White Earth Indian Reservation
The White Earth Indian Reservation (or "Gaa-waabaabiganikaag" (lit. "Where there is white clay") in the
Ojibwe language) is the home to the White Earth Nation, located in northwestern Minnesota. It is the largest Indian reservationin that state. The reservation stretches across all of Mahnomen County, plus parts of Becker and Clearwater counties in the northwest part of the state, along the Wild Rice and White Earth Rivers. It is about 225 miles (362km) from Minneapolis-St. Pauland roughly 65 miles (105km) from Fargo-Moorhead. Community members often prefer to self-identify themselves as Anishinaabeinstead of Ojibwe or Chippewa. The reservation's land area is 2,831 km² (1,093 sq mi), which held a population of 9,192 residents as of the 2000 census. The White Earth Indian Reservation is a member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.
The reservation originally covered 1,300 square miles (3,400 km²), but much of the community's land was improperly sold or seized to outside interests, including the
U.S. federal government, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. This was largely due to the Dawes Act of 1887and Nelson Act of 1889, which allowed land to be divided up. In the latter half of the 20th century, state and county land was transferred to the reservation in compensation. Also, in 1989, Winona LaDukeformed the White Earth Land Recovery Project, which has slowly been pushing for the recovery of more land. The project claims that only 10% of the reservation's land is owned by tribal members.
casinois operated by the community, the Shooting Star Casino and Hotelin Mahnomen, Minnesota. It is said to be the largest employer in the region.
* [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-CHECK_SEARCH_RESULTS=N&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P001&-tree_id=4001&-transpose=N&-all_geo_types=N&-redoLog=false&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=25000US4595&-search_results=ALL&-format=&-fully_or_partially=N&-_lang=en&-show_geoid=Y White Earth Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Minnesota] United States Census Bureau
* [http://www.whiteearth.com/ White Earth Reservation]
* [http://www.welrp.org/ White Earth Land Recovery Project]
* [http://www.indianaffairs.state.mn.us/tribes_whiteearth.html "White Earth" at Minnesota Indian Affairs Council]
* [http://cdm.csbsju.edu/cdm4/results.php?CISORESTMP=results.php&CISOVIEWTMP=item_viewer.php&CISOMODE=grid&CISOGRID=thumbnail,A,1;identi,A,1;title,A,0;date,200,0;none,A,0;20;identi,none,none,none,none&CISOBIB=identi,A,1,N;title,A,0,N;date,200,0,N;none,A,0,N;none,A,0,N;20;identi,none,none,none,none&CISOTHUMB=20%20(4x5);identi,none,none,none,none&CISOTITLE=20;identi,none,none,none,none&CISOHIERA=20;title,identi,none,none,none&CISOSUPPRESS=0&CISOTYPE=link&CISOOP1=exact&CISOFIELD1=identi&CISOBOX1=&CISOOP2=exact&CISOFIELD2=title&CISOBOX2=white+earth&CISOOP3=exact&CISOFIELD3=creato&CISOBOX3=&CISOOP4=exact&CISOFIELD4=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOBOX4=&c=exact&CISOROOT=%2FSBM Archival Images of White Earth Mission from the Saint Benedict's Monastery Archives]
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