The Jerry Springer Show

The Jerry Springer Show
Jerryspringer logo 240.png
The logo of The Jerry Springer Show, in use since the show's tenth season starting autumn 2000
Genre Tabloid talk show
Directed by Adam Simons-Sorota
Starring Jerry Springer
Todd Schultz (stage crew)
Pete Kelly (security)
Jason Brandstetter (security)
Country of origin United States
Language(s) English
No. of seasons 21
No. of episodes 3,600+ (as of August 26, 2009)
Executive producer(s) Rachelle Wilkos
Richard Dominick (April 1994–Summer 2008)
Burt Dubrow (September 1991–April 1994)
Editor(s) Scott Spurgeon, Bob Gassel, Jacob Lustig
Location(s) WLWT Studios
Cincinnati, Ohio (1991–1992)
NBC Tower
Chicago, Illinois (1992–2009)
Stamford Media Center
Stamford, Connecticut (2009–present)[1]
Cinematography Multiple-camera setup
Camera setup 480i SDTV
Running time 60 minutes
Production company(s) Richard Dominick Productions (2007-2009)
Mutlimedia Entertainment (1991-1997)
Universal Television Enterprises (1997-2004)
NBC Universal Television Distribution (2004-2009)
Universal Media Studios (2009-present)
Universal Talk Television Productions (2002-present)
Original channel Syndication
Picture format 4:3
Audio format stereo
Original run September 30, 1991 – present
Related shows The Steve Wilkos Show and The Maury Povich Show
External links

The Jerry Springer Show is a syndicated television tabloid talk show hosted by Jerry Springer, a former politician, broadcast in the United States and other countries.[2] It is videotaped at the Stamford Media Center in Stamford, Connecticut[1] and is distributed by NBC Universal Television Distribution, although it is not currently broadcast on any NBC-owned stations.

The Jerry Springer Show is ostensibly a talk show where troubled or dysfunctional families come to discuss their problems before a studio audience so that the audience or host can offer suggestions on what can be done to resolve their situations. In actuality, the show has come to epitomize the so-called "trash TV talk show",[2] as each episode of the show focuses on topics such as adultery, zoophilia, divorce, homophobia, incest, infidelity, pedophilia, pornography, prostitution, racism, strange fetishes, dwarfism, or transvestism, which frequently result in fighting between guests. At one point, the show proudly boasted that it was voted the "Worst TV Show Ever" by TV Guide magazine. The show also bragged to be "an hour of your life you'll never get back". The Jerry Springer Show has received widespread criticism and caused many controversies for a variety of reasons including its elements of prurience, explicit language and the exploitation of the vulnerable.[3] Jerry Springer's talk show began its 21st season on September 19, 2011.



Show host Jerry Springer


A typical episode of Springer begins with a title card warning parents that the show may contain content inappropriate for children. Springer then enters the stage by sliding down a pole stage right, usually being greeted by audience applause, shaking hands with random guests at the front row and the "Je-rry!, Je-rry!" chant. Once the audience settles down, he welcomes the viewer to the show, introduces a particular situation, and interviews a guest who is experiencing it. After finishing the interview, Springer announces the entrance of another guest whom the first guest would like to confront. The second guest enters the stage, and a confrontation between the two guests usually occurs, often breaking down into a brawl that is eventually broken up by on-set security personnel. Once the fight is broken up, Springer interviews the second guest about the situation faced by the first guest.

This cycle is repeated about twice for other sets of guests on the show. Once all guests have told their stories, there is usually a "question and answer" segment where audience members ask guests questions relevant to their situations, although usually their questions come to insult a guest or they flash the audience in exchange for "Jerry Beads" (Mardi Gras-style beads with the show logo). Finally, Springer ends the show with a segment titled "Final Thought",[4] in which he gives an oratory viewpoint on the principles of refined values in regards to the featured guests. He ends the segment with the concluding statement, "Until next time, take care of yourselves and each other".

Generally, Springer tends to present his program standing up pacing the aisle steps between the seating areas rather than having a podium or mark on the main stage. (This is thought to be to protect himself from the potential violence occurring on the stage)[4]

Sometimes the show will have a look back at previous episodes. These have been rebranded as Classic Springer, some with a false Masterpiece Theatre-like theme and patina. These shows are interspersed with commentary[disambiguation needed ] from Springer himself, usually before and after commercial breaks.


The set for the show has had two major changes over the years. When the show first started in 1991, it was very basic with white walls, in an effort to capture the feel of fellow talk show Donahue, Jerry's haircut and glasses even seeming to make him look like Phil Donahue. The general look of this set was carried over when the series first moved to Chicago in September 1992, with an unpolished, open air look and bright colored shapes.

In the Fall of 1994, a few months after the series underwent its format overhaul, the studio received a makeover to make it look a bit warmer and more inviting, complete with brick walls, artwork, and bookcases. The stage walls were designed so that they could be projected outward into the audience, making room for a catwalk that was used in shows such as the 1998 episode Stripper Wars!. In late 2000, the whole set was changed again to its current "industrial" look, changes initially welcomed due to the reduced ratings of the 1999-2000 season. In 2007, the set was slightly changed, with a larger studio audience, bigger stage, and a balcony, which was above the stage and ended at the pole. Springer now uses this as his main entrance by sliding down the pole. The logo and stage design have been carried across to the new studio in Connecticut with only a few changes.


Steve Wilkos was the director of security from 1994-2007. He now hosts his own show, The Steve Wilkos Show. As of Season 19, the two primary security guards are Pete Kelly and Jason Brandstetter. Pete is often the first on stage and handles most of the action, while Jason backs him up. After the move to Stamford, the show hired two local firefighters, Harold and Chris, to join the security team. They serve as the front row audience's protection from the on-stage fights and also are assistants to Pete and Jason if things get out of hand.



The Jerry Springer Show debuted on September 30, 1991, with a family reunion as its first show. Initially, Springer was distributed by Multimedia Entertainment, later going to the former Universal and then to Studios USA.[5]

Originally seen in only the four markets where Multimedia owned TV stations, it started as an issues-oriented and somewhat political talk show, a longer version of the commentary for which Springer had gained local fame as a reporter and anchor, and for its first season, was even taped at Springer's former station, WLWT in Cincinnati.[6] Guests early on included Oliver North and Jesse Jackson, and the topics included homelessness and gun politics,[7][8] as well as the social effects of rock music, featuring shock rock stars like GG Allin,[9][10] El Duce from The Mentors and GWAR as guests.[11]

For its second season in the Fall of 1992, the series was purchased by the NBC owned-and-operated stations, thus allowing it to finally achieve full national clearance, and production was moved to its longtime home at Chicago's NBC Tower (with Springer leaving his longtime position at WLWT in order to do so). However, ratings remained low and by April 1994, Multimedia threatened cancellation if ratings didn't improve by that November, which led to an overhaul that saw original producer Burt Dubrow's departure and replacement by fellow Springer producer Richard Dominick. The search for higher ratings gradually led the program towards provocative and confrontational topics, becoming more successful as it became geared towards youthful viewers (in the vein of Ricki Lake's show) by introducing more controversial topics like transgender issues featuring two performances by Comedy Central star Jade Esteban Estrada in 1995. [6] It became a "freak show" where guests seek their 15 minutes of fame through discussion and demonstrations of deviant behavior.[12] Its extraordinary success has led it to be broadcast in dozens of countries. The show gained so much popularity that for a while it was the top-rated daytime talk show in the United States.[2]

In 1998, several stations that carried Springer, including WLWT in Cincinnati where Springer was once mayor, refused to carry the episode "I Married A Horse".[13]

Early 2000s

In 2000, Springer was given a five-year, $30 million contract extension paying him $6 million per year.[14] The same year, a married couple, Ralf and Eleanor Panitz, were guests on an episode of the show entitled "Secret Mistresses Confronted" with Mr. Panitz's ex-wife, Nancy Campbell-Panitz, in which they complained about Ms. Campbell-Panitz's behavior and accused her of stalking them. Hours after it was broadcast on July 24, 2000, Ms. Campbell-Panitz was found dead in a home that the three were fighting over, and Florida police soon confirmed that they were treating the death as homicide.[15] It was then reported that Mr. Panitz, having been issued a first-degree murder warrant for the death, was trying to flee to Canada to avoid prosecution.[16] Upon news of the 52-year old woman's murder, a spokeswoman for the program issued a statement saying it was "a terrible tragedy."[17]

In August 2000, Springer appeared on CNN's Larry King Live to discuss the incident, claiming that it "had nothing to do with the show" and that his talk show does not glamorize deviant behavior.[18] On March 27, 2002, after a 10-day trial and 18 hours of deliberating from jurors, Mr. Panitz was convicted of the murder and sentenced to life in prison.[19]

In 2001, efforts from groups like the Parents Television Council and American Family Association made some advertisers decrease or stop their sponsorship of Springer.[20] For the United Kingdom, the Independent Television Commission banned Springer and other tabloid talk programs from being shown on television during daytime hours on school holidays in response to numerous parental complaints and concerns about children's potential exposure to the salacious content (there was a short-running British version of the show made for ITV called The Springer Show that was lighter and more tongue-in-cheek).[21] The show also topped TV Guide magazine's 2002 list of "The Worst TV Shows Ever".[22] The phrase "Jerry Springer Nation" began to be used by some who see the program as being a bad influence on the morality of the United States.[23] In addition, the phrase has shown the association of Springer with any "lowbrow" type of entertainment in general.[24]

In 2003, a British opera inspired by the series, Jerry Springer: The Opera, began playing in the United Kingdom.[25] The same year, it was revealed that a group of guests from Hayward, California faked a "love triangle" for an appearance on two episodes of the show; one guest in the group was murdered, but Hayward police determined that his appearance was not connected to his murder.[26]

By 2005, security director Steve Wilkos became sort of a cult figure on his own, and would close each show walking down a hallway engaging in casual talk with one of the more colorful guests of the preceding episode. He also would occasionally host the show. Episodes that he hosted were intended to be more serious in tone than the typical Springer show.[27] Wilkos left Springer at the end of the 2006-07 season to pursue his own self-titled talk show, The Steve Wilkos Show.[28]

Mid-2000s to present

In 2005, the program became a subject of criticism in Bernard Goldberg's book 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America, being called "TV's lowest life-form"[29] and Springer himself being ranked at 32 and labeled an "American Pioneer".[30] Goldberg also claimed that Springer was knowingly capitalizing on the disadvantages of his guests and the stupidity of his audience, also citing the controversial episode revolving around the man who married his horse.[31]

In January 2006, the show was renewed for its sixteenth season, ending speculation that Springer would leave his talk show to run for elected office in Ohio, where he is the former mayor of Cincinnati.[32] On May 12, 2006, Springer celebrated his show's 3,000th episode by throwing a party on the show (which no one but Jerry showed up to humorously), and showed many clips, including rare excerpts from the first episode.[33]

In the United Kingdom, meanwhile, a Commercial High Court trial was scheduled for summer 2006 to resolve a dispute between Flextech Television and NBC Universal over Flextech in 2002 cancelling its 1998 contract to broadcast Springer in the UK as long as new episodes continued to be produced in the U.S.[34]

In 2007, security director Wilkos left Jerry Springer to host his own syndicated talk show.The Steve Wilkos Show was also shot at the NBC Tower in Chicago and produced by Richard Dominick, who continued to produce Springer as well. On July 15, 2007, it was announced that Springer was picked up by NBC-Universal through the 2009-2010 season.[35] Also, VH1 ran a documentary series The Springer Hustle, going "behind the scenes" of the show,[36] having already run another Springer-related documentary in 2005 titled When Jerry Springer Ruled the World.[37] Springer's appearance on the NBC television network show America's Got Talent led to an increase in viewership for the first quarter of 2007.[38] Steve Wilkos filled in for Springer during the beginning of America's Got Talent.

A recurring character, the comical "Reverend Shnorr" (played by Director of On-Air Promotions, Brian Schnorr), was introduced in 2006 to perform weddings on the program and "counsel" certain guests on "Biblical values".[39][40] The security staff for the program also was given new additions, as starting in the seventeenth season, three female security guards were added.[41] Certain professional athletes have come on the show as one-off security guards for some episodes. They include hockey players Joe Corvo[42] and Adam Burish, and mixed martial arts fighters Andrei Arlovski,[43] Shonie Carter,[44] and Bas Rutten.

Certain advertisers continue to avoid buying ad time for Springer.[45] However, the show has continued to keep steady ratings in the February 2008 "Sweeps" period.[46]

Executive producer Richard Dominick resigned shortly after the start of the 18th season; Rachelle Consiglio, wife of Steve Wilkos and longtime Senior Producer, replaced Dominick. The set decorations added during the 17th season were removed.[47]

In May 2009 Richard Dominick Productions announced they would be staging a worldwide search for the next Jerry Springer. Dominick has teamed up with an Australian based international production company and as such plans to start the search in Australia.[48]

On May 19, 2009 the show recorded its last episode at WMAQ-TV's NBC Tower in Chicago, Illinois, where it had been recorded since 1992, midway through the second season.[49] Beginning with the 2009-10 season, production was moved to the Stamford Media Center in Stamford, Connecticut. Jerry was quoted as saying he was not happy with the move, but understood the financial reasons for which it was being done, and is working to secure jobs for those on his staff who wish to move with the show. Since filming at Stamford Media Center, the show's set has been revamped, becoming more highly colored with new lighting, the theme music has changed, and the logo shown in the bottom left corner for the duration of the show has become 3-D.

Springer aired its 20 year celebration episode on October 27, 2010, which was filmed in Times Square in New York.

Springer's twenty-first season premiered September 19, 2011, debuting new graphics.

Controversies over authenticity and violence

In the late 1990s, the show was quite popular and controversial, so much so that it caused contemporaries like Jenny Jones, Maury Povich, and Ricki Lake to "revamp" their own shows in order to improve ratings.[50] However, major figures in television, along with many religious leaders, had called for the show's removal and considered it to be of bad taste.[4]

In 1997 and 1998, the show reached its ratings peak, at one point becoming the first talk show in years to beat The Oprah Winfrey Show.[51] It featured almost non-stop fighting between guests—5 to 12 per day during one April 1998 week—and other TV personalities and priests complained.[4] Chicago City Council suggested that if the fistfights and chair-throwing were real, then the guests should be arrested for committing acts of violence in the city, as alderman Ed Burke was concerned over the fact that the off-duty Chicago police officers serving as security guards for the program failed to take legal action against fighting guests.[52] Springer explained that the violence on the program "look[ed] real" to him, also arguing that the fighting on the show "never, ever, ever glamorizes violence".[53] Ultimately, the City Council chose not to pursue the matter.[53] Because of this probe and other external and internal pressures, the fighting was taken off the show temporarily before being allowed again in a less violent nature.[54][55] In the years of the show having toned down the fights, viewership has declined but remains respectable by newer standards of daytime television ratings.[32][38]

There has been continuous debate over the authenticity of the fighting. In an interview, a production assistant stated that "we try our hardest to screen people," and inauthentic-seeming guests have been kicked off stage.[56] Marvin Kitman, television critic for the Newsday newspaper, felt that the fighting had been choreographed beforehand.[12] Christopher Sterling of the George Washington University media department compared the program to professional wrestling; in fact many of the producers later on admitted the fights in the show were inspired by the fights and angles in the WWE.[12] Sixteen former guests of The Jerry Springer Show, who were interviewed on various U.S. media outlets such as the entertainment news program Extra, Rolling Stone magazine, and The New York Post newspaper, even claimed there was a "fight quota" for each episode and that they and other guests were encouraged to fight one another.[57] In the past, producers have even booked professional wrestlers such as The Iron Sheik, Jamie Dundee, 2 Tuff Tony, Madman Pondo, and One Man Kru (also a hip hop artist), as well as lady wrestlers and midget wrestlers. Springer himself even admitted in an October 2000 interview with the Reuters news agency:

I would never watch my show. I'm not interested in it. It's not aimed towards me. This is just a silly show.[58]


Springer airs on various stations in the United States at various times of the day, whether in the morning, afternoon, or late evening. All syndicated episodes of Springer are censored, regardless of broadcast time, to comply with U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations regarding the broadcast of indecency and obscenity.

Initially, mainly profanity was bleeped, but later episodes were bleeped for explicit language, sometimes to such an extent that speech became incomprehensible. In addition, nudity and the partial exposure of breasts or buttocks are pixelated. After longtime producer Richard Dominick left, the show reverted to the traditional style of bleeping, which remains in place today. In one week in April 1998, The New York Times found that each episode had about 85 to 130 bleeps.[4]

Springer himself has stated that, while his show is a bit wild, there are certain things that are not permitted. The audience is not allowed to shout anything that encourages or sustains violence among the guests. Furniture may be pushed aside, but the chairs are purposely large to preclude their use as a weapon. Men being violent against women is never acceptable, on- or off-camera; in Ringmaster, Springer mentions that he always asks if the woman wants to press charges.

Too Hot For TV

During the show's most popular era in the late 1990s, The Jerry Springer Show released videotapes and later DVDs marketed as Too Hot for TV. They contained uncensored nudity, profanity, and violence that was edited out from broadcast to conform to FCC standards for broadcast decency. The releases sold remarkably well[59] and inspired similar sets from other series. Eventually, the show started producing similar "uncensored" monthly pay-per-view/video on demand specials as well. Irie Collins is the marketing director.

See also


  1. ^ a b Johnson, Steve (May 19, 2009). "Jerry Springer wraps up his tenure in Chicago before leaving for Connecticut". Chicago Tribune.,0,2584868.column. Retrieved May 19, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c Dixon, Mary. Trash TV? Salt Lake City Weekly, May 26, 1998
  3. ^ Green, R (on the application of) v The City of Westminster Magistrates' Court [2007] EWHC 2785 (Admin)at para. 5 (5 December 2007)
  4. ^ a b c d e Kelly, Erin St. John. (April 27, 1998). "Springer's Harvest". .The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  5. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (November 26, 1996). "Unit of MCA is Acquiring Talk Shows". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Jerry Springer: Biography TV Guide
  7. ^ Jerry Springer Biography New York Show Tickets
  8. ^ Elder, Larry Who's faking whom? Jewish World Review, April 30, 1998
  9. ^ Jerry Springer episode from May 5, 1993 IMDB
  10. ^ Huey, Steve. "G.G. Allin - Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved March 1, 2008. 
  11. ^ "Shock Rock!". The Jerry Springer Show. Syndicated. January 31, 1997.
  12. ^ a b c Kitman, Martin (June 29, 1998). "Jerry Springer an "appalling diversion"". (Los Angeles Times Syndicate). Retrieved September 28, 2007. 
  13. ^ "Springer's latest: 'I Married a Horse'". Cincinnati Post. May 21, 1998. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. 
  14. ^ Schlosser, Joe Springer reups with Studios USA Broadcasting & Cable, April 10, 2000
  15. ^ Police hunt for Springer guests. BBC News, July 26, 2000
  16. ^ Potter, Mark. Springer guest wanted in murder trying to flee to Canada, authorities say CNN, July 27, 2000
  17. ^ Silverman, Stephen M. 'Springer' Guests Sought in Slaying People, August 19, 2000
  18. ^ "Did 'The Jerry Springer Show' Cause a Murder?". Larry King, Jerry Springer. Larry King Live. CNN. August 24, 2000. Transcript.
  19. ^ 'Jerry Springer' Murder Conviction CBS News, March 27, 2002
  20. ^ Downey, Kevin. Here they are, TV's Dirty Dozen. Media Life Magazine, January 29, 2001
  21. ^ Beard, Matthew (February 22, 2001). "Jerry Springer suspended from television during school holidays". The Independent (London). Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  22. ^ Bootie Cosgrove-Mather The Worst TV Shows Ever CBS News, July 12, 2002
  23. ^ Peterson, Isaac (March 30, 2002). "Stop Making Sense". Democratic Underground. Retrieved November 15, 2007. 
  24. ^ Bozell, L. Brent III (August 24, 2006). "Roasting the Final Frontier". Creators Syndicate. Retrieved October 20, 2007.  Bozell wrote the article criticizing the 2006 Comedy Central Roast of William Shatner, explaining "the ratings (at least compared to the usual Comedy Central gunk) were good, so they replayed this sleazy spectacle over and over again in heavy rotation until every member of Jerry Springer Nation had watched it twice."
  25. ^ "Springer opera set for Broadway". BBC News. April 27, 2004. Retrieved April 20, 2008. 
  26. ^ De Benedetti, Chris (July 12, 2003). "Slain Hayward man had appeared on Jerry Springer show". Oakland Tribune ( Archived from the original on March 4, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008. 
  27. ^ "About Steve Wilkos". WGN-TV. 2007. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  28. ^ "Springer bodyguard gets talk show". BBC News. September 10, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2008. 
  29. ^ Goldberg, Bernard (2005). 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America. New York, New York: HarperCollins. pp. 15. ISBN 0060761288. 
  30. ^ Ibid., 208
  31. ^ Ibid., 209
  32. ^ a b Benson, Jim (January 16, 2006). "Springer Stays on Board". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved March 30, 2008. 
  33. ^ ""The Jerry Springer Show" Celebrates 3,000 Episodes" (Press release). NBC Universal Television Group. May 5, 2006. Retrieved September 26, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Judge to view Jerry Springer show". BBC News. July 19, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2008. 
  35. ^ Pursell, Chris (July 15, 2007). "Tribune Stations Keep 'Em Talking". TV Week. Retrieved July 16, 2007. 
  36. ^ The Springer Hustle, 2007
  37. ^ "When Jerry Springer Ruled the World". Archived from the original on September 20, 2008. 
  38. ^ a b Benson, Jim (March 12, 2007). "Syndication Ratings: Daytime Talk Shows". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved March 30, 2008. 
  39. ^ Rev. Shnorr[dead link]
  40. ^ Noe, Denise The Jerry Springer Show's Rev. Shnorr character is a creation of anti-Christian bigotry Men's News Daily, September 6, 2007
  41. ^ Blackmon, Joe (September 17, 2007). "Jerry Springer Hires Three Off-Duty Female Law Enforcement Officers". Reality TV Magazine. Retrieved March 30, 2008. 
  42. ^ "Rockin' Reverend!". The Jerry Springer Show. September 24, 2007.
  43. ^ "Three Pigs in a Trailer, Part II". The Jerry Springer Show. September 26, 2007.
  44. ^ "Eat Your Tomatoes!". The Jerry Springer Show. October 11, 2007.
  45. ^ Dorsey, Tom (March 29, 2008). "Springer's dirt can't compete with network TV". Louisville Courier-Journal. Retrieved March 29, 2008. [dead link]
  46. ^ Albiniak, Paige (March 4, 2008). "Syndication Ratings: Sweeps Good for Talkers". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved March 30, 2008. 
  47. ^ Podmolik, Mary Ellen (September 6, 2008). "No more hotbed of hillbillies". Chicago Tribune.,0,1240864.story. Retrieved September 6, 2008. 
  48. ^ Burrowes, Tim (April 5, 2009). "Search begins for an Aussie Jerry". mUmBRELLA. Retrieved April 5, 2009. 
  49. ^ Johnson, Steve (May 19, 2009). "Jerry Springer wraps up his tenure in Chicago before leaving for Connecticut". Chicago Tribune.,0,2584868.column. Retrieved May 22, 2009. 
  50. ^ Goodman, Walter (March 28, 1995). "As TV Sows Outrage, Guess What It Reaps". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  51. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (April 24, 1998). "Jerry Springer Loses a Chicago TV Contract, But Bounces Back". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2008. 
  52. ^ Robinson, Bryan (June 3, 1999). "Jerry Springer hearing before Chicago City Council to reveal whether show violence is real or staged". Court TV. Archived from the original on June 1, 2008. 
  53. ^ a b Weber, Bruce (June 5, 1999). "Live, at Chicago's City Hall: It's the 'Jerry Springer Show'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  54. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (November 9, 1998). "'Springer' Returns to Its Antics". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  55. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (May 26, 1999). "Studio to Rein In Violence on 'Jerry Springer'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  56. ^ Linn, Jessica (May 22, 2007). "'Jerry Springer' assistant tells all: 'It's real! It's really, really real!'". Medill Reports. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Springer faces fake fight claims". BBC News. April 24, 1998. Retrieved November 11, 2007. 
  58. ^ "Springer's 'silly' show". BBC News. October 6, 2000. Retrieved June 17, 2008. 
  59. ^ Bianculli, David. It's a Circus: Is Jerry Springer's No-Holds-Barred Talk Show Harmless Populist Escapism, the End of Civilization as we know it, or both? New York Daily News, February 8, 1998

External links

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