Cut and fill
In earthmoving, cut and fill is the process of constructing a railway, road or canal whereby the amount of material from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill needed to make nearby embankments, so minimizing the amount of construction labor. This technique is widely practiced in mining applications.
Cut slopes are rarely created greater than a slope of two to one (horizontal to vertical dimensions). Cut sections of roadway or rail are characterized by the roadway being lower in elevation than the surrounding terrain. From an operational standpoint there are unique environmental effects associated with cut sections of roadway. For example, air pollutants can concentrate in the ‘'valleys'‘ created by the cut section. Conversely, noise pollution is mitigated by cut sections since an effective blockage of line of sight sound propagation is created by the depressed roadway design.
Fill sections manifest as elevated sections of a roadway or trackbed. Environmental effects of fill sections are typically favorable with respect to air pollution dispersal, but in the matter of sound propagation, exposure of nearby residents is generally increased, since sound walls and other forms of sound path blockage are less effective in this geometry.
There are a variety of reasons for creating fills, among them reduction of grade along a route or elevation of the route above water, swampy ground, or areas where snow drifts frequently collect. Fills can also be used to cover tree stumps, rocks, or unstable soil, in which case material with a higher bearing capacity is placed on top of the obstacle in order to carry the weight of the roadway or railway and reduce differential settlement.
- ^ Encyclopedia britannica: Cut and fill mining
- ^ Roadway design theory and concepts
- ^ C.Michael Hogan, Analysis of highway noise, Journal of Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Volume 2, Number 3, Biomedical and Life Sciences and Earth and Environmental Science Issue, Pages 387-392, September, 1973, Springer Verlag, Netherlands ISSN 0049-6979
- ^ Herbert L. Nichols, Jr., and David A. Day, P.E., Moving the Earth: The Workbook of Excavation, 5th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005), pp. 8.16 et seq.
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cut and fill — A process of leveling, whereby material eroded from one place by waves, currents, streams, or winds is deposited nearby until the surfaces of erosion and deposition are continuous and uniformly graded; especially lateral erosion on the concave … Glossary of landform and geologic terms
cut and fill — Geol. a process of localized gradation whereby material eroded from one place is deposited a short distance away. * * * … Universalium
scour and fill — [ geomorphology ] A process of alternate excavation and refilling of a channel, as by a stream or the tides; especially such a process occurring in time of flood, when the discharge and velocity of an aggrading stream are suddenly increased … Glossary of landform and geologic terms
Fill dirt — is earthy material which is used to fill in a depression or hole in the ground or create mounds or otherwise artificially change the grade or elevation of real property. Fill dirt is usually subsoil (soil from beneath the top soil) and… … Wikipedia
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Fill (archaeology) — In archaeology fills are contexts representing material that has accumulated or has been deposited into a cut feature such as ditch or pit of some kind. Fills are an important part of the archaeological record as their formation and composition… … Wikipedia
cut out — Synonyms and related words: abjure, abrupt, abscind, abstract, act for, alienate, amputate, annihilate, arrange, avulse, ban, bar, bob, calculate, cast, cast off, cast out, change places with, chuck, clear, clear away, clear out, clear the decks … Moby Thesaurus
cut — I. verb (cut; cutting) Etymology: Middle English cutten Date: 13th century transitive verb 1. a. to penetrate with or as if with an edged instrument b. to hurt the feelings of c. to strike sharply with a cutting effect d … New Collegiate Dictionary