Kite applications

The kite is used to do certain things; one kite or many kites are applied to achieve certain purposes, objectives, or tasks, that is: applications. Humans have applied the kite to bring perceived benefits during peace and war alike. New applications for the kite continue to be found. Only some innovative applications appear in national patents; others are communicated in newspapers, magazines, books, and internet pages. Air kites, water kites, bi-media kites, fluid kites, gas kites, kytoons, paravanes, soil kites, solid kites, and plasma kites have niche applications that are furthering the interests of humans. Non-human-made kites have applications; some spiders make use of kiting.

Kites for transportation

Long-distance travel across land [ [http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/mar2001.html The Aeropleustic Art or Navigation in the Air by the use of Kites, or Buoyant Sails] ] , ice, and sea started centuries ago, but today significant tasks of moving people and goods from point A to point B are occurring; this is so in great part from the advances in kites and kite systems designs and technology, better understanding of winds, and use of computers and GPS. In 1889 kite sailing was carefully instructed via controlling large kite systems towing boats: [http://www.google.com/patents?id=rtJwAAAAEBAJ&dq=417755 Aerial Apparatus]

Free-flight cross-country hang gliding kites both in the hang glider style and the paraglider style are permitting trips of hundreds of miles; records are recorded by the FAI. George Pocock (inventor) was an early pioneer in kites for transportation. NASA continues to explore free-flying kites for delivering goods to earth surface and non-earth planet surfaces, including Mars. [ [http://www.robotfrontier.com/papers/griffon-article.pdf Griffon: A Man-Portable Hybrid UGV/UAV] ] The severe projects for using very large kites to sail cargo ships is currently underway; KiteSail(tm) and KiteShip (tm) along with a series of patents and improvements in control of large ship-carried kite systems aim to save significant fuel. [ [http://www.google.com/patents?id=vTp6AAAAEBAJ Apparatus and method for aerodynamic wing David A. Culp] ] [ [http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/01/29/transportation-tuesday-wind-powered-cargo-ship-takes-sail/ Using Kites to Pull Cargo Ships Across the Seas by Jorge Chapa] ] [ [http://www.beluga-group.com/ Beluga Group.] ] [ [http://gcaptain.com/maritime/blog/ocean-kites-top-10-green-ship-designs/ Ocean Kites - Top 10 Green Ship Designs] ] [ [http://paraflite.com/MegaFly%20Summary.htm MegaFly Summary. Very large Jalbert parafoil kite for governed-free-flight delivery of payloads.] ] Kiting one's kayak is getting a significant following [http://www.hometown.aol.com/sneelocke/kitekayaking.htm A. Kinsman kite kayaking tutorial.] .

Kite Aerial Photography (KAP)

William A. Eddy of Eddy-kite fame lifted cameras to take photographs of cities and landscapes. Today KAP is the hobby of many enthusiasts, is a tool for surveying land and animals, and a mode for artistic expression. Professor [http://www.arch.ced.berkeley.edu/kap/ Charles Benton] illustrates how KAP can grow in one's life. [http://scotthaefner.com/kap/ Scott Haefner] has one of the most extensive collection of KAP phtographs; he shares his technology. [http://www.drachen.org/special_events_earthquake.html San Francisco.] Those who do KAP are called "kapers" [http://www.vogelblik.nl/index.php?title=Main_Page KAP] .

Kites for teaching schooling subjects

The kite is frequently the vehicle for teaching aerodynamics, mathematics, art, history, culture, materials, cooperation, physical education, and problem solving. [ [http://www.chinakite.com/maindoc/en/htm/chanpin/jiaoyu.htm Kites for Education] ] [ [http://kitehistory.com/Miscellaneous/kites_go_to_school.htm Kites Go To School] ] [ [http://www.intime.uni.edu/video/025iaue/2rus/lesson.htm LESSON PLAN: Oh, Go Fly a Kite!] ] [ [] ] [ [http://www.kitesintheclassroom.com/orders.htm Kites for School] ] [ [http://classroom.kitingusa.com/activities.htm Kites in the Classroom] ]

Kites as subject of publications

International organizations, national organizations, local kite clubs, kite shops, and individuals have kite and kiting as the focus of their publications. Subscribership and buyer levels vary. Kite pamphlets and books out-of-print become prized collectors' items.

Large kites being applied over the oceans

The German company SkySails has developed ship-pulling kites as a supplemental power source for cargo ships, first tested in January 2008 [cite web| url=http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/23/look-its-a-freighter-its-a-sailboat-its-both/ | title=its a freighter its a sailboat no its both | author=Andrew Revkin] on the ship MS Beluga Skysails. Trials on this 55 m ship have shown that, in favorable winds, the kite increases fuel-efficiency by up to 30%. This system is planned to be in full commercial production late 2008. [ [http://skysails.info/index.php?L=1 Skysail ship pulling system] ] Kites are also available as an auxiliary sail or emergency spinnaker for sailing boats. Self-launching Parafoil kites are attached to the mast.

MS Beluga Skysails is the world's first commercial container cargo ship which is partially powered by a giant computer-controlled kite (160 m². or 1,722 sq ft.). The kite could reduce fuel consumption by 20%. It was launched 17 December 2007 and is set to leave the northern German port of Bremerhaven to Guanta, Venezuela at 1700 local time (1600 GMT), January 22, 2008. Stephan Wrage, managing director of SkySails GmbH announced: "During the next few months we will finally be able to prove that our technology works in practice and significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions." Verena Frank, project manager at Beluga Shipping GmbH, SkySails GmbH's partner further stated that "the project's core concept was using wind energy as auxiliary propulsion power and using wind as a free of charge energy". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7201887.stm BBC NEWS, Kite to pull ship across Atlantic] ] Kite yachting may have started with Benjamin Franklin's pond pull. [http://www.plumcreekmarketing.com/articles/kite/kitehistory.html Kite History. Recant of Benjamin Franklin's using a traction kite to be pulled across a pond.] [http://www.amphi-kiting.com/html/amphi-kiting.html English Channel crossing.]

Scientific kiting

Kites have also been used for scientific purposes, such as Benjamin Franklin's famous (but dangerous) experiment proving that lightning is electricity. Kites had an historical role in lifting scientific instruments to measure atmospheric conditions for weather forecasting.

Kites used to test designs meant to become powered aircraft

Kites were the precursors to aircraft, and were instrumental in the development of early flying craft. Alexander Graham Bell experimented with very large man-lifting kites, as did the Wright brothers and Lawrence Hargrave.

Conductor carried up by a kite in the sky can lead to a high voltage shock, which can endanger people and equipment.

Kites for extreme sports

Kite boarding, kite surfing, kite buggying, kite buggy jumping, kite landboarding, freestyle kite landboarding, snow kiting or snowkiting, downhill speed kiting] , hang gliding, and kite high jumping are among the extreme kite sports wherein competitions are held.

Kites for competitive stunt-kiting sport

Peter Powell's emphatic forwarding of two-line stunt kites or sport kites help to move stunt kiting into a popular activity as well as a competitive sport. Also, the parafoil stunt kites feed the same sporting activity. Events for kites of more than two control lines are very evident. The four-line Revolution kite has been setting new standards in precision flying. Informal field competition and formal sport competition support a stunt-kite industry; seemingly endless refinements to the kite wing and kite line along with accessories continue unabated. [ [http://www.seattleairgear.com/ Wild Dance Parafoil Stunt Kites] ] [ [http://www.easternleague.net/pdffiles/SpectatorsGuide.pdf Spectator’s Guide to Sport Kite Competition] ]

Kites for sport kite fighting

A kite has two essential parts: wing and tether line. In kite fighting, the kite line plays a huge part in the activity. Sport kite fighting is perhaps 2000 year old; participation worldwide is high. [ [http://nafka.net/rules/nafka%202004%20wc%20rules.pdf FIGHTER KITE LINE-TOUCH 2004 WORLD CUP CHAMPIONSHIP COMPETITION] ] North American Kite Fighter Association ( [http://nafka.net/ NAFKA] ) [http://www.stimparavaner.se/historia_eng.html Trawl-board and paravane innovator]

In "Kite Fishing by the Salt-Water Natives of Mala or Malaita Island", British Solomon Islands T. W. Edge-Partington, leaf kites are described. The sago palm or ivory nut tree has leaves from which natives of Mala or Malaita Island made kites for fishing. [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0025-1496(1912)1%3A12%3C9%3A4KFBTS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q Kite Fishing by the Salt-Water Natives of Mala or Malaita Island, British Solomon Islands T. W. Edge-Partington. Man, Vol. 12, 1912 (1912), pp. 9-11.] [ [http://www.spc.int/coastfish/News/Trad/9/FoaleAppendix1.htm] Sago palm leaf kites noted as used for fishing.]

Kites for advertising messages and logos

Kites can also be used as light-effect carrier, e.g., by carrying light-sticks or battery-powered light effects. Promotional kites: Companies buy large quantities of kites that feature their advertisement. Messages are sometimes displayed by lighting systems that are built into the kite system.

Kites for entertainment

Frequently kites are used to entertain observers [ [http://64.33.116.68/brandon-july28.html Landsailing in Ireland. While wind was light, some of group entertained others with kite flying.] .] Some kiters get entertain themselves, but others enjoy entertaining the public or members of an organized gathering. This sector of application is part of recreational uses, but sometimes part of commercial uses.

Kites for commercial fishing

Net-spreading underwater kites and kite vanes aid the control of large fishing nets. [http://www.google.com/patents?id=iiwwAAAAEBAJ Remotely-controllable paravane Robert A. Kirby et al]

Kites for recreational, sport, and subsistence fishing

There are several ways kites are used in recreatonal and sport fishing. Lofting drop lines is one, but things don't stop there. Net-spreading underwater kites, soil kites (kiting achors), kiting bait, control-kite trolling of bait, recreational kiting during fishing sessions, aerial photography of fishing environment using kites, and out and back cycles of trolling bait using a kite. Recreational fishing, commercial fishing, and scientific and military uses of depressors of tow lines use water kiting to accomplish the effects wanted. [http://www.thekitesociety.org.uk/Kite%20Fishing.pdf The Use of Kites for Fishing—George Webster] wrote comprehensively on kite fishing. [http://bluemako.customer.netspace.net.au/jetty.htm Jetty/Pier Fishing.] ; _ [http://www.stimparavaner.se/stim97_eng.html Paravanes for Sportfishing.] A plan view of a Solomon islander's leaf fishing kite is shown in a photograph held by the Pitt-Rivers Museum is viewable at [http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/editors_pick/1957_04_pick.html "Natural History Magazine" online; Pick from the Past, "Natural History", April 1957: "Go Fly a Kite"] . [ [http://tobi.gmu.edu/tobithings/fishing/baldwinkitefishing1977.pdf Kite Fishing in Palau/] ]

Kites used to decorate homes and businesses

Kites stilled are hung decoratively in rooms of homes and businesses to set the tone of a home or selling environment. [ [http://www.im4kidz.org/mykites.html Mrs. E's kites. Home decorating with kties.] ]

Kites used to sell kites

Many kite stores fly kites regularly so that people will see the kites; one of the final purposes is for the store to profit from the flying of the kites. [ [http://www.fdkf.org/performers/ Kite Performers.] ]

Kites used for generating electricity from rotation

Both air and hydro kites are used to generate electricity; the kite is set in the stream of air or water; various schemes are used to extract some of the stream's energy for converting that energy to electricity.

A major research and development project called Makani Power, based in California and funded by Google.org, is investigating the use of kites in harnessing high altitude wind currents to generate electricity [ [http://www.makanipower.com/ Makani Power website] ] .

Video links for generating electricity by using kites:
* Back and forth taking kite generates electricity: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QlSHH_djn94] .
* KiteGen (kite wind generator): a Magnus-effect rotating kite electricity generation system: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hg5Eq1EY0wY Magen kite Electricity Generator] ;

Recreational kiting

:Hobby:Group festivities:Art:Meditation:Sport

Military applications

Kites have been used for military uses in the past for signaling, for delivery of munitions, for free-flight kiting payloads from aircraft to ground positions, for kiting troops to points where they could parachute to destinations, for underwater kiting via paravanes to perform various underwater duties, for lifting payloads from one point to another, for raising rescue signals from rafts or stressed areas, for raising communications antenna, and for observation by lifting an observer above the field of battle, and by using kite aerial photography. Barrage kites have been used in both open frame kites and kytoon types to defense against enemy aircraft.

Kim Yu-Sin (or Kim Yushin), a Korean general, in 637 C.E. rallied his troops to defeat rebels by kite lofting a burning ball. [ [http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Ow-Sh/Park-Linda-Sue.html Linda Sue Park Biography] ] Kites were also used by Admiral Yi of the Joseon (1392-1910) Dynasty of Korea.Fact|date=May 2007 During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598), Admiral Yi commanded his navy with kites. His kites had specific markings directing his fleet to perform his order. Admiral Yi was said to have over 300 such kites.Fact|date=May 2007 The war eventually resulted in a Chinese and Korean victory; the kites played a minor role in the war's conclusion.

In more modern times the British navy also used kites to haul human lookouts high into the air to see over the horizon and possibly the enemy ships, for example with the kite developed by Samuel Franklin Cody. [ [http://www.aero.lr.tudelft.nl/~frits/cody.html Cody kites] ] Barrage kites were used to protect London as well as the Pacific coast of the United States during the last century. [ [http://members.bellatlantic.net/~vze26db3/Miscellaneous/Warkites.htm Kites On The Winds of War By M. Robinson] ] [ [http://www.sole.org.uk/saulkite.htm Barrage Kite] ] Kites and kytoons were used for lofting communications antenna. [ [http://www.worldkitemuseum.com/exhibits.html World Kite Museum] ] Submarines lofted observers in rotary kites. [Focke Achgelis Fa 330] The Rogallo parawing kite [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=BKTuTXrXQu0C The Parachute Manual: A Technical Treatise on Aerodynamic Decelerators By Dan Poynter] ] and the Jalbert parafoil kite were used for governable parachutes (free-flying kites) to deliver troops and supplies. [ [http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/issues/2001/Aug/Army_Aims.htm Army Aims for More Precise Ways to Drop Troops, Cargo] ]

cience and meteorology

Kites have been used for scientific purposes, such as Benjamin Franklin's famous experiment proving that lightning is electricity. Kites were the precursors to aircraft, and were instrumental in the development of early flying craft. Alexander Graham Bell experimented with very large man-lifting kites, as did the Wright brothers and Lawrence Hargrave. Kites had an historical role in lifting scientific instruments to measure atmospheric conditions for weather forecasting. [http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2006/alm06apr2.htm The Weather Doctor Almanac.]

Collecting kited spiders with kited nets: Kites are used to take samples of upper air and to collect things found in the upper air. The spiders that kite to disperse (so-called ballooning (spider)s) have been found in nets raised to upper air for collecting [Spider ballooning in soybean and non-crop areas of southeast Queensland. The ballooing spiders that actually kite (no real balloon) are caught by several methods including the use of kites. [http://www.insectecology.com/downloads/AGEEPearceetal2005.pdf] ] ; the method is noted carefully in "Spider Ballooning: Development and Evaluation of Field Trapping Methods (Araneae)" [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0161-8202(198523)13%3A3%3C337%3ASBDAEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5 Spider Ballooning: Development and Evaluation of Field Trapping Methods (Araneae). Matthew H. Greenstone, Clyde E. Morgan, Anne-Lise Hultsch Journal of Arachnology, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Autumn, 1985), pp. 337-345.] ] Balloon kite of the so-called ballooning spiderlings; the spiders' kite is not a balloon.

Radio aerials and light beacons

Kites can be used for radio purposes, by kites carrying antennas for MF, LF or VLF-transmitters. This method was used for the reception station of the first transatlantic transmission by Marconi. Captive balloons may be more convenient for such experiments, because kite carried antennas require a lot of wind, which may be not always possible with heavy equipment and a ground conductor. It must be taken into account during experiments, that a conductor carried by a kite can lead to a high voltage toward ground, which can endanger people and equipment, if suitable precautions (grounding through resistors or a parallel resonant-circuit tuned to transmission frequency) are not taken.

Kites can also be used for radio technical purposes, either by kites carrying antennas or by using a kite, which carries up an antenna wire (for MF, LF or VLF-transmitters). This was done in the past, for the reception station of the first transatlantic transmission by Marconi. Captive balloons may be more convenient for such experiments, because kite carried antennas require a lot of wind, which may be not always possible with heavy equipment and a ground conductor.

[http://www.chem.hawaii.edu/uham/kite.html Kites for Lifting Antennas]

Kites can be used to carry light effects such as lightsticks or battery powered lights.

Kite traction

Kites can be used to pull people and vehicles downwind. Efficient foil-type kites such as power kites can also be used to sail upwind under the same principles as used by other sailing craft, provided that lateral forces on the ground or in the water are redirected as with the keels, center boards, wheels and ice blades of traditional sailing craft. In the last two decades several kite sailing sports have become popular, such as kite buggying and kite surfing.

Kite sailing opens several possibilities not available in traditional sailing:
*Wind speeds are greater at higher altitudes
*Kites may be manoeuvered dynamically which increases the force available dramatically
*There is no need for mechanical structures to withstand bending forces; vehicles or hulls can be very light or dispensed with all together

The German company SkySails has developed ship-pulling kites as a supplemental power source for cargo ships, first tested in January 2008 on the ship MS Beluga Skysails. [cite web| url=http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/23/look-its-a-freighter-its-a-sailboat-its-both/ | title=It's a freighter, it's a sailboat - no it's both | author=Andrew Revkin] Trials on this 55 m ship have shown that, in favorable winds, the kite reduces fuel consumption by up to 30%. This system is planned to be in full commercial production late http://www.google.com/patents?id=pmVaAAAAEBAJ&dq=3326392 2008. [ [http://skysails.info/index.php?L=1 Skysail ship pulling system] ] Kites are available as an auxiliary sail or emergency spinnaker for sailing boats. Self-launching Parafoil kites are attached to the mast.citation needed|date=February 2008

MS Beluga Skysails is the world's first commercial container cargo ship partially powered by a giant computer-controlled kite (160 m². or 1,722 sq ft.). The kite could reduce fuel consumption by 20%. It was launched on 17 December 2007 and was set to leave the northern German port of Bremerhaven to Guanta, Venezuela on January 22, 2008. Stephan Wrage, managing director of SkySails GmbH announced: "During the next few months we will finally be able to prove that our technology works in practice and significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions." Verena Frank, project manager at Beluga Shipping GmbH, SkySails GmbH's partner further stated that "the project's core concept was using wind energy as auxiliary propulsion power and using wind as a free of charge energy". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7201887.stm BBC NEWS, Kite to pull ship across Atlantic] ]

Industrial

Lifting tree logs from logging fields: [http://www.google.com/patents?id=pmVaAAAAEBAJ&dq=3326392 KITE LOGGING W. H. ROCK]

Power generation

A conceptual research and development project by Makani Power, based in California and funded by Google, is investigating the use of kites in harnessing high altitude wind currents to generate electricity. [ [http://www.makanipower.com/ Makani Power website] ] [http://pesn.com/2005/12/23/9600211_Magenn_Floating_Wind_Generators/ Magenn Power's Floating Wind Generators Nearing Deployment]

Non-man-made kite applications

There are natural kites that play a part in shaping what happens on earth. Some leaves kite to relieve wind pressures, pump fluids, and to disconnect annually to fertilize the soils. Poet Pablo Rosenblueth expressed his understanding that children see leaves as kites. Poet Marvin Bell recognized leaves are kites in his "Nightworks: Poems 1962-2000". The leaf wafts kitingly in the wind held by the tethered leaf stem; when it is fall time, the leaf stem has a de-mooring disconnect process; the wind then easily interracts with the leaf to cause it to fly off the trees and into a gliding fall to the ground [ [http://ncnatural.com/wildflwr/fall/science.html The Scientific Basis For Autumn] ] . There is a following of kite makers that bridle leaves to fly them again as kites [ [http://www.kiteman.co.uk/Indonisiankites.html INDONESIAN KITES.] ] [ [http://www.drachen.org/journals/a10/CavePainting.pdf Just How Old Is This Kite Cave Painting? Drachen Foundation Journal Fall 2002. Leaf kites are in focus in the article.] ] [ [http://www.kiteman.co.uk/LeaveKites1.html Leaf Kites.] ] .

Billions of spiders use kiting to travel or disperse (see balloon kite of spider in kite types (which is not a balloon); others use kiting to build bridge lines for their webs. Spiders hanging in the moving air on their silks are deflected to various points where they make anchor points for their web building. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=Gvrt2eIVG7YC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=spider+ballooning+is+really+kiting&source=web&ots=wHpCpxCy3r&sig=srQgV7Hf_SzOfhOSjrKvI9YKdwg&hl=en Spiders By Ann R. Heinrichs. Google Books. She observes that the so called ballooning is like a kite or balloon; she is mechanically correct about the kite part, as no true balloon is ever formed by the spider as told in the other references.] ] [ [http://www.snerdey.com/sky/index.html Flying Spiders over Texas! Coast to Coast. Chad B., Texas State University Undergrad: He correctly describes the mechanical kiting of spider "ballooning".] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZVFRqYun1EoC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=spider+ballooning+is+really+kiting&source=web&ots=351tzaYlap&sig=nFwfNW8FKRMZ8IZFvEAuO46EP6c&hl=en#PPA27,M1 Artificial and Natural Flight By Hiram Stevens Maxim. Chapter on "Flying Kites", the "Balloon Spider" is correctly seen as mechanical kiting.] ] [ [http://www.ssa.org/myhome.asp?mbr=5811273455&show=blog&id=760&archive=5/1/2005 Richard Miller. His book Without Visible Means of Support describes the mechanical foundation for the mechanics used for the spiders kiting when doing so-called ballooning: free-flight two kite system.] ] [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0528/p22s02-hfks.html Super-powered spiders. Bug specialist describes the kiting of "ballooning" spiders, in interview by author Pamela S. Turner.] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=6_wQ_nOAg88C&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&dq=spider+ballooning+is+really+kiting&source=web&ots=2bQno5r0Qe&sig=AGhZ_sSQEeLJ9EQyjTEMfDt2itE&hl=en#PPA189,M1 Tales with Tails: Storytelling the Wonders of the Natural World by Kevin Strauss] ] . [ [http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mcobweb.html "Are cobwebs made by spiders?" wherein three staffers recognize that ballooning spiders actually are kiting.] ] [ [http://www.pestcontrol-products.com/traps_spiders_facts.htm Pest Control Solutions, the ultimate source for Pest Control Products. The company signed to their understanding that the ballooning spiders actually are kiting.] ] [ [http://www.rarespecies.org/kids/weird.htm Rare Species Conservatory. Wildly Weird Facts. They carefully distinguish that the spiderlings actually kite even though the term "ballooning" is sometimes used.] ] . Carol Frost, biology researcher of the University of Alberta, Canada, observed kiting in spiderlings [ [http://www.canadianarachnology.org/newsletters/CA2005_Frost.pdf Ballooning in Dolomedes Triton (Pisauridae)] The paper has a clear photograph of the spider letting out the strand of silk from its spinnerets that would be used in the kiting or so-called ballooning. Photographer: Tyler Cobb.] .

See also

External links

* [http://www.blueskylark.org/zoo/uses.html Uses of Kites]
* [http://www.cit.gu.edu.au/~anthony/kites/games/ Kite Games and Competitions]
* [http://www.chem.hawaii.edu/uham/part101.html FAA Regulations for Kites/Balloons] FAR Part 101
* [http://www.fly-ul.com/far-103.html#103.1 Ultralight aircraft. FAR Part 103] Some manned kite systems are ultralights under FAR Part 103.

References


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