tenant clearances of the mid-1800s). These earlier immigrants formed distinct communities in the U.S. Many had an historical opposition to both Roman Catholicism as well as the established church of British-controlled Ireland (Church of Ireland). According to the U.S. Census Bureau 5.2 million Americans claimed Scotch-Irish ancestry.

History

Following the Norman conquest of England, Anglo-Saxons from England sought safe haven from the Normans in Lowland ScotlandFact|date=September 2008. Lowland Scotland, already a little mixture of Gaels, some remnants of Pictish culture, Vikings, Britons and Anglo-Saxons, collectively went on to be known as Lowland Scots, different in language and culture from the Gaelic of the Highlands and Islands. [http://www.scottish-history.com/origins4.shtml] Large numbers of Lowland Scots migrated to Ulster, a province of Ireland, as part of the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. The Scotch-Irish are descendants of Ulster Scots immigrants to North America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Ulster-Scots

Due to the close proximity of the islands of Britain and Ireland, migrations in both directions had been occurring since Ireland was first settled after the retreat of the ice sheets. Gaels from Ireland colonised current South-West Scotland as part of the Kingdom of Dál Riata, eventually replacing the native Pictish culture throughout Scotland. These Gaels were named Scoti by the Romans, and eventually the name was applied to the entire Kingdom of Scotland. The Scottish crown eventually became unified with the Kingdom of England, forming the Kingdom of Great Britain. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (see History of Scotland), beginning about 1615, a systematic plantation of mostly Lowland Scots settlers to Ireland was undertaken. Many settlers were hardscrabble, subsistence farmers barely able to support their families. In the early years of the Plantation, the majority of the settlers were Lowland and Border Scots seeking a better life. The Plantation was seen as a way to eliminate the problem of the Border Reivers, raiders and cattle-thieves who were causing instability along the Scottish-English frontier, and who were a potential problem for James VI of Scotland, who had recently also been crowned King of England. Transporting reiver families to Ireland would bring peace to the Anglo-Scot border country, and also provide fighting men who could suppress the native Irish. Many of the early settlers came from the border areas of both England and Scotland.

The first major influx of Scots into Ulster came during the settlement of east Down. This started in May 1606 and was followed in 1610 by the arrival of many more Scots as part of the Plantation of Ulster. The Scottish population in Ulster was further augmented during the subsequent Irish Confederate Wars. The first of the Stuart Kingdoms to collapse into civil war was Ireland, where, prompted in part by the anti-Catholic rhetoric of the Covenanters, Irish Catholics launched a rebellion in October. In reaction to Charles I's and Thomas Wentworth's proposal to raise an army manned by Irish Catholics to put down the Covenanter movement in Scotland, the Parliament of Scotland had threatened to invade Ireland in order to achieve "the extirpation of Popery out of Ireland" (according to the interpretation of Richard Bellings, a leading Irish politician of the time). The fear this caused in Ireland unleashed a wave of massacres against English and Scottish Protestant settlers once the rebellion had broken out. All sides displayed extreme cruelty in this phase of the war. Around 4000 Protestants were massacred and a further 12,000 may have died of privation after being driven from their homes. [Ohlmeyer, Jane and John Kenyon, "The Civil Wars", p. 278, 'William Petty's figure of 37,000 Protestants massacred... is far too high, perhaps by a factor of ten, certainly more recent research suggests that a much more realistic figure is roughly 4,000 deaths.'] Staff, [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/myths_legends/northern_ireland/ni_6/article_2.shtml Secrets of Lough Kernan] BBC, Legacies UK history local to you, website of the BBC. Accessed 17 December 2007] In one notorious incident, the Protestant inhabitants of Portadown were taken captive and then massacred on the bridge in the town. [ [http://www.libraryireland.com/HullHistory/16412.php The Rebellion of 1641-42 ] ] The settlers responded in kind, as did the Government in Dublin, with attacks on the Irish civilian population. Massacres of Catholic civilians occurred at Rathlin Island and elsewhere.Harvard reference| Surname1 = Royle | Given1 = Trevor| authorlink = | Year = 2004 | Title = Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660 | Publisher = London: Abacus | ISBN = 0-349-11564-8 p.143] In early 1642, the Covenanters sent an army to Ulster to defend the Scottish settlers there from the Irish Catholic rebels who had attacked them after the outbreak of the rebellion. The original intention of the Scottish army was to re-conquer Ireland, but due to logistical and supply problems, it was never in a position to advance far beyond its base in eastern Ulster. The Covenanter force remained in Ireland until the end of the civil wars but was confined to its garrison around Carrickfergus after its defeat by the Irish Catholic Ulster Army at the Battle of Benburb in 1646. After the war was over, many of the soldiers settled permanently in Ulster. Another major influx of Scots into northern Ireland occurred in the 1690s, when tens of thousands of people fled a famine in Scotland to come to Ulster.

During the course of the 17th century, the number of settlers belonging to Calvinist dissenting sects, including Scottish and Northumbrian Presbyterians, English Baptists, French and Flemish Huguenots, and German Palatines, became the majority in the province of Ulster. However, the Presbyterians and other dissenters, along with Catholics, were not members of the established church and were legally disadvantaged by the Penal Laws, which gave full rights only to members of the Church of England/Church of Ireland, who were often absentee landlords and the descendants of English title-holding settlers. For this reason, up until the 19th century, and despite their common fear of the dispossessed Catholic native Irish, there was considerable disharmony between the Presbyterians and the Protestant Ascendancy in Ulster. As a result of this many Ulster-Scots, along with Catholic native Irish, ignored religious differences to join the United Irishmen and participate in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, in support of egalitarian and republican goals.

Just a few generations after arriving in Ulster, considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots migrated to the North American colonies of Great Britain throughout the 18th century (between 1717 and 1770 alone, 250,000 settled in what would become the United States). According to Kerby Miller, "Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America" (1988), Protestants were one-third the population of Ireland, but three-quarters of all emigrants leaving from 1700 to 1776; 70% of these Protestants were Presbyterians. Other factors contributing to the mass exodus of Ulster Scots to America during the 18th century were a series of droughts and rising rents imposed by often absentee English and/or Anglo-Irish landlords.

cotch-Irish Americans

Roughly a quarter of a million Ulster Scots migrated to the Americas between 1717 and 1776. As a late arriving group,they found that land in the coastal areas of the English colonies was either already owned or too expensive, so they quickly left for the hill country where land could be had cheaply. Here they lived on the frontiers of America. Early frontier life was extremely challenging, but poverty and hardship were familiar to them. The word "hillbilly" has often been applied disparagingly to them, this word having its origins in Ireland, always in reference to the Ulster Scots. [PBS documentary, 1/13/08, "Hillbillies"] The name derives from the conflict between the Protestant supporters of King William and Queen Mary and the Roman Catholic supporters of the deposed King James II of England. Supporters of King William were Billy's boys who fought on the winning side in the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 during the Glorious Revolution, wearing red handkerchiefs around their necks to signify their Presbyterian faith. The names hillbilly and redneck stuck and are used to the present day. [James Webb, Born Fighting:How the Scots-Irish Shaped America Broadway books, New York,2004.]

The first trickle of Scots Irish settlers arrived in New England. Valued for their fighting prowess as well as their protestant dogma, they were invited by Cotton Mather and other leaders to come over to help settle and secure the frontier. In this capacity, many of the first permanent settlements in Maine and New Hampshire, especially after 1718, were Scots Irish and many place names as well as the character of Northern New Englanders reflect this fact. The Scots Irish brought the potato with them from Ireland, in Maine where it became a staple crop as well as an economic base. [ Rev. A. L. Perry, Scotch-Irish in New England:Taken from The Scotch-Irish in America: Proceedings and Addresses of the Second Congress at Pittsburgh,1890.]

From 1717 to the next thirty or so years, the Scots Irish radiated westward across the Alleghenies, as well as into Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee [(Crozier 1984; Montgomery 1989, 2001). ]

The Scotch-Irish soon became the dominant culture of the Appalachians from Pennsylvania to Georgia. (See Tuckahoe-Cohee). Author (and U.S. Senator) Jim Webb puts forth a thesis in his book "Born Fighting" to suggest that the character traits he ascribes to the Scots-Irish such as loyalty to kin, extreme mistrust of governmental authority and legal strictures, and a propensity to bear arms and to use them, helped shape the American identity. [Fischer, in "Albion's Seed" argues that the Scots-Irish were one of four immigrant cultures to shape "four" American identities:"The book's descriptions of the four folkways grounding American society is one of the most comprehensive, almost encyclopedic, guide to the origins of colonial American culture. According to Fischer, the foundation of American culture was formed from four mass emigrations from four different regions of Britain by four different socio-religious groups."Fact|date=May 2008 E.g. each of the four American identities had a distinct definition of 'freedom': For the Puritans, it was freedom to impose God's Laws upon themselves; for the Virginian planters it was freedom to deal with their property, including enslaved people, as they chose; for the Quakers it was freedom from restrictions the Golden Rule prevented them from imposing on others; and for the Scots-Irish, freedom was no government and no taxes.]

The alleged anti-English sentiment among those Ulster-Scots who emigrated to the Thirteen Colonies may have encouraged some to join the patriotic cause during the American Revolution (Matthew Thornton, George Taylor, and James Smith were all signers of the United States Declaration of Independence), though many in the Carolinas were loyalists. Some historiansWho|date=September 2008Fact|date=March 2007 suggest that their experience in Ulster as a colonial minority surrounded by a resistant, indigenous, population prepared them for life on America's frontier in conflict with the American Indians. Other historiansWho|date=September 2008 find that the Scotch-Irish were particularly given to intermarriage with American Indians, as the both groups culturally adapted to each other. [ [http://www.txscot.com/Native_Americans.htm cot mattress mobiles bed baby at txscot.com ] ] [ [http://www.reinhardt.edu/funkheritage/settlement.htm Reinhardt College - Funk Heritage Center ] ] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3659/is_199506/ai_n8728994/pg_6 Blood quantum and ethnic intermarriage in the Boas data set | Human Biology | Find Articles at BNET ] ] Verify credibility|date=June 2008

In the 1790s, the new American government assumed the debts the individual states had amassed during the American Revolutionary War, and the Congress placed a tax on whiskey (among other things) to help repay those debts. Large producers were assessed a tax of six cents a gallon. Smaller producers, many of whom were Scottish (often Ulster-Scots) descent and located in the more remote areas, were taxed at a higher rate of nine cents a gallon. These rural settlers were short of cash to begin with, and lacked any practical means to get their grain to market, other than fermenting and distilling it into relatively portable spirits. From Pennsylvania to Georgia, the western counties engaged in a campaign of harassment of the federal tax collectors. "Whiskey Boys" also conducted violent protests in Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. This civil disobedience eventually culminated in armed conflict in the Whiskey Rebellion. President George Washington marched at the head of 13,000 soldiers to suppress the insurrection.

According to James Leyburn's "The Scotch Irish: A Social History" (1962), the Scotch-Irish at first usually referred to themselves simply as "Irish", without the qualifier "Scotch" or "Scots", and were called Irish by others. It was not until the mass immigration of Irish in the 1840s due to the Great Irish Famine (most of whom were Catholic, indigenous, Irish) that the earlier Irish Americans began to call themselves Scotch-Irish to distinguish themselves from these new arrivals. This newer wave of Irish often worked as laborers (and to a lesser extent, tradesmen), typically settling at first in the coastal urban centers to facilitate work, though many would migrate to the interior to labor on large-scale 19th century infrastructure projects such as the canals and, later, railroads. Thus, the Catholic Irish of Boston, New York City, etc., who descended from the 1840s wave, did not often mingle in early years with the Scotch-Irish, whom by contrast had in large numbers become well-established years earlier in the rural American interior as small-scale farmers, especially the hill country of the Appalachians and Ozarks.

Ulster-Scottish Canadians

After the creation of British North America in 1763, Protestant Irish, both Irish Anglicans and Ulster-Scottish Presbyterians, migrated over the decades to Upper Canada, some as United Empire Loyalists or directly from Ulster.

The first significant number of Canadian settlers to arrive from Ireland were Protestants from predominantly Ulster and largely of Scottish descent who settled in the mainly central Nova Scotia in the 1760s. Many came through the efforts of colonizer Alexander McNutt. Some came directly from Ulster whilst others arrived after via New England.

Ulster-Scottish migration to Western Canada has two distinct components, those who came via eastern Canada or the US, and those who came directly from Ireland. Many who came West from were fairly well assimilated, in that they spoke English and understood British customs and law, and tended to be regarded as just a part of English Canada. However, this picture was complicated by the religious division. Many of the original "English" Canadian settlers in the Red River Colony were fervent Irish loyalist Protestants, and members of the Orange Order.

In 1806, The Benevolent Irish Society (BIS) was founded as a philanthropic organization in St. John's, Newfoundland. Membership was open to adult residents of Newfoundland who were of Irish birth or ancestry, regardless of religious persuasion. The BIS was founded as a charitable, fraternal, middle-class social organization, on the principles of "benevolence and philanthropy", and had as its original objective to provide the necessary skills which would enable the poor to better themselves. Today the society is still active in Newfoundland and is the oldest philanthropic organization in North America.Fact|date=March 2008

In 1877, a breakthrough in Irish Canadian Protestant-Catholic relations occurred in London, Ontario. This was the founding of the Irish Benevolent Society, a brotherhood of Irishmen and women of both Catholic and Protestant faiths. The society promoted Irish Canadian culture, but it was forbidden for members to speak of Irish politics when meeting. This companionship of Irish people of all faiths quickly tore down the walls of sectarianism in Ontario. Today, the Society is still operating.

For years, Prince Edward Island had been divided between Catholics and Protestants. In the latter half of the twentieth century, this sectarianism diminished and was ultimately destroyed recently after two events occurred. Firstly, the Catholic and Protestant school boards were merged into one secular institution, and secondly, the practice of electing two MLAs for each provincial riding (one Catholic and one Protestant) was ended.

cots-Irish as a general term

The usage "Scots-Irish" is relatively recent and regarded by some as an incorrect though well-intended effort to accommodate Scottish preferences. The term has usually been Scotch-Irish in America, as evident in Merriam-Webster dictionaries, where the term Scots-Irish is not listed in any edition. While modern Scots generally prefer the term "Scots" to "Scotch," in such situations as "Scotch whisky," "Scotch-Irish", "Scotch Baptist," "Scotch egg," and others, the term "Scotch" is preferred. Also, there are many place names in the United States with the latter spelling, such as Scotch Plains, NJ, and several others, yet there are relatively few place names where the first word is Scots.

In the seminal "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (America: a cultural history)" historian David Hackett Fischer asserts:

"Some historians describe these immigrants as "Ulster Irish" or "Northern Irish." It is true that many sailed from the province of Ulster... part of much larger flow which drew from the lowlands of Scotland, the north of England, and every side of the Irish Sea. Many scholars call these people "Scotch-Irish." That expression is an Americanism, rarely used in Britain and much resented by the people to whom it was attached. ..."

Fischer prefers to speak of "borderers" (referring to the historically war-torn England-Scotland border) as the population ancestral to the "backcountry" "cultural stream" (one of the four major and persistent cultural streams he identifies in American history) and notes the borderers were not purely Celtic but also had substantial Anglo-Saxon and Viking or Scandinavian roots, and were quite different from Celtic-speaking groups like the Scottish Highlanders or Irish (that is, Gaelic-speaking and Roman Catholic).

An example of the use of the term is found in "The History of Ulster":

:Ulster Presbyterians – known as the 'Scotch Irish' – were already accustomed to being on the move, and clearing and defending their land."A History of Ulster," Jonathan Bardon, The Blackstaff Press Limited, Northern Ireland, 1992. Emigration to United States and Scotch-Irish, ppgs. 208-210.]

Other terms used to describe the descendants of Protestants from the border country of England and Scotland that first migrated to Ulster and later re-migrated to North America include "Northern Irish" or "Irish Presbyterians."

In America, the historic name for these people is, "Scotch-Irish", and depending on the label used, can draw ire from one or more party:

". . . in this country [USA] , where they have been called Scotch-Irish for over two hundred years, it would be absurd to give them a name by which they are not known here . . . Here their name is Scotch-Irish; let us call them by it." ["The Scotch-Irish of Colonial America," Wayland F. Dunaway, 1944, University of North Carolina Press]

Term first used in 1744

The Oxford English Dictionary says the first use of the term "Scotch-Irish" came in Pennsylvania in 1744. Its citations are:
*1744 W. MARSHE Jrnl. 21 June in "Collections of the Massachuseets Historical Society". (1801) 1st Ser. VII. 177 The inhabitants [of Lancaster, Pa.] are chiefly High-Dutch, Scotch-Irish, some few English families, and unbelieving Israelites.
*1789 J. MORSE Amer. Geogr. 313 [The Irish of Pennsylvania] have sometimes been called Scotch-Irish, to denote their double descent.
*1876 BANCROFT Hist. U.S. IV. iii. 333 But its convenient proximity to the border counties of Pennsylvania and Virginia had been observed by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and other bold and industrious men.
*1883 Harper's Mag. Feb. 421/2 The so-called Scotch-Irish are the descendants of the Englishmen and Lowland Scotch who began to move over to Ulster in 1611.A false myth claims that Queen Elizabeth used the term. Another myth is that Shakespeare used the spelling 'Scotch' as a proper noun, but his only use of the word in any of his writings is as a verb, as in scotching a snake, being scotched, etc.

It was also used to differentiate from either Irish Anglicans, Irish Catholics, or immigrants who came directly from Scotland.

The word "Scotch" was the favoured adjective as a designation — it literally means "... of Scotland". People in Scotland refer to themselves as Scots, or adjectivally/collectively as Scots rather than Scotch or as being Scottish.

Geographical distribution

Finding the coast already heavily settled, most groups of settlers from the north of Ireland moved into the "western mountains", where they populated the Appalachian regions and the Ohio Valley. Others settled in northern New England, The Carolinas, Georgia and north-central Nova Scotia.

In the United States Census, 2000, 4.3 million Americans (1.5% of the U.S. population) claimed Scotch-Irish ancestry, though author James Webb suggests estimates that the true number of Scots-Irish in the U.S. is more in the region of 27 million. [http://www.parade.com/articles/editions/2004/edition_10-03-2004/featured_0] Two possible reasons have been suggestedWho|date=September 2008 for the disparity of the figures of the census and the estimation. The first is that Scots-Irish may quite often regard themselves as simply having either Irish ancestry (which 10.8% of Americans reported) or Scottish ancestry (reported by 4.9 million or 1.7% of the total population). The other is that most of the descendants of this group have integrated themselves, through intermarriage with other ethnicities of similar faiths, into an American society that had long been a rurally dispersed and Protestant majority. Therefore they, like many English Americans or German Americans, do not feel the need to identify with their ancestors as strongly as perhaps the more recent Catholic Irish Americans or Italian Americans, who had not traditionally married outside their faiths and often found partners in dense urban neighborhoods of their own ethnicity.

Interestingly, the areas where the most Americans reported themselves in the 2000 Census only as "American" with no further qualification (e.g. Kentucky, north-central Texas, and many other areas in the Southern US; overall 7% of Americans reported "American") are largely the areas where many Scots-Irish settled, and are in complementary distribution with the areas which most heavily report Scots-Irish ancestry, though still at a lower rate than "American" (e.g. western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, western Pennsylvania, northern New England, south-central and far northern Texas, westernmost Florida Panhandle, many rural areas in the Northwest); see Maps of American ancestries. Perhaps a combination of these factors results in the relatively low figures as reported in the census,Or|date=September 2007 though there does appearWho|date=September 2008 to be an increased interest in the U.S. in recent years in Scots-Irish ancestry.Fact|date=August 2008

Notable Americans of Scots-Irish descent

* List of Scots-Irish Americans.

American Presidents

Many American presidents have ancestral links to Ulster, including three whose parents were born in Ulster. The Irish Protestant vote in the U.S. has not been studied nearly as much as have the Catholic Irish. (On the Catholic vote see Irish Americans). In the 1820s and 1830s, supporters of Andrew Jackson emphasized his Irish background, as did James Knox Polk, but since the 1840s it has been uncommon for a Protestant politician in America to be identified as Irish, but rather as 'Scots-Irish'. In Canada, by contrast, Irish Protestants remained a cohesive political force well into the twentieth century, identified with the then Conservative Party of Canada and especially with the Orange Institution, although this is less evident in today's politics.

More than one-third of all U.S. Presidents had substantial ancestral origins in the northern province of Ireland (Ulster). President Bill Clinton spoke proudly of that fact, and his own ancestral links with the province, during his two visits to Ulster. Like most US citizens, most US presidents are the result of a "melting pot" of ancestral origins.

Clinton is one of at least seventeen Chief Executives descended from emigrants to the United States from the north of Ireland. While many of the Presidents have typically Ulster-Scots surnames – Jackson, Johnson, McKinley, Wilson – others, such as Roosevelt and Cleveland, have links which are less obvious.

;Andrew Jackson:7th President, 1829-37: He was born in the predominantly Ulster-Scots Waxshaws area of South Carolina two years after his parents left Boneybefore, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim. A heritage centre in the village pays tribute to the legacy of 'Old Hickory', the People's President. ;James Knox Polk:11th President, 1845-49: His ancestors were among the first Ulster-Scots settlers, emigrating from Coleraine in 1680 to become a powerful political family in Mecklenberg County, North Carolina. He moved to Tennessee and became its Governor before winning the Presidency. ;James Buchanan:15th President, 1857-61: Born in a log-cabin (which has been relocated to his old school in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania), 'Old Buck' cherished his origins: "My Ulster blood is a priceless heritage". The Buchanans were originally from Deroran, near Omagh in County Tyrone where the ancestral home still stands. ;Andrew Johnson:17th President, 1865-69: His grandfather left Mounthill, near Larne in County Antrim around 1750 and settled in North Carolina. Andrew worked there as a tailor and ran a successful business in Greeneville, Tennessee Tennessee, before being elected Vice-President. He became President following Abraham Lincoln's assassination. ;Ulysses Simpson Grant:18th President, 1869-77: The home of his maternal great-grandfather, John Simpson, at Dergenagh, County Tyrone, is the location for an exhibition on the eventful life of the victorious Civil War commander who served two terms as President. Grant visited his ancestral homeland in 1878. ;Chester Alan Arthur:21st President, 1881-85: His election was the start of a quarter-century in which the White House was occupied by men of Ulster-Scots origins. His family left Dreen, near Cullybackey, County Antrim, in 1815. There is now an interpretive centre, alongside the Arthur Ancestral Home, devoted to his life and times. ;Grover Cleveland:22nd and 24th President, 1885-89 and 1893-97: Born in New Jersey, he was the maternal grandson of merchant Abner Neal, who emigrated from County Antrim in the 1790s. He is the only President to have served non-consecutive terms. ;Benjamin Harrison:23rd President, 1889-93: His mother, Elizabeth Irwin, had Ulster-Scots roots through her two great-grandfathers, James Irwin and William McDowell. Harrison was born in Ohio and served as a Brigadier General in the Union Army before embarking on a career in Indiana politics which led to the White House. ;William McKinley:25th President, 1897-1901: Born in Ohio, the descendant of a farmer from Conagher, near Ballymoney, County Antrim, he was proud of his ancestry and addressed one of the national Scots-Irish Congresses held in the late 19th century. His second term as President was cut short by an assassin's bullet. ;Theodore Roosevelt:26th President, 1901-09: His mother, Mittie Bulloch, had Ulster Scots ancestors who emigrated from Glenoe, County Antrim, in May 1729. Teddy Roosevelt's oft-repeated praise of his "bold and hardy race" is evidence of the pride he had in his Scots-Irish connections. Ironically, he is also the man who said: "But a hyphenated American is not an American at all. This is just as true of the man who puts "native"* before the hyphen as of the man who puts German or Irish or English or French before the hyphen." [http://home.comcast.net/~nhprman/trhyphenated.htm] (*Roosevelt was referring to "nativists", not American Indians, in this context);Woodrow Wilson:28th President, 1913-21: Of Ulster-Scot descent on both sides of the family, his roots were very strong and dear to him. He was grandson of a printer from Dergalt, near Strabane, County Tyrone, whose former home is open to visitors. Throughout his career he reflected on the influence of his ancestral values on his constant quest for knowledge and fulfilment. ;Richard Milhous Nixon:37th President, 1969-74: The Nixon ancestors left Ulster in the mid-18th century; the Quaker Milhous family ties were with County Antrim and County Kildare.

Other occupants of the White House said to have some family ties with Ulster include Presidents John Adams, John Quincy Adams, James Monroe, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Harry S. Truman, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush. [ [http://homepage.eircom.net/~seanjmurphy/dir/pres.htm The Bushes' ancestors include William Holliday from Rathfriland.] ]

ee also

*List of Scots-Irish Americans
*Appalachia
*Celt
*Orange Institution
*Scottish American
*Whiskey Rebellion
*Hatfield-McCoy feud
*Ulster American Folk Park

References

econdary sources

* Bailyn, Bernard and Philip D. Morgan, eds. "Strangers Within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire" (1991), scholars analyze colonial migrations. [http://print.google.com/print?id=QPsL9WaS7gAC&pg=PA285&lpg=PA285&dq=McWhiney,+Grady.+Cracker+Culture:&prev=http://books.google.com/books%3Flr%3D%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26q%3DMcWhiney,%2BGrady.%2BCracker%2BCulture:%26start%3D10&sig=IMjF3pSOt7WaM2p3Ej6L51HxWfw&pli=1&auth=DQAAAGoAAAB-jv3uaXrxfF3YiEBHLXzvpA7QSusLfMGHmm-mpj1U30Wg5nIaUntTnLWWFD13Z8Ng-vis25CT_8hZ7p1lje8QGdgQ4oXabbe0AqMG8LenF7a-FFMZgXSJ4C-j3PKcDyZt9D3xTF2UIFuq_MT2OIow excerpts online]
* Blethen, Tyler. ed. "Ulster and North America: Transatlantic Perspectives on the Scotch-Irish" (1997; ISBN 0-8173-0823-7), scholarly essays.
* Carroll, Michael P. "How the Irish Became Protestant in America," "Religion and American Culture " Winter 2006, Vol. 16, No. 1, Pages 25-54
* Dunaway, Wayland F. "The Scotch-Irish of Colonial Pennsylvania" (1944; reprinted 1997; ISBN 0-8063-0850-8), solid older scholarly history.
* Fischer, David Hackett. "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" (1991), major scholarly study tracing colonial roots of four groups of immigrants, Irish, English Puritans, English Cavaliers, and Quakers.
* Glazier, Michael, ed. "The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America," (1999), the best place to start--the most authoritative source, with essays by over 200 experts, covering both Catholic and Protestants.
* Griffin, Patrick. "The People with No Name: Ireland's Ulster Scots, America's Scots Irish, and the Creation of a British Atlantic World: 1689-1764" (2001; ISBN 0-691-07462-3) solid academic monograph.
* Leyburn, James G. "Scotch-Irish: A Social History" (1999; ISBN 0-8078-4259-1) written by academic but out of touch with scholarly literature after 1940
* McDonald, Forrest, and Grady McWhinney, "The Antebellum Southern Herdsman: A Reinterpretation," "Journal of Southern History" 41 (1975) 147-66; highly influential economic interpretation; online at JSTOR through most academic libraries. Their Celtic interpretation says Scots-Irish resembled all other Celtic groups; they were warlike herders (as opposed to peaceful farmers in England), and brought this tradition to America. James Webb has popularized this thesis.
** Berthoff, Rowland. "Celtic Mist over the South," "Journal of Southern History" 52 (1986): 523-46 is a strong attack; rejoinder on 547-50
* McWhiney, Grady. "Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage" (1984).
* McWhiney, Grady. "Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South" (1988). Major exploration of cultural folkways.
* Meagher, Timothy J. "The Columbia Guide to Irish American History." (2005), overview and bibliographies; includes the Catholics.
* Miller, Kerby. "Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America" (1988). Highly influential study.
* Miller, Kerby, et al eds. "Journey of Hope: The Story of Irish Immigration to America" (2001), major source of primary documents.
* Porter, Lorle. "A People Set Apart: The Scotch-Irish in Eastern Ohio" (1999; ISBN 1-887932-75-5) highly detailed chronicle.
* Quinlan, Kieran. "Strange Kin: Ireland and the American South" (2004), critical analysis of Celtic thesis.
* Sletcher, Michael, ‘Scotch-Irish’, in Stanley I. Kutler, ed., "Dictionary of American History", (10 vols., New York, 2002).

Popular history and literature

* Bageant, Joseph L. "Deer Hunting with Jesus: Dispatches From America's Class War" (2007; ISBN 9781921215780) Cultural discussion and commentary of Scots-Irish descendants in the USA.
* Baxter, Nancy M. "Movers: A Saga of the Scotch-Irish (The Heartland Chronicles)" (1986; ISBN 0-9617367-1-2) Novelistic.
* Chepesiuk, Ron. "The Scotch-Irish: From the North of Ireland to the Making of America" (ISBN 0-7864-0614-3)
* Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. "Red Dirt: Growing Up Okie" (2006; ISBN 0-8061-3775-4) literary/historical family memoir of Scots-Irish Missouri/Oklahoma family.
* Glasgow, Maude. "The Scotch-Irish in Northern Ireland and in the American Colonies" (1998; ISBN 0-7884-0945-X)
* Greeley, Andrew. "Encyclopedia of the Irish in America "
* Johnson, James E. "Scots and Scotch-Irish in America" (1985, ISBN 0-8225-1022-7) short overview for middle schools
* Kennedy, Billy. "Faith & Freedom: The Scots-Irish in America" (1999; ISBN 1-84030-061-2) Short, popular chronicle; he has several similar books on geographical regions
** Kennedy, Billy. "The Scots-Irish in the Carolinas" (1997; ISBN 1-84030-011-6)
** Kennedy, Billy. "The Scots-Irish in the Shenandoah Valley" (1996; ISBN 1-898787-79-4)
* Lewis, Thomas A. "West From Shenandoah: A Scotch-Irish Family Fights for America, 1729-1781, A Journal of Discovery" (2003; ISBN 0-471-31578-8)
* Webb, James. "Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America" (2004; ISBN 0-7679-1688-3) novelistic approach; special attention to his people's war with English in America.
* Webb, James. "Why You Need to Know the Scots-Irish" (10-3-2004; Parade magazine). Article recognizes the great Scots-Irish people and their accomplishments.

Quotes

The gentle terms of republican race, mixed rabble of Scotch, Irish and foreign vagabonds, descendants of convicts, ungrateful rebels, &c. are some of the sweet flowers of English rhetorick, with which our colonists have of late been regaled. [http://www.historycarper.com/resources/twobf3/invectiv.htm] (Benjamin Franklin, 1765)

This cartoon, circulated after the 1763 Conestoga massacre, criticizes the Quakers for their support of Native Americans at the expense of German and Scots-Irish backcountry settlers. Here, a "broad brim'd" Quaker and Native American each ride as a burden on the backs of "Hibernians." [http://www.hsp.org/default.aspx?id=327 Historical Society of Pennsylvania]

The Quakers did not appreciate their interference in politics and were especially unhappy with them when the Scot-Irish gained control of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1756. [http://www.greencastlemuseum.org/Local_History/scotch-irish.htm Who were the Scot-Irish?]

External links

* [http://www.ulsterscotssociety.com/ The Ulster-Scots Society of America]
* [http://www.ulsterscotsagency.com/ Ulster-Scots Agency]
* [http://www.ulster-scots.co.uk/ Ulster-Scots Online]
* [http://www.arts.ulster.ac.uk/ulsterscots/ Institute of Ulster-Scots]
* [http://www.scotchirish.net/main.php4/ Scotch Irish.Net]
* [http://www.genealogy.com/famousfolks/theodore-roosevelt/index.html/ Theodore Roosevelt's genealogy]
* [http://www.libraryireland.com/ScotchIrishAmerica/Contents.php/ The Scotch-Irish in America (by Henry Jones Ford)]
* [http://www.roanetnhistory.org/footenorthcarolina.php?loc=FooteSketchesNorthCarolina&pgid=79 "Origin of the Scotch-Irish," Ch. 5] in [http://www.roanetnhistory.org/footenorthcarolina.html "Sketches of North Carolina" by William Henry Foote (1846)] - full-text history
* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~chalkley/ "Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia"] - Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County 1745-1800 by Lyman Chalkley
* [http://www.roanetnhistory.org/peytonshistory.html Peyton's "History of Augusta County, Virginia" (1882)] - full-text history with many mentions of Scotch-Irish
* [http://www.roanetnhistory.org/waddellsannals.html Waddell's "Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, from 1726 to 1871", Second Ed. (1902)] - full-text history with many mentions of Scotch-Irish

European Americans


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