Jacquemart de Hesdin
Jacquemart de Hesdin (c. 1355– c. 1414) was a French miniature painter working in the
International Gothicstyle. In English, he is also called Jacquemart of Hesdin. During his lifetime, his name was spelt in a number of ways, including as Jacquemart de Odin.Conway, Sir Martin, "Jacquemart de Hesdin" in "The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs", vol. 29, no. 158 (May, 1916) [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0951-0788%28191605%2929%3A158%3C45%3AJDH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage pp. 45-47 & 49] online at JSTOR(accessed 16 February 2008)]
Jacquemart was a painter from
Artois. Hesdin, the town from which he took his name, was a fortified citadelin the Pas-de-Calais, then part of Flandersand a stronghold of the Dukes of Burgundy. [Deparis, Régis, "Promenades dans Hesdin" (2004)] It is possible that Jacquemart was born there. He was one of the many Netherlandish artists who worked for members of the French royal family from about the middle of the fourteenth century. [http://www.answers.com/topic/hesdin-jacquemart-de?cat=entertainment Jacquemart de Hesdin] in the "Art Encyclopedia", online at answers.com (accessed 16 February 2008)]
Jacquemart's only known patron,
John, Duke of Berry(1340–1416), was a younger brother of King Charles V of France.Granboulan, Anne, "Jacquemart of Hesdin (14th-15th cc)" in "Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages", by André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, & Michael Lapidge, trans. Adrian Walford (London, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 1579582826), [http://books.google.com/books?id=qtgotOF0MKQC&pg=PA751&lpg=PA751&dq=%22Jacquemart+of+Hesdin%22&source=web&ots=zwgRTZlLUx&sig=E9smDhkCmU4FLYt6rgGx6LclxGo#PPA751,M1 pp 751-752] online at books.google.com (accessed 16 February 2008)] When Charles V died in 1380, his son Charles VI was a minor, so Berry and his brothers Louis I of Anjou, King of Naples (1339–1384) and Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404), acted as regents of France until 1388. Berry and Burgundy again ruled France from 1392 to 1402, due to the madness of the young Charles VI. Berry spent enormous sums on his art collection, and when he died in 1416 he was deeply in debt. [Lehoux, Françoise, "Jean de France, duc de Berri: sa vie, son action politique (1340-1416)" (Paris, A. Picard, 1966-1968, 4 vols.)] The web site of the Louvresays of Berry: "By his exacting taste, by his tireless search for artists, from Jacquemart de Hesdin to the Limbourg brothers, John of Berry made a decisive contribution to the renewal of art which took place in his time." [ [http://www.museedulouvre.fr/llv/dossiers/page_theme.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226583&CURRENT_LLV_THEME%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226583&CURRENT_LLV_PAGE_THEME%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226586 Dossier thématique : La France en 1400 : Jean de Berry] at museedulouvre.fr (accessed 20 February 2008), translated by ]
Together with Berry's master architect
Guy de Dammartin, the Limbourg brothers, and the miniaturist André Beauneveuand his student Jean de Cambrai, Jacquemart was considered to be a friend as well as a protégé of the Duke. [http://www.christusrex.org/www2/berry/jean.html Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry] , article online at christusrex.org (accessed 16 February 2008)]
Career and work
Jacquemart's whole career developed at
Bourges(the capital of the Province of Berry) at the court of John, Duke of Berry. He was active in the Duke's service from 1384 until 1414 and made a significant contribution to the Duke's famous illuminated books, in particular the "Très Belles Heures du Duc de Berry", [Brussels, Bibiothèque royale, MS 11060-11061] the "Grandes Heures", the "Petites Heures", and a "Psalter", often working with the Limbourg brothersand the painter known as the Boucicaut Master.
On 28 November 1384, Jacquemart was paid for the first time by the steward of John, Duke of Berry, to cover expenses he and his wife had incurred in Bourges, and he was also paid for his clothes for the coming winter. After 1384, he was paid a regular salary.
In 1398, while Jacquemart was working for Berry in the castle at
Poitiers, he was accused with his assistant Godefroy and with his brother-in-law Jean Petit of the theft of colours and patterns from Jean de Hollande, another painter who worked for Berry. Jacquemart is recorded as staying in Bourges in 1399.
The "Très Belles Heures du Duc de Berry" (also sometimes called the "Brussels Hours", from the city where it has long been kept) is chiefly the work of Jacquemart. The book is described in an inventory of Berry's library dated 1402: cquote|Unes très belles heures richement enluminées et ystoriées de la main Jacquemart de Odin.
The "Très Belles Heures" disappeared for several hundred years, but the scholarly consensus is that the manuscript in the "Bibliothèque Royale" at
Brusselsis the one described in the 1402 inventory.
The "Petites Heures" [
Bibliothèque Nationale, MS lat. 18.014] is believed to date from before 1388, apart from a miniature of the Duke of Berry himself added later by the Limbourg brothers. Millard Meiss suggests that at least five painters worked on the book's illuminations, Jacquemart and four unidentified artists. One of these four is commonly referred to as "the Pseudo-Jacquemart". [Meiss, Millard, "French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry" (New York, 1967)]
Jacquemart's small painting "The Carrying of the Cross" (vellum mounted on canvas, 38 cm by 28 cm, dated before 1409) is in the
Musée du Louvre. [ [http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/h/h-7.htm#hesdin Hesdin, Jacquemart de (French, active 1384-1409)] at cgfa.sunsite.dk (accessed 16 February 2008); [http://www.insecula.com/us/oeuvre/O0000180.html Le Portement de croix] at insecula.com (accessed 16 February 2008)]
According to Anne Granboulan, Jacquemart "...manifests a certain mastery in the representation of space, thus showing that he had suitably assimilated the lesson of Siena". She says also that he "...attests the new northern naturalist tendencies, in contrast to the idealized art of
Columbia Encyclopedia" (sixth edition) notes that Jacquemart was influenced by Sienese painting, and his work "...included elaborate architectural interiors used to place figures in a believable space". [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Hesdin-J.html "Hesdin, Jacquemart de"] , in the " Columbia Encyclopedia" (6th edition), online at encyclopedia.com (accessed 16 February 2008)] By studying the work of Pucelle and the Italian painters, Jacquemart developed his modelling and rendering of space and modified the realism which is characteristic of the Netherlandish painters of the period.
He is also noted for his
marginalia, shapes of animals and foliage which give his manuscript pages a frame.
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JACQUEMART DE HESDIN — (connu entre 1384 et 1409) Enlumineur du duc Jean de Berry, Jacquemart de Hesdin peint successivement pour son mécène une partie des Petites heures (env. 1385, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris), les miniatures en pleine page des Très Belles Heures… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Jacquemart de Hesdin — [ʒak maːr də e dɛ̃], französischer Miniaturenmaler, Hesdin, Jacquemart de … Universal-Lexikon
Jacquemart de Hesdin — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jacquemart (homonymie). La Portée de Croix par Jacquemart, avant 1409 (Louvre) … Wikipédia en Français
Jacquemart de Hesdin — Petites Heures del Duque Juan de Berry, Escena: Loco, obra de Jacquemart de Hesdin, h. 1386, pergamino, 25 × 17,7 cm, Biblioteca Nacional de Francia en París. Jacquemart de Hesdin (1350 1410) fue un miniaturista francés, perteneciente al … Wikipedia Español
Jacquemart — may refer to:People: *Jacquemart de Hesdin (c. 1355– c. 1414), French painter *Henri Alfred Jacquemart (1824 1896), French sculptor *Jules Ferdinand Jacquemart (1837 1880), French painter *Nélie Jacquemart (fl. late 19th century), painter… … Wikipedia
Jacquemart — ist der Name des Glockenschlägers einer Turmuhr, siehe Jacquemart (Uhr) und der Name folgender Personen: Jacquemart de Hesdin (nachweisbar 1384 1410), französischer Miniaturist Albert Jacquemart (1808–1875), französischer Beamter, Maler und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Jacquemart (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Jacquemart de la mairie de Montbard (Côte d Or, France) Un … Wikipédia en Français
Hesdin — French commune nomcommune=Hesdin region= departement= arrondissement= canton=Hesdin insee=62447 cp=62140 maire=Jean Marie Roussel mandat=2001 2008 intercomm=Communauté de Communes de l Hesdinois longitude=2.0375 latitude=50.375 alt moy=26 m alt… … Wikipedia
Hesdin — [e dɛ̃], Jacquemart de, französischer Miniaturenmaler, vermutlich flämischer Herkunft (aus dem Hennegau), nachweisbar zwischen 1384 und 1410; Hofmaler des Jean de France, Herzog von Berry. Ausgehend von der Tradition J. Pucelles und unter dem… … Universal-Lexikon
Les Grandes Heures du duc de Berry — Les Grandes Heures de Jean, duc de Berry Calendrier, folio du mois de décembre (f.6v) Artiste Jacquemart de Hesdin, Pseudo Jacquemart, Maître de Boucicaut … Wikipédia en Français