Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun

Infobox Weapon
name=Type 96 25 mm dual purpose gun


caption=A US military photograph of a captured dual gun emplacement on Guam in 1944.
origin=flag|Empire of Japan
type=Autocannon Anti-Aircraft/Anti-tank gun
is_ranged=yes
is_artillery=yes
service=1936–1945
used_by=navy|Empire of Japan
wars=World War II
designer=
design_date=
manufacturer=
unit_cost=
production_date=
number=33,000
variants=
spec_label=
weight=785 kg (single gun)
1,100 kg (twin barreled mount)
1,800 kg (triple barreled mount)
length=
part_length=1.5 m (5 ft)
width=
height=
diameter=
crew=9, 7 or 3 depending on number of barrels
cartridge=rimless 25 × 163
caliber=25 mm
action=gas operated
rate=200–260 rpm (cyclic)
110 rpm (effective)
velocity=900 m/s (2,953 fps)
range=
max_range=
feed=
sights=
breech=
recoil=
carriage=
elevation=-10 to +85
traverse=360
The nihongo|Type 96 25mm Gun|九六式二十五粍高角機銃| Jyūroku-shiki nijyūgo-miri Kokakukihō was a automatic cannon used by the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. It was primarily used as an anti-aircraft gun in fixed mounts with between one and three guns, but was designed as a dual-purpose weapon for use against armor as well.

History and development

In 1935 the Imperial Japanese Navy decided to replace the earlier 40 mm Vickers "pom-pom" guns with a 25 mm Hotchkiss design. A party of Japanese officers and engineers traveled to France to evaluate the design in 1935 and an order was placed for a number of guns and mounts for evaluation. Firing tests of these guns were conducted at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1935. The first few weapons were built in France under the designation “Type 94” and “Type 95”, with the mass production model produced at the Yokosuka Arsenal being designated “Type 96”.

The Japanese made a number of minor changes to the original Hotchkiss design and production process, changing some components from forgings to castings to simplify production and replacing the simple conical flash suppressor with a Rheinmetall-type design. A submarine-mountable version of the gun was also produced, which made extensive use of stainless steel.

The double mount type was the first to enter service, with triple mounts following in 1941 and finally single mounts later in 1943.

Design

The Type 96 25mm Gun is a simple air-cooled gas operated design. The barrel is a forging screwed into the breech mechanism. Additional support is provided to the breech end of the gun barrel by the finned cooling jacket. The barrel is changeable, but the operation required two men and special tools to complete, and took a trained crew approximately five minutes. By adjusting the gas valve setting it was possible to vary the rate of fire between 200 and 260 rounds per minute, with 220 rounds per minute being the standard setting.

The gun mounts were normally provided with one of three gun sights:
# A "Le Prieur" mechanical lead computing sight
# An open ring sight
# An etched glass optical ring sightLand mountings and all single mountings all used the single open ring sight. The Type 95 sight was used on ship-based multiple mounts, in the case where the mount has a powered drive linked to a fire director it was used as a backup.

The Type 95 sight was originally designed with a maximum target speed of 600 kilometers per hour; however, experience showed that aircraft often exceeded this speed. To compensate for the problem a ring was added to the sighting telescope to provide an additional offset for the speeds up to 900 kilometers per hour.

The gun was normally used without a gun shield, although some multiple mounts on Yamato class battleships were fitted with a Ducol (High tensile steel) shields. Many ship based mounts also had splinter shields.

Effectiveness

In interviews conducted by the U.S. Naval Technical Mission to Japan after the end of the war, Japanese military personnel cited it as the most reliable Japanese anti-aircraft weapon, but second in effectiveness to the Type 98 100 mm anti-aircraft gun cite book|title=Japanese Naval Guns and Mounts, Article 2, AA Machine guns and Mounts O-47(N)-2|publisher=U.S. Naval Technical Mission To Japan|year=1946] . The Type 96 was most effective when used at ranges of 1,000 meters or less. Japanese military estimated that it required an average of 1,500 rounds to down an aircraft at a height of 1,000 meters and a range of 2,000 meters and that fire beyond that range was completely ineffective. Later in the war when ammunition supply was restricted, firing was held until the targets were within 800 meters range this dropped to a low as seven rounds per aircraft according to Japanese sources cite book|title=Effectiveness of Japanese AA fire O-44|publisher=U.S. Naval Technical Mission To Japan|year=1946] .

The Japanese ranked in order of seriousness the problems with the gun as:
# Elevation and traverse was too slow, even with powered mounts
# The sights were ineffective against high speed targets
# Firing the multiple mounts caused excessive vibration which reduced accuracy and prevented effective target tracking
# Too little ammunition in each magazine resulted in a low overall rate of fire

In "Rapid Fire", Anthony Williams writes that the intermediate calibre weapons (including the US Navy's 1.1") were relatively unsuccessful during World War II, the mounts were much heavier and more complex, but the shells lacked the range and hitting power of the larger 37 and 40 millimeter mounts. cite book|title=Rapid Fire|author=Anthony G. Williams] . Certainly the Japanese ranked increasing the caliber of autocannots as the number one priority of research and development

Variants

* Type 94 - French built
* Type 95 - French built
* Type 96 - Built in Japan
** Type 96 Model 1 - Used on land and in warships in single, double and triple mountings. The single mount was free swinging, while double and triple mounts had hand-wheel traverse.
** Type 96 Model 2 - Used on warships in double and triple mountings.
** Type 96 Model 3 - Used on warships in single free-swinging mounts.
** Type 96 Model 4 - Used on submarines, in single, double and triple mounts. Single mounts can be manually lowered into the submarine.
*** Type 96 Model 4 mod 1 - Used on submarines in free-swinging single mounts. Could not be lowered into the submarine.
*** Type 96 Model 4 mod 2 - Used on submarines in free-swinging single mounts. Caould be remotely lowered into the submarine.
** Type 96 Model 5 - Used on submarines in twin and triple geared mounts.
** Type 96 Model 6 - Used on land on single gun twin wheel carriages.
** Type 96 Model 8 - Used on land on single gun twin wheel carriages.
** Type 96 Model 10 - Used on torpedo boats on a ring mounting with geared elevation in single gun mounts.

Ammunition

The Type 96 cartridge case was a rimless type design with a deep extraction groove at the base. The projectiles fired by the weapon were slightly unusual in that they had two rotating bands. The forward band was slightly smaller in diameter than the rear band. It was believed that this was to reduce wear on the rifling near the chamber. The case of the cartridge was crimped around the rear rotating band. The complete round weighed approximately 0.68 kilograms with the projectile weighing 0.25 kilograms.

The propellant was 102 grams of single-perforated, graphited grains of nitrocellulose approximately 2 millimeters in diameter and between 2.5 and 4.5 millimeters in length. [cite book|title=Japanese Explosive Ordnance|year=1953|publisher=Departments of the Army and Navy]

Normally one tracer round was added every four or five rounds to aid laying cite book|title=Kojinsha No.6, Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy] .
* high-explosive shells. Orange body.
* High explosive incendiary. Green body.
* High explosive tracer. Orange or red body.
* High explosive tracer self destroying. Orange or red body.
* armor-piercing. Black, white or smoky blue body.

Combat record

The Type 96 was the standard medium antiaircraft weapon of the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was used on virtually every warship in combat in World War II. It was also used in land bases in the Japanese Empire and in the Japanese overseas combat fronts.

These weapons were also used as anti-tank guns in some defensive actions in Pacific theaters and against land objectives in southeast Asia/Chinese mainland during the Pacific War.

References

* Bishop, Chris (eds) "The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II". Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0760710228
* Chant, Chris. "Artillery of World War II", Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0760311722
* McLean, Donald B. "Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics". Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3.

External links

* [http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNJAP_25mm-60_mg.htm Navweaps.com]

Notes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun — Infobox Weapon name=Type 1 47 mm anti tank gun caption=Type 1 47 mm anti tank gun at the U.S. Army Museum in Honolulu, HI. origin=flag|Empire of Japan type=Anti tank gun is ranged=1 service=1942 1945 used by= wars=Second World War designer=… …   Wikipedia

  • Type 1 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun — Infobox Weapon name=Type 1 37 mm anti tank gun caption= Type 1 37 mm anti tank gun origin=Flag|Empire of Japan type=Anti tank gun is ranged=yes is artillery=yes service=1941 1945 used by= wars=World War II designer= design date=1941 manufacturer …   Wikipedia

  • Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun — Infobox Weapon name=Type 94 37 mm Anti tank gun caption= Type 94 37 mm AT gun at Royal Armouries at Fort Nelson, England origin=JPN|Empire of Japan type=Anti tank gun is ranged=1 is artillery=yes service=1936 1945 used by= wars=Second Sino… …   Wikipedia

  • Type 87 Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun — Infobox Weapon name=Mitsubishi Type 87 caption=Type 87 SPAAG on display origin=flag|Japan type=Self propelled anti aircraft gun is vehicle=yes designer=Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan Steel Works manufacturer=Mitsubishi Heavy Industries design …   Wikipedia

  • Type 97 Chi-Ha — tank at Yasukuni Shrine Museum Place of origin …   Wikipedia

  • Gun-type fission weapon — Gun type fission weapons are fission based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the gun method: shooting one piece of sub critical material into another. Although this is sometimes… …   Wikipedia

  • Type 1 — or Type I may refer to:*Bugatti Type 1, an automobile *Diabetes mellitus type 1, insulin dependent diabetes *Type 1 37 mm Anti Tank Gun *Type 1 47 mm Anti Tank Gun *Type 1 encryption, a cryptographical certification *Type 1 Gumbel distribution, a …   Wikipedia

  • Type 96 (disambiguation) — Type 96 may refer to: * Type 96, a main battle tank put into service by the People s Republic of China in 1997 * Mitsubishi A5M, the Type 96 carrier based fighter of the Imperial Japanese Navy * Mitsubishi G3M, the Type 96 land based attack… …   Wikipedia

  • Type 94 — may refer to: * Type 94 Te Ke, a Japanese tank. * Type 94 8 mm Pistol * Type 94 37 mm Anti Tank Gun * Type 94 75 mm Mountain Gun * Type 94 90 mm Infantry Mortar * Type 94 Disinfecting Vehicle and Type 94 Gas Scattering Vehicle …   Wikipedia

  • Type 87 — may refer to: * Type 87 grenade launcher * Type 87 Self Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun * Type 87 Chu MAT missile launcher * Type 87, a variant of the Chinese Type 81 assault rifle * Vickers Vixen * Type 87 (uniform) the uniform used by People s… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.