Pax (liturgy)


Pax (liturgy)

"Pax vobis" ("peace to you"), or "pax vobiscum" ("peace with you"), are salutations in the Latin Mass.

Origins

Like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. "Dominus vobiscum"), the Pax is of Scriptural origin.

The Gospels contain such forms as: "veniet pax vestra, "pax vestra revertetur ad vos" (Matt., x, 13), "Pax huic domui" (Luke, x, 5), "Pax vobis" (Luke, xxiv, 36; John, xx, 21, [26). The salutation, "Gratia vobis et pax" or "Gratia misericordia et pax", is the opening formula of most of the Epistles of St. Paul and of St. Peter, and occurs also in those of St. John as well as in the Apocalypse.

The formula was quoted from the Old Testament by Christ and his Apostles [cf. especially "Pax vobiscum", "Pax tecum", Gen., xliii, 23; Judges, vi, 23.] , and was preserved in the liturgy and in Christian epigraphy. Like the Dominus vobiscum, it was first used in the liturgy (in the form of Pax vobis) by the bishop in welcoming the faithful at the beginning of the Mass before the Collect or the Oratio.

When the Confiteor, Introit, Gloria in excelsis were added at a later period, the Pax vobis or the Dominus vobiscum was preserved. The form Pax vobis was employed by bishops and prelates only -- Dominus vobiscum being used by priests -- at the first Collect. Hence the Dominus vobiscum became the ordinary introduction to all the orations and most of the prayers. The Greeks have preserved the Pax omnibus or Pax vobiscum.

There was a certain rivalry between the two formulae, Pax vobis and Dominus vobiscum, and some councils (notably that of Braga in 563) ordained that both bishops and priests should employ the same form of salutation (for the texts, see the bibliography). Besides this episcopal or sacerdotal salutation, the words Pax tecum, Pax vobis, or Pax vobiscum are used in the Liturgy at the kiss of peace. On such occasions the Liturgy contains prayers or collects ad pacem. [cf. Kiss; Cabrol in "Dict. d'archéol. et de liturgie", s.v. "Baiser de Paix", where all references are given.] In the Ambrosian Liturgy, at the end of the Mass, the people are dismissed with the words: "Ite in pace". [cf. "Auctarium Solesmense", 95.] Dom Martene [op. cit. in bibliography, III, 171, 174.] gives other instances of the use of the word Pax.

In Christian epigraphy there is a variety of formulae: pax; in pace; pax tecum; vivas in pace; requiescat in pace; pax Christi tecum sit; anima dulcissima requiescas in pace; dormit in pace; in locum refrigerii, lucis et pacis (from the formula in the Mass at the Momento of the Dead). [Le Blant, "Inscriptions chret. de la Gaule", I, 264, etc.; Northcote, "Epitaphs of the Catacombs" (London, 1878), v.]

References

*Peter Damian, an opusculum on Dominus Vobiscum in "Patrologia Latina" CXLV, 234;
*Zaccaria, Onomasticon, s. vv. Pax vobis and Salutatio episcopalis;
*Bona Rerum liturg., III, 12, 88 sqq.;
*Smith, Dict. of Christ. Antiq., s.v. Pax (cf. Dominus vobiscum);
*De dignitate sacerdotali (not written by St. Ambrose, as was long believed, but by Gerbert), v, in P.L.., XVII, 598 and CXXXIX, 175, contains an important text on this subject;
*Rocca De salutatione sacerdotis in missa et divinis officiis in Thesaurus antiquitat., I (Rome, 1745), 236;
*Martene, De antiq. eccles. ritibus, I, 151 sqq.;
*Mamachi, Origines et antiq. christ., IV, 479; III, 17, 19;
*Ephemerides liturg. (Feb., 1910), 108;
*Probst, Die abendlandische Messe, 104, 404, 437; see Dominus Vobiscum, V, 114;
*Cabrol in Dict. d'archeol. chret., s.v. Acclamations.

For the formula Pax and other formulas in funeral epigraphy:
*Kirsch, Die Acclamationen u. Gebete der altchristl. Grabschriften (Cologne, 1897);
*____, Les acclamations des epitaphes chret. de l'antiquite et les prieres liturg. pour les defunts in IV Congres scientifique des Catholiques (Fribourg, 1898), 113-22;
*Syxto, Notiones archaeol. christ., II, Epigraphia, 94 sqq.;
*Cabrol, La priere pour les morts in Revue d'apologetique (15 Sept., 1909);
*____, Livre de la priere antique, 67, 69.

Notes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pax in the Liturgy — • A liturgical salutation ( Peace be with you ) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Pax in the Liturgy     Pax in the Liturgy      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Liturgy of the Mass —     Liturgy of the Mass     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Liturgy of the Mass     A. Name and Definition     The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites. As in the case of all… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite — • The liturgy and Rite of the Church of Milan, which derives its name from St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374 397) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite     Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Mass (liturgy) — A 15th century Mass …   Wikipedia

  • Dismissal (liturgy) — The Dismissal (Greek: απόλυσις; Slavonic: otpust) is the final blessing said by a Christian priest or minister at the end of a religious service. In liturgical churches the dismissal will often take the form of ritualized words and gestures, such …   Wikipedia

  • Ordinary (liturgy) — The ordinary, in Roman Catholic and other Western Christian liturgies, refers to the part of the Eucharist or of the canonical hours[1] that is reasonably constant without regard to the date on which the service is performed. It is contrasted to… …   Wikipedia

  • Agnus Dei (in Liturgy) —     Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)     A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass (except on Good Friday and Holy Saturday) in the Roman rite. It occurs towards the end of the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Corporal (liturgy) — The Corporal (from the Latin corpus, body ) is a square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of an altar, upon which the chalice and paten, and also the ciborium containing the smaller hosts for the Communion of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Optatissima Pax — Catholicism portal OPTATISSIMA PAX is an encyclical of Pope Pius XII on prescribing public prayers for social and world peace given at Rome, at St. Peter s, the 18th day of December in the year 1947, the ninth o fhis Pontificate Two years after… …   Wikipedia

  • Gallican Rite — The Gallican Rite is a historical sub grouping of the Roman Catholic liturgy in western Europe; it is not a single rite but actually a family of rites within the Western Rite which comprised the majority use of most of Christianity in western… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.