- Roman Catholic Mariology
A series of articles on
Dogmas and Doctrines
Roman Catholic Mariology is theology concerned with the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ as developed by the Catholic Church. Roman Catholic teachings on the subject have been based on the belief that "The Blessed Virgin, because she is the Mother of God, is believed to hold a certain infinite dignity from the infinite good which is God." Theologically, Roman Catholic Mariology deals with not only her life but also with veneration of her in daily life, prayer, hymns, art (where she has been a favorite topic), music, and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.
The development of Roman Catholic Mariology is ongoing. It continues to be shaped not only by papal encyclicals but also by the interplay of forces ranging from sensus fidelium, to the writings of the saints, to the construction of major Marian churches at the sites of Marian apparitions. In some cases, sensus fidelium has influenced Marian papal decisions, providing Mariology with a "theology of the people" component that distinguishes it from other parts of formal theology.
In terms of popular following, membership in Roman Catholic Marian Movements and Societies has grown significantly in the 20th century. This has continued to be matched by support from the Holy See, with Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) stating: "It is necessary to go back to Mary, if we want to return to the truth about Jesus Christ". The ongoing development of Mariology continued in the 20th century, e.g. in his Angelus address in September 1985 Pope John Paul II coined the term The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal.
In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Roman Catholic Mariology. These have ranged from feminist criticisms that consider the image of Mary a construct of the patriarchal mindset which limits equal opportunity for women, to other Christian views that see Mariology as a distraction from Christ, to modern psychological interpretations of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Kwan Yin.
Mariology and Christology
Mariology (the study of Mary) has been related to Christology (the study of Christ) and in Roman Catholic teachings has been positioned as a logical and necessary consequence of Christology: Jesus and Mary are son and mother, redeemer and redeemed. Pope John Paul II expressed this concept in Redemptoris Mater by stating: "At the center of this mystery, in the midst of this wonderment of faith, stands Mary. As the loving Mother of the Redeemer, she was the first to experience it: "To the wonderment of nature you bore your Creator"!" Roman Catholic theologians have also expressed the view that: "Mariology is Christology developed to its full potential".
In Roman Catholic theology, Mary and her son Jesus are very close but not identical. Therefore, the study of Mary, while contributing to the study of Christ, is also a separate discipline in its own right, with an understanding of the figure of Mary contributing to a fuller understanding of who Christ is and what he did. In the Roman Catholic view, a Christology without Mary is incomplete because it is not based on the total revelation of the Bible.
Early Christians and numerous saints focused on this parallel interpretation. Popes highlighted the inner link between Marian dogmas and the full acceptance of christological dogma. The Church is the people of God as she is the Body of Christ. The Church lives in its relation to Christ. Being the Body of Christ, the Church has also a relation to his mother, which is the subject of Catholic Mariology. She is seen as the original image of the Church, or, as Vatican II states, Mother of the Church.
In his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae, respected Mariologist Gabriel Roschini explained that Mary did not only participate in the birth of the physical[disambiguation needed ] Jesus but also, with conception, she entered with him into a spiritual union. The divine salvation plan, being not only material, includes a permanent spiritual unity with Christ. Most Mariologists agree with this position. This echoed the sentiments of Pope Saint Pius X who in Ad Diem Illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ."
Mariology is ongoing. It includes dogmas, traditions, confirmed and hypothetical theological positions on Mary, contemporary as well as historical. Mariology is not simply a theological field studied by a few scholars, but a devotional concept embraced by millions of Catholics who venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary. As discussed below, it differs from other parts of theology in that its progress has quite often been driven from the ground up, from the masses of believers, and at times from religious experiences of young and simple children on remote hilltops, which have then influenced the higher levels of the Holy See in Rome via sensus fidei.
Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church, including the four dogmas mentioned below, are the central part of Mariology consisting of confirmed teachings and doctrines regarding Mary's life and role, but excluding the overall perspectives, the controversies and the cultural aspects of Marian devotion. Mariology is both part of abstract doctrine and an important part of church life: Marian prayers, pilgrimages to Marian shrines, Marian devotions during the months of May and October, Marian apparitions, Marian titles, and Marian Feast days are detailed in Blessed Virgin Mary. Therefore, this article on Roman Catholic Mariology presents an overview of the major issues, developments and controversies of the ecclesiogical movement.
History and development
The history of Mariology goes back to the 1st century. Early Christians focused their piety at first more upon the martyrs around them. Following that, they saw in Mary a bridge between the old and the new. The earliest recorded prayer to Mary, the sub tuum praesidium, is dated in its earliest form to around the year 250.
In the 5th century, the Third Ecumenical Council declared Mary as Theotokos (God-bearer). Churches dedicated to Mary were constructed across the Christian world, among the most famous being Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Teaching of the Assumption of Mary became widespread across the Christian world. The Middle Ages saw growth and development for Mariology and brought major champions of Marian devotion to the fore, including Ephraim the Syrian, John Damascene and Bernard of Clairvaux. Prayers to Mary included the Ave Maria, and chants such as Ave Maris Stella and the Salve Regina emerged and became staples of monastic plainsong. Devotional practices grew in number.
The Renaissance period witnessed a dramatic growth in Marian art and masterpieces by Boticelli, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael were produced. In the 16th century, the Council of Trent confirmed the Catholic tradition of paintings and artworks in churches. This resulted in a great development of Marian art and Mariology during the Baroque Period. During the Reformation, the Catholic Church defended its Mariology against Protestant views. With the victory at Battle of Lepanto (1571) accredited to her, it "signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions." The baroque literature on Mary experienced unforeseen growth. More than 500 pages of Mariological writings were published during the 17th century alone.
Mariology in the 19th century was dominated by discussions about the Immaculate Conception and in 1854, Pope Pius IX proclaimed it a dogma. Mariology in the 20th century was dominated by a genuine Marian enthusiasm. Pope Pius XII issued the Dogma of the Assumption and the Second Vatican Council declared Mary to be the Mother of the Church.
Papal teachings on the Blessed Virgin Mary
Popes have been an important element in shaping both the theological and the devotional aspects of the Roman Catholic perspective on the Blessed Virgin. Theologically, popes have highlighted the inner link between Virgin Mary and the full acceptance of Jesus Christ as son of God, the encyclicals Mystici Corporis, Lumen Gentium and Redemptoris Mater being examples. Furthermore, popes have fostered the veneration of the Blessed Virgin through the promotion of Marian devotions, feast days, prayers, initiatives, the acceptance and support of Marian congregations, and, the formal recognition of Marian apparitions such as in Lourdes and Fátima.
Popes have at times followed on devotions initiated by previous popes, for instance in the 16th century, Pope Clement VIII started the venerative practice of crowning Marian images, a practice that was followed by pope Pius XII in the 20th century via the crowning of the Salus Populi Romani icon, as he declared the Queenship of Mary. Similarly, popes Alexander VII and Clement X both promulgated the veneration of the Heart of Jesus and the Heart of Mary, a concept which was embraced by pope John Paul II in the 20th century as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary.
A number of Marian papal encyclicals and Apostolic Letters have been issued since the 16th century. Pope Leo XIII issued 11 encyclicals just on the Rosary. In Ecclesiam Suam Pope Paul VI called Mary the "ideal of Christian perfection"." These papal documents reflect the support of the popes for both Marian devotions and Marian doctrines. The two Marian dogmas of Assumption and Immaculate Conception were established by popes in the 20th century. In 1904 at the 50th anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, Saint Pope Pius X with the encyclical Ad diem illum encouraged the entire Church to honor the Virgin Mary.
In recent years, popes have emphasized the role of Mary as the Mother of the Church and the Marian elements of Christology. In his 2002 Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Pope John Paul II quoted Saint Louis de Montfort, and said:
- Since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ, it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary, his Holy Mother, and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ."
Marian Roman Catholic dogmas have two functions: they present infallible Church teachings about Mary and her relation to Jesus Christ, and they praise Mary and, through Mary, God's deed on Mary. All Marian dogmas teach about her divine son and highlight the divine nature of Jesus Christ.
De Fide Definita or De Fide Credenda doctrines have the highest degree of dogmatic certainty. These doctrines come in several forms, namely teachings which have been specifically defined as Revealed by an extraordinary definition by a Pope or Ecumenical council, or those teachings infallibly taught to be Revealed by the ordinary universal Magisterium. As in the case of the Immaculate Conception or the Assumption, these doctrines were held by the Church prior to the date of official definition, but open for discussion. The date of definition must be accepted by all faithful members of the Catholic Church as contained specifically in the Deposit of Faith and owed supernatural faith in itself (de fide credenda)
Name First Magisterial Definition Dogma content Perpetual virginity Baptismal symbols since 3rd century 'Perpetual virginity of Mary', means that Mary was a virgin before, during and after giving birth Mother of God Council of Ephesus (431) Mary is truly the mother of God, because of her unity with Christ, the Son of God Immaculate Conception Pope Pius IX (1854) Mary, at her conception, was preserved immaculate from Original Sin Assumption into heaven Pope Pius XII (1950) Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory
For a discussion of a proposed fifth Marian dogma, see the section on Mediatrix and Co-Redemptrix below.
Perpetual virginity of Mary
'Perpetual virginity of Mary', means that Mary was a virgin before, during and after giving birth. (De fide) This oldest Marian Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox doctrine affirms Mary's "real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man." Thus, by the teaching of this dogma, the faithful believe that Mary was ever-Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος) for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her only biological son, whose conception and birth are miraculous.
In the year 107, Ignatius of Antioch described the virginity of Mary as "hidden from the prince of this world ... loudly proclaimed, but wrought in the silence of God." The affirmation of the doctrine of Mary's virginity before, during and after the birth of Jesus was the principal aim of the early 2nd century work, the Protoevangelium of James (c. 120-150). The work, concerned with the character and purity of Mary, claims that Joseph had children from a marriage previous to Mary. However, the text does not explicitly assert the doctrine of perpetual virginity. The earliest such surviving reference is Origen's Commentary on Matthew, where he cites the Protoevangelium in support.
By the 4th century, the doctrine was generally accepted. Athanasius described Mary as "Ever-Virgin", Orations against the Arians, as did Epiphanius in his Medicine Chest Against All Heresies. Hilary argued in favor of the doctrine in his Commentary on Matthew and to this may be added Didymus (The Trinity) Ambrose of Milan, Jerome, in Against Helvetius, Siricius' and others.
Further important statements of the belief include the Lateran Synod of 649, Thomas Aquinas's teaching (Summa Theologiae III.28.2) that Mary gave birth painlessly in miraculous fashion without opening of the womb and without injury to the hymen, and Pope Paul IV's Cum quorundam of 7 August 1555 at the Council of Trent. Before this last extraordinary papal/concilliar definition, really an afterthought, the teaching can be considered to have been always taught infallibly by the ordinary and universal magisterium as a truth contained in the deposit of faith, as opposed to by any specific extraordinary definition.
Virginity before birth
Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit without participation of any man. (De fide). Non-Christians questioned this belief of the early Church  Jews and Christians differed on the prediction in Isaiah 7,14 Along with other Christian groups the Catholic Church continues to teach today, that Mary bore her son Jesus while still a virgin. From the first formulations of her faith, the Church has confessed that Jesus was conceived solely by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary, affirming also the corporeal aspect of this event: Jesus was conceived "by the Holy Spirit without human seed". The Fathers see in the virginal conception the sign that it truly was the Son of God who came in a humanity like our own. Catechism of the Catholic Church,
Virginity during birth
Mary gave birth without losing her corporal virginity (De fide). Her corporal integrity was not affected by giving birth. The Church does not teach how this occurred physically, but insists that virginity during child birth is different from virginity of conception. Pope Pius XII in Mystici Corporis "Within her virginal womb she brought into life Christ our Lord in a marvellous birth." indicating the miraculous nature of the Virgin birth. Numerous early Church writers used analogies to explain this mystery, like Christ leaving the sealed tomb on Easter Sunday, or, Christ walking through closed doors, or, light and sun penetrating through glass windows.
Virginity after birth
Mary remained a virgin after giving birth (De fide). This belief of the Church was questioned in its early years Today most Protestants disagree with this teaching, although Martin Luther and his contemporaries believed in the ever Virgin Mary The scriptures say little about this, mentioning the brothers of Jesus, but never "sons of Mary," suggesting to the patristical writers a broader family relationship.
Mother of God
Mary is truly the mother of God (De fide). After Church fathers found common ground on Mary's virginity before, during and after giving birth, this was the first specifically Marian doctrine to be formally defined by the Church. The definition Mother of God (in Greek:Theotokos) was formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. The competing view, advocated by Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople, was that Mary should be called Christotokos, meaning "Birth-giver of Christ," to restrict her role to the mother of Christ's humanity only and not his divine nature.
Nestorius' opponents, led by Cyril of Alexandria, viewed this as dividing Jesus into two distinct persons, the human who was Son of Mary, and the divine who was not. To them, this was unacceptable since by destroying the perfect union of the divine and human natures in Christ, it sabotaged the fullness of the Incarnation and, by extension, the salvation of humanity. The council accepted Cyril's reasoning, affirmed the title Theotokos for Mary, and anathematised Nestorius' view as heresy. (See Nestorianism)
In letters to Nestorius which were afterwards included among the council documents, Cyril explained his doctrine. He noted that "the holy fathers... have ventured to call the holy Virgin [T]heotokos, not as though the nature of the [W]ord or his divinity received the beginning of their existence from the holy Virgin, but because from her was born his holy body, rationally endowed with a soul, with which [body] the [W]ord was united according to the hypostasis, and is said to have been begotten according to the flesh" (Cyril's second letter to Nestorius).
Explaining his rejection of Nestorius' preferred title for Mary (Christotokos, Mother of Christ), Cyril wrote: "Confessing the Word to be united with the flesh according to the hypostasis, we worship one Son and Lord, Jesus Christ. We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God as though they were united with each other [only] through a unity of dignity and authority... nor do we name separately Christ the Word from God, and in similar fashion, separately, another Christ from the woman, but we know only one Christ, the Word from God the Father with his own flesh... But we do not say that the Word from God dwelt as in an ordinary human born of the holy virgin... we understand that, when he became flesh, not in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints do we distinguish the manner of the indwelling; but he was united by nature and not turned into flesh... There is, then, one Christ and Son and Lord, not with the sort of conjunction that a human being might have with God as in a unity of dignity or authority; for equality of honor does not unite natures. For Peter and John were equal to each other in honor, both of them being apostles and holy disciples, but the two were not one. Nor do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition, for this is insufficient in regard to natural union.... Rather we reject the term 'conjunction' as being inadequate to express the union... [T]he holy virgin gave birth in the flesh to God united with the flesh according to hypostasis, for that reason we call her Theotokos... If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is, in truth, God, and therefore that the holy virgin is Theotokos (for she bore in a fleshly manner the Word from God become flesh), let him be anathema." (Cyril's third letter to Nestorius)
Immaculate Conception of Mary
Mary was conceived without original sin (De fide). The Immaculate Conception is, according to Roman Catholic dogma, the conception of Mary, the mother of Jesus without any stain of original sin, in her mother's womb: the dogma thus says that, from the first moment of her existence, she was preserved by God from the lack of sanctifying grace that afflicts mankind, and that she was instead filled with divine grace. It is further believed that she lived a life completely free from sin. Her immaculate conception in the womb of her mother, by normal sexual intercourse (Christian tradition identifies her parents as Sts. Joachim and Anne), should not be confused with the doctrine of the virginal conception of her son Jesus.
The feast of the Immaculate Conception, celebrated on December 8, was established in 1476 by Pope Sixtus IV. He did not extraordinarily define it as a dogma at this time, but this does not mean Catholics were free to believe in it or not. The Immaculate Conception was solemnly defined as a dogma by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus, on December 8, 1854 as a truth not merely implied by the deposit of faith and discerned by the Church under the infallible guidance of the Holy Spirit (de fide tenenda), but as specifically and explicitly contained as an object of supernatural faith in the Public Revelation of the Deposit of Faith (de fide credenda).
The Catholic Church believes the dogma is supported by Scripture (e.g. Mary's being greeted by Angel Gabriel as "full of grace" or "highly favoured"), as well as either directly or indirectly by the writings of many of the Church Fathers, and often calls Mary the Blessed Virgin (Luke 1:48). Catholic theology maintains that, since Jesus became incarnate of the Virgin Mary, it was fitting that she be completely free of sin for expressing her fiat. (Ott, Fund., Bk 3, Pt. 3, Ch. 2, §3.1.e).
It seemed to Pius XII that the Blessed Virgin Mary herself wished to confirm by some special sign the definition, because, less than four years later, in a French town
- The Virgin Mother, youthful and benign in appearance, clothed in a shining white garment, covered with a white mantle and girded with a hanging blue cord, showed herself to a simple and innocent girl at the grotto of Massabielle. And to this same girl, who earnestly inquired the name of her, with whose vision she was favoured, she replied with her eyes raised to heaven and sweetly: "I am the Immaculate Conception."
For the whole Roman Catholic Church the dogma of the Immaculate Conception gained additional significance from these apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes in 1858. In Lourdes a 14-year-old girl, Bernadette Soubirous
In the Roman Catholic Church, the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception is a Holy Day of Obligation, except where conferences of bishops have decided, with the approval of the Holy See, not to maintain it as such. It is a public holiday in some countries where Roman Catholicism is predominant e.g. Italy. In the Philippines, although this is not a public holiday, the predominance of Catholic Schools make it almost a holiday.
Assumption of Mary
Mary was assumed into heaven with body and soul (de fide). Mary, the ever virgin, mother of God was free of original sin. The Immaculate Conception is one basis for the 1950 dogma. Another was the century old Church-wide veneration of the Virgin Mary as being assumed into heaven, which Pope Pius XII referred to in Deiparae Virginis Mariae and reported in Munificentissimus Deus. Although the Assumption was only recently defined as dogma, accounts of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since at least the 5th century. The Catholic Church itself interprets chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation as referring to it. The earliest assumption narrative is the so-called Liber Requiei Mariae (The Book of Mary's Repose), a narrative which survives intact only in an Ethiopic translation. (Stephen J. Shoemaker, Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption] Oxford University Press, 2002, 2006). Probably composed by the 4th century, this early Christian apocryphal narrative may be as early as the 3rd century. Also quite early are the very different traditions of the "Six Books" Dormition narratives. The earliest versions of this apocryphon are preserved by several Syriac manuscripts of the 5th and 6th centuries, although the text itself probably belongs to the 4th century. Later apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the De Obitu S. Dominae, attributed to St. John, a work probably from around the turn of the 6th century that is a summary of the "Six Books" narrative. The story also appears in De Transitu Virginis, a late 5th century work ascribed to St. Melito of Sardis that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the Liber Requiei Mariae. The Transitus Mariae tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds to the death-bed of Mary, each from the town where he was preaching at the hour. The Decretum Gelasianum in the 490s declared some transitus Mariae literature as apocryphal.
An Armenian letter attributed to Dionysus the Areopagite also mentions the event, although this is a much later work, written sometime after the 6th century. Other saints also describe it, notably St Gregory of Tours, St John Damascene, and St Modestus of Jerusalem.
- We pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory."
Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility by Vatican I in 1870, this declaration by Pius XII has been the only ex cathedra use of Papal Infallibility. While Pope Pius XII deliberately left open the question of whether Mary died before her Assumption, the more common teaching of the early Fathers is that she did.
Other Marian doctrines
The Catholic Church holds many other teachings about the Virgin Mary, many of which are just as relevant as the defined teachings above. Some flow logically from the formal dogmas of virginity, sinlessness, and immaculate conception. Others are century old teachings, cults and celebrations, which, in the Catholic view, under the infallible guidance of the Holy Spirit, are an integral part of the deposit of Faith handed down by the Church.
Mary is Mother of all Christians
The Catholic Church teaches that the Virgin Mary is mother of the Church and of all its members, namely all Christians. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states:
- "The Virgin Mary . . . is acknowledged and honoured as being truly the Mother of God and of the redeemer.... She is 'clearly the mother of the members of Christ' . . . since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of believers in the Church, who are members of its head." "Mary, Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church."
In addition, Mary is seen as mother of Christians because Christians are said in scripture to become spiritually part of the body of Christ. Christians are adopted by Jesus as his "brothers". They therefore share with Him the Fatherhood of God and also the motherhood of Mary. Again, in the New Testament book of John Jesus, from the cross gives the Apostle John to Mary as her son, and gives Mary to John as his mother. John here, as the sole remaining Apostle remaining steadfast with Jesus is taken to represent all loyal followers of Jesus from that time on.
The devotion to the Virgin Mary thus continues to be emphasized in Roman Catholic teachings. For instance, in his encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Pope John Paul II discussed how his own motto "Totus Tuus" was inspired by the writings of Saint Louis de Montfort on total consecration to the Virgin Mary, which he quoted:.
- Now, since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ, it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary, his Holy Mother, and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ."
Mary as Mediatrix
In Catholic teachings, Jesus Christ is the only mediator between God and man. He alone reconciled through his death on the Cross creator and creation. But this does not exclude a secondary mediating role for Mary, preparatory, supportive, in the view of several prominent, but not all Catholics. The teaching that Mary intercedes for all believers and especially those who request her intercession through prayer has been held in the Church since early times, for example by Ephraim, the Syrian “after the mediater a mediatrix for the whole world Intercession is something that may be done by all the heavenly saints, but Mary is seen as having the greatest intercessionary power. The earliest surviving recorded prayer to Mary is the Sub tuum praesidium, written in Greek.
Mary has increasingly been seen as a principal dispenser of God's graces and Advocate for the people of God and is mentioned as such in several official Church documents. Pope Pius IX used the title in Ineffabilis Deus. In the first of his so called Rosary encyclicals, Supremi Apostolatus (1883), Pope Leo XIII calls Our Lady the guardian of our peace and the dispensatrix of heavenly graces. The following year, 1884, his encyclical Superiore Anno speaks of the prayers presented to God through her whom He has chosen to be the dispenser of all heavenly graces. Pope Pius X employed this title in Ad Diem Illud in 1904, Pope Benedict XV introduced it into the Marian liturgy when he created the Marian feast of The Mary, Mediatrix of all Graces in 1921, In his 1954 encyclical Ad caeli reginam, Pope Pius XII calls Mary the Mediatrix of peace. The theological discussion ongoing, neither Pius XII nor his successors moved to a closure of this issue.
Co-Redemptrix refers to the participation of Mary in the salvation process. Already, Irenaeus, the Church Father (Died 200), referred to Mary as "causa salutis" [cause of our salvation] given her "fiat It is teaching, which has been considered since the 15th century but never declared a dogma. The Roman Catholic view of Co-Redemptrix does not imply that Mary participates as equal part in the redemption of the human race, since Christ is the only redeemer. Mary herself needed redemption and was redeemed by Jesus Christ her son. Being redeemed by Christ, implies that she cannot be his equal part in the redemption process.
Co-redemptrix refers to an indirect or unequal but important participation by Mary in the redemption process. She gave free consent to give life to the redeemer, to share his life, to suffer with him under the cross and to sacrifice him for the sake of the redemption of mankind. Co-redemption is not something new.
Papal teaching begin to mention this aspect in official Church documents during the pontificate of Pope Pius X Pius X referred to it in his encyclical Ad Diem Illum. Pope Benedict XV first described the term in his own right in his Apostolic Letter, Inter Soldalica, issued March 22, 1918. Pope Pius XII repeated this argument with slightly different accents in his encyclical Mystici Corporis. In the Papal bull Munificentissimus Deus on dogma of the assumption, Pope Pius declares that “the revered Mother of God, from all eternity joined in a hidden way with Jesus Christ in one and the same decree of predestination, immaculate in her conception, a most perfect virgin in her divine motherhood, as the noble associate of the divine Redeemer
Queen of Heaven
The doctrine that the Virgin Mary has been crowned Queen of Heaven goes back to the early patristic writers of the Church such as] St. Gregory Nazianzen "the Mother of the King of the universe," and the "Virgin Mother who brought forth the King of the whole world," Prudentius, the Mother marvels "that she has brought forth God as man, and even as Supreme King." and, St. Ephrem, "Let Heaven sustain me in its embrace, because I am honored above it. For heaven was not Thy mother, but Thou hast made it Thy throne. How much more honorable and venerable than the throne of a king is her mother." The Catholic Church often sees Mary as queen in heaven, bearing a crown of twelve stars in Revelation
Many Popes have given tribute to it. Mary is the Queen of Heaven and Earth, (Pius IX), Queen and Ruler of the Universe (Leo XIII) and Queen of the World (Pius XII) The theological and logical foundation of these titles rests in the dogma of Mary as the Mother of God. As mother of God, she participates in his salvation plan. The Catholic faith teaches that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with a mother's solicitude over the entire world, just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen:
- Certainly, in the full and strict meaning of the term, only Jesus Christ, the God-Man, is King; but Mary, too, as Mother of the divine Christ, as His associate in the redemption, in his struggle with His enemies and His final victory over them, has a share, though in a limited and analogous way, in His royal dignity. For from her union with Christ she attains a radiant eminence transcending that of any other creature; from her union with Christ she receives the royal right to dispose of the treasures of the Divine Redeemer's Kingdom; from her union with Christ finally is derived the inexhaustible efficacy of her maternal intercession before the Son and His Father.
Reparations to the Virgin Mary
Roman Catholic teachings and traditions includes specific devotions as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary for insults that she suffers. The Raccolta Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See in 1898) includes a number of such prayers.
These devotions and prayers do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary, but aim to repair the sins of others against the Virgin Mary.
Mariology as theology of the people
Unlike Roman Catholic theology which originates from the upper levels of the Church in the writings of scholars and theologians, Mariology has often developed from the ground up by the tens of millions of Catholics with a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin. In several crucial cases, these devotions have not been started with decrees issued in Rome, but by religious experiences (and visions) of simple and modest individuals (in many cases children). Their recounting of their experiences in time created strong emotions among numerous Roman Catholics, who independently adopted practices and devotions. Their faith and beliefs influenced priests and the higher levels of the Roman Catholic hierarchy.
A good example is the case of Saint Juan Diego. In 1531, he reported an early morning vision of the Virgin Mary in which he was instructed to build an abbey on the Hill of Tepeyac in Mexico. The local prelate did not believe his account and asked for a miraculous sign. This was provided by an icon of Our Lady of Guadalupe permanently imprinted on the saint's cloak where he had gathered roses.
By all accounts, Juan Diego did not receive a lot of attention in Rome during the 1530s, since the Church was busy with the challenges of the Protestant Reformation of 1521 to 1579. Yet, Juan Diego's reported vision of the Virgin Mary was considered instrumental in the attraction of almost 8 million people to the ranks of Catholics in the Americas between 1532 and 1538. With tens of millions of followers, Juan Diego impacted Mariology in the Americas and beyond, and was eventually declared venerable in 1987, beatified in 1990, and canonized in 2002.
The spread of Marian devotions, such as the Holy Rosary via lay Catholic organizations, has also influenced Mariology. The 20th century witnessed significant growth in the number of volunteer-based lay Marian devotional organizations, such as free rosary distribution groups. An example is Our Lady's Rosary Makers, which was formed with a $25 donation for a typewriter in 1949. It now has thousands of volunteers who have distributed hundreds of millions of free rosaries to Catholic missions worldwide. The growth of Marian devotions builds sensus fidelium, which in time influences the direction of Mariology as a whole.
Influence of visions
Saint Juan Diego was not the only young person to report an early morning vision on a hilltop where a Lady appears and asks for a Church to be built on that hill. In 1858, Saint Bernadette Soubirous's reported vision of Our Lady of Lourdes was similar. Both saints reported a miraculous Lady on a hill who asked them to request that the local priests build a chapel at the site of the vision. Both visions included a reference to roses. Large churches were built at the sites: Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico, and Our Lady of Lourdes in France.
A simple, 14 year old peasant girl of no significant education, Bernadette Soubirous reported her vision of a woman in white, who said, Que soy L’Immaculado concepciou, I am the Immaculate Conception and asked that a church be built there. At first ridiculed, questioned, and belittled by Church officials and other contemporaries, Bernadette firmly but modestly insisted on her vision. Eventually the Church believed her and she was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1933. In time, many churches were built on that hilltop (one of them, the Basilica of St. Pius X can accommodate 25,000 people). Lourdes is now a major Marian pilgrimage site. Within France, only Paris has more hotels than Lourdes.
Three Portuguese children, Lucia dos Santos, Jacinta Marto, and Francisco Marto, were equally young and without much education when they reported the apparition of Our Lady of Fátima in 1917. The local administrator initially jailed the children and threatened that he would boil them one by one in a pot of oil. The children were consoled by the other inmates in the jail, and then led the inmates in praying the Rosary.
With millions of followers and Roman Catholic believers, the reported visions at Fatima gathered respect. After a canonical enquiry, the visions of Fátima were officially declared "worthy of belief" in October 1930 by the Bishop of Leiria-Fátima. Popes Pius XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul II and Benedict XVI voiced their acceptance of the supernatural origin of the Fátima events. John Paul II credited Our Lady of Fátima with saving his life following an assassination attempt on the Feast of Our Lady of Fátima, 1981. He donated the bullet that wounded him to the Roman Catholic sanctuary at Fátima, Portugal.
Mariologists refer to Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque, as "living proof how Marian devotion is linked to 'Christology'" and the adoration of Jesus Christ. She made a vow at age 14 to dedicate her life to the Virgin Mary. As a simple Marian nun, she was subjected to many trials to prove the genuineness of her vocation and her visions of Jesus and Mary relating to the Sacred Heart. She was initially rebuffed by her mother superior and was unable to convince theologians of the validity of her visions. A noted exception was Saint Claude de la Colombière, who supported her. The devotion to the Sacred Heart was officially recognized 75 years after Alacoque's death. In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor, Pope Pius XI stated that Jesus Christ had "manifested Himself" to Saint Margaret and referred to the conversation between Jesus and Saint Margaret several times.
Mariette Beco was twelve years old when she reported Marian apparitions in 1933 in Banneux, Belgium. In this case, the Lady in White reportedly declared she was the Virgin of the Poor and said: "Believe in me and I will believe in you." In 1942, the Holy See permitted the local bishop to allow the veneration of the Virgin of the Poor.
Impact on the Catholic Church
While these and many 0ther people all faced problems for an initial period, the Church, with some delay, listened to the Mariological faith, as an official Vatican website admitted in 2004. Thus, "The dogma of the Immaculate Conception was defined by Pius IX not so much because of proofs in Scripture or ancient tradition, but due to a profound sensus fidelium, a century-old sense of the faithful, and the Magisterium".
The Vatican quotes in this context Fulgens Corona, where Pius XII supported such a faith:
- If the popular praises "of the Blessed Virgin Mary be given the careful consideration they deserve, who will dare to doubt that she, who was purer than the angels and at all times pure, was at any moment, even for the briefest instant, not free from every stain of sin?"
In several Marian teachings, such as the Immaculate Conception, the "theology of the people", the profound and century-old sense of the faithful took precedence over academic theology. Identical arguments were made for the dogma of the Assumption by Pope Pius XII. To some non-Catholics and even to some theologically oriented Catholics, like Karl Rahner, this sensus fidei has some problems.
Nevertheless, popular Mariology has been a major driving force in the past 150 years. It led to the two infallible, ex cathedra dogmas: Immaculate Conception (1854) and Assumption (1950). Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility by Vatican I, the 1950 declaration by Pius XII has been the first and only ex cathedra use of papal infallibility. Thus while the dogmatic definitions of the Assumption, took place only in the 20th century, the sensus fidelium was already being shaped in the Middle Ages, and by 1530, Antonio da Correggio had completed his contract for the elaborate scene of the Assumption in the Cathedral of Palermo.
The multitude of perspectives
Throughout the centuries, Catholics have viewed the Virgin Mary from a multitude of perspectives, at times derived from specific Marian attributes ranging from queenship to humility, and at times based on cultural preferences of events taking place at specific points in history. In parallel with the traditional approaches to Mariology, opposing views based on progressive interpretations of have been presented by feminists, psychologists and liberal Catholics.
Traditional views on May have emphasized the Marian dogmas and doctrines, accompanied by devotions and venerations. Yet these views have changed and been transformed over time.
An example of the changing perspectives on the Virgin Mary based on specific spiritual views, and its adoption within a culture a world away is the transformation of the image of Mary from a Heavenly Queen to a mother of humility, and the construction of views to accommodate both perspectives. While depictions of the Virgin Mary as the Queen of Heaven or Coronation of the Virgin by artists such as Paolo Veneziano or Giuliano da Rimini were common in the early part of the 14th century, they did not fit with the virtue of humility which was a key tenet of the spirituality of Saint Francis of Assisi. The concept of the Virgin of humility was developed in the 14th century in order to accommodate Franciscan piety, by depicting the Madonna sitting on the ground, rather than a throne. It offered a view of the Virgin Mary (often barefoot) as a mother nursing a child, rather than a Queen in a coronation scene.
As the Franciscans began to preach in China, the notion of the Virgin of humility resonated well with the Chinese, partly due to the cultural acceptance of humility as a virtue in China, and partly due to its similarity to the motherly, merciful figure of Kuanyin, which was much admired in south China. However, by the middle of the 15th century, a dual view had emerged in Europe, as represented by Domenico di Bartolo's 1433 Madonna of humility which expressed the symbolic duality of her nature: an earthly barefoot woman, as well as a heavenly queen. Despite her low, sitting position, the depiction of star and the gems, as well as a halo, signify the regal status of the Virgin, as she is being attended to while she holds the Child Jesus.
Saint Juan Diego's account of the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe to him in 1531 on Tepeyac Hill in Mexico provides another example of the cultural adaptation of the view of the Virgin Mary. Juan Diego did not describe the Virgin Mary as either European or Middle Eastern, but as a tanned Aztec princess who spoke in his local Nahuatl language, and not in Spanish. The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe that is highly venerated in Mexico has the appearance of a South American, rather than a European woman, and the clothing of the Virgin of Guadalupe has been identified as that of an Aztec princess. The Virgin of Guadalupe was a turning point in the conversion of Latin America to Catholicism, and is the primary view of Mary among millions of Catholics in Mexico in the 21st century. Pope John Paul II reinforced the localization of this view by permitting local Aztec dances during the ceremony in which he declared Juan Diego a saint, spoke in Nahuatl as part of the ceremony, called Juan Diego "the talking eagle" and asked him to show "the way that leads to the Dark Virgin of Tepeyac". 
The view of the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" has existed for centuries and is still held by many Catholics in the 21st century. The legends of the miracles of the Maddona of Orsanmichele in Florence, Italy go back to the Renaissance. The legends of miracles performed by the image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa also go back for centuries, and it continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland. Every year, millions of Catholic pilgrims visit the Basilica at Our Lady of Lourdes in search of miraculous cures. Although millions of Catholics hope for miracles on their pilgrimages, the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles, unless they have been subject to extensive analysis.
Since the end of the 19th century, a number of progressive and liberal perspectives of Mariology have been presented, ranging from feminist criticisms to interpretations based on modern psychology and liberal Catholic viewpoints. These views are generally critical of the Roman Catholic approach to Mariology as well as the Eastern Orthodox church, which has even more Marian emphasis within its official liturgy.
Some feminists contend that, as with other women saints such as Joan of Arc, the image of Mary is a construct of the patriarchal mind. They argue that Marian dogmas and doctrines and the typical forms of Marian devotion reinforce patriarchy by offering women temporary comfort from the ongoing oppression inflicted on them by male dominated churches and societies. In the feminist view, old gender stereotypes persist within traditional Marian teachings and theological doctrines. To that end books on "feminist Mariology" have been published to present opposing interpretations and perspectives.
The psychological analysis of Marian teachings dates back to Sigmund Freud, who used the title of a poem by Goethe in his 1911 paper Great is Diana of the Ephesians. Freud argued that Marian venerations were a surrogate for the worship of the Goddess Diana. Carl Jung, on the other hand, viewed the Virgin Mary as a spiritual version of the more loving Goddess Eros. A large number of other psychological interpretations have been presented through the years, ranging from the study of the similarities of the Virgin Mary and the Buddhist Goddess Tara, or the humble and loving figure presented by the East Asian Goddess Kwan Yin.
Since the Reformation many Christians have opposed Marian venerations, and that trend has continued into the 21st century among progressive and liberal Christians, who see the high level of attention paid to the Virgin Mary both as being without sufficient grounding in Scripture and as distracting from the worship due to Christ.
Groups of liberal Catholics view the traditional image of the Virgin Mary as presented by the Catholic Church as an obstacle towards realization of the goal of womanhood, and as a symbol of the systemic patriarchal oppression of women within the Church. Moreover, some liberal Catholics view the cultivation of the traditional image of Mary as a method of manipulation of Catholics at large by the Church hierarchy. Other liberal Christians argue that the modern concepts of equal opportunity for men and women does not resonate well with the humble image of Mary, obediently and subserviently kneeling before Christ.
Eastern Catholic differences
Roman Catholic Mariology
A series of articles on
Alma Redemptoris Mater
As a Child I Loved You
Ave Maris Stella
Ave Regina Caelorum
Hail Mary of Gold
Mary Our Queen
Sub tuum praesidium
Three Hail Marys
While Eastern Catholics respect papal authority, and largely hold the same theological beliefs as Roman Catholics, Eastern theology differs on specific Marian beliefs. Furthermore, much of the literature and publications on Mariology and centers for its study have been related to the Church of Rome.
Assumption of Mary
The traditional Eastern expression of this doctrine is the Dormition of the Theotokos which emphasises her falling asleep to be later assumed into heaven. The differences in these observances is for some Eastern Catholics superficial. However, Roman Catholics in general object to this doctrine.
The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is a teaching of Eastern origin but expressed in the terminology of the Western Church. The Western concept of the Virgin Mary being free from original sin as defined by St. Augustine of Hippo is not accepted in the East. However, Eastern Catholics recognized from ancient times that Mary was preserved by God from sin. Eastern Catholics while not observing the Western feast, have no difficulty affirming it or even dedicating their churches to the Virgin Mary under this title.
Centers for Mariological studies
The formal study of Mariology within the circles associated with the Holy See took a major step forward between the Holy Year 1950 and 1958 based on the actions of Pope Pius XII, who authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
- Pontifical Marian International Academy The PAMI is an international pontifical organization connecting all Promoters of Mariology, Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants and Muslim. John XXIII with the Apostolic Letter Maiora in Dies defined the purpose of the PAMI: to promote and animate studies of Mariology through International Mariological Marian Congresses and other academic meetings and to see to the publication of their studies. The PAMI has the task of coordinating the other Marian Academies and Societies that exist all over the world and to exercise vigilance against any Marian excess or minimalism. For this reason the Pope determined that in the Academy there be a Council that assures the organization of Congresses and the coordination of the Mariological Societies, Promoters and Teachers of Mariology.
- Academia Mariana Salesiana - He granted the foundation of the Academia Mariana Salesiana, which is a part of a papal university. The Academy supports Salesian studies to further the veneration of the Blessed Virgin in the tradition of Saint John Bosco.
- Centro Mariano Montfortano- Also in 1950, the Centro Mariano Montfortano was moved from Bergamo to Rome. The Centro promulgates the teachings of Saint Louis de Montfort, who was earlier canonized by Pius XII. It publishes the monthly Madre e Regina, which promulgates the Marian orientation of Montfort.
- Marianum was created in 1950 and entrusted to the Order of Servites. It is authorized to grant all academic degrees, including a doctorate in theology. Since 1976, every two years the Marianum organizes international conferences to find modern formulations which approximate the mystery of Mary.
- Collegamento Mariano Nazionale (1958)- the last Marian initiative of Pope Pius XII. It coordinates activities of Marian centres in Italy, and organizes Marian pilgrimages and Marian study weeks for priests. In addition it started Marian youth gatherings and publishes the journal Madonna.
Of these organizations, the Marianum Pontifical Theological Faculty is the most active marilogical centre in Rome (www.marianum.it). This Pontifical Catholic Faculty was founded by Father Gabriel Roschini (who directed it for several years) under the direction of Pope Pius XII in 1950. At the Marianum, one can get a Master's degree in Mariology (2-year academic program) and one can also get a doctorate in Mariology. This mariological facility has a library with more than 85,000 volumes on Mariology and a number of magazines and journals of theological and Mariological concern. Marianum is also the name of the prestigious journal of Marian theology, founded by Father Roschini in 1939.
In 1975, the University of Dayton in Ohio formed the International Marian Research Institute in affiliation with the Marianum to offer a doctorate in sacred theology (S.T.D.) and a licentiate in sacred theology (S.T.L.).
- Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons. Goleta, California: Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 9781579183554. OCLC 225875371.
- Haffner, Paul (2004). The Mystery of Mary. Hillenbrand Books studies series. Leominster, Herefordshire: Gracewing Press. ISBN 0852446500. OCLC 58964281.
- Miravalle, Mark I. (1993). Introduction to Mary: The Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion. Santa Barbara, California: Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 9781882972067. OCLC 28849399.
- Pohle, Joseph (1948) . Preuss, Arthur. ed. Mariology; A Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God. St. Louis, Mo: Herder Book. OCLC 1453529. http://www.archive.org/details/mariologydogmati00pohluoft.
- Schroedel, Jenny; Schroedel, John (2006). The Everything Mary Book. Everything profiles series. Avon, Mass: Adams Media. ISBN 1593377134. OCLC 70167611.
- Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary
- Anglican Marian theology
- Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission
- Islamic view of Virgin Mary
- Marian devotions
- Protestant views of Mary
- ^ (Cf. Summa Theologiae, I, Q, 25, Art 6 as 4um).
- ^ Msgr Joseph Pohle, 2009, Mariology Bibiolife ISBN 1110507682 page 3
- ^ Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger, 1999 ISBN 0877790442 page 696 
- ^ Symbolic scores: studies in the music of the Renaissance by Willem Elders 1997 ISBN 9004099700 page 151 
- ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret M. Miles 2001 ISBN 0860123057 page vii 
- ^ Raymond Burke, 2008 Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 1579183557 page xxi
- ^ Pope John Paul II 1986 Speech at the Vatican Website
- ^ Arthur Calkins, The Alliance of the Two Hearts and Consecration, Miles Immaculatae XXXI (July/December 1995) 389-407. 
- ^ Proceedings of the International Theological Symposium on the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, September 1986, Fátima, Portugal
- ^ a b A feminist companion to Mariology by Amy-Jill Levine, Maria Mayo Robbins 2005 ISBN 0826466613 page 147
- ^ a b c Sigmund Freud's Christian unconscious by Paul C. Vitz 1993 ISBN 0802806902 page 191
- ^ a b Encyclopedia of psychology and religion: L - Z by David Adams Leeming 2009 ISBN 038771801X page 900
- ^ a b See Pius XII Mystici corporis Christi; John Henry Newman: Mariology is always christocentric, in Michael Testa, Mary: The Virgin Mary in the Life and Writings of John Henry Newman 2001; "Mariology Is Christology", in Vittorio Messori, The Mary Hypothesis, Rome: 2005
- ^ a b Redemptoris Mater, by Pope John Paul II, item 51
- ^ Jenny Schroede, 2006 The Everything Mary Book ISBN 1593377134 page 219
- ^ a b Paul Haffner, 2004 The mystery of Mary Gracewing Press ISBN 0852446500 page 17
- ^ Mystici Corporis, Lumen Gentium and Redemptoris Mater provide a modern Catholic understanding of this link.
- ^ see Pius XII, Mystici corporis, also John Paul II in Redemptoris Mater: The Second Vatican Council, by presenting Mary in the mystery of Christ, also finds the path to a deeper understanding of the mystery of the Church. Mary, as the Mother of Christ, is in a particular way united with the Church, "which the Lord established as his own body."11 It is significant that the conciliar text places this truth about the Church as the Body of Christ (according to the teaching of the Pauline Letters) in close proximity to the truth that the Son of God "through the power of the Holy Spirit was born of the Virgin Mary." The reality of the Incarnation finds an extension in the mystery of the Church-the Body of Christ. And one cannot think of the reality of the Incarnation without referring to Mary, the Mother of the Incarnate Word. Redemptoris Mater 44
- ^ "If we look at the Church, we have to have to consider the miraculous deeds which God performed with his mother." (Paul VI, Vatican II, November 21, 1964)
- ^ Schmaus, Mariologie, München: 1955, 328
- ^ Pope Saint Pius X, in Ad Diem Illum, section 5, 1904
- ^ Schmaus, Mariologie, page 174
- ^ Otto Stegmüller, Barock, in Marienkunde, 1967 566
- ^ A Roskovany, conceptu immacolata ex monumentis omnium seculrorum demonstrate III, Budapest: 1873
- ^ Vatican website
- ^ Bäumer 534
- ^ Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, ISBN 9781882972067, pages 164–168
- ^ Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons by Raymond Burke et al. 2008 ISBN 9781579183554 pages xiii–x
- ^ Gardner, James Faiths of the World, Part 2, 2003 ISBN 076614304X page 615
- ^ Theological Studies Volume 16, 1955 page 233
- ^ Leo Cardinal Scheffczyk, Vaticanum II, in Marienlexikon, 567
- ^ Murphy, John Mary's Immaculate Heart 2007 ISBN 1-4067-3409-8 page 37 and pages 59–60
- ^ "Pope John Paul II 1986 Speech at the Vatican Website". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1986/september/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19860922_simposio-maria-gesu_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Arthur Calkins, The Alliance of the Two Hearts and Consecration, Miles Immaculatae XXXI (July/December 1995) 389–407. 
- ^ Ecclesiam Suam 58
- ^ Ad diem illum items 16–20
- ^ Pope John Paul II. "Apostolic Letter of the Supreme Pontiff on the Most Holy Rosary". Rosarium Virginis Mariae. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en.html. Retrieved 04 Oct 2010.
- ^ Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 9781882972067 page 51
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §499
- ^ Celsus, Julian apostate, Cerinth and the Ebonites
- ^ which Christians believe is messianic, pointing to Mary’s role in the history of salvation
- ^ Para? 146
- ^ Para 496.
- ^ This is a teaching taught infallibly as de fide credenda by the ordinary and universal magisterium of the Church.
- ^ morando partu edidit Encyclical Mystici Corporis 110
- ^ Hieronymus, Epistulae 49, 21, Iriniaeus Epid 54, Ignatius of Antioch, Eph, 19,1, Clement of Alexandria, Srom VII, 16,93,Origin, Lev hom 8,2 Ambrose of Milan epistulae, 49,22 Augustine, Enchidrion, 34
- ^ Tertullian, Eunomius, Helvisius, Bonosus of Sardica Ott, 249
- ^ ex maria pura sancta simper virgine, Articuli smalcaldi I,4
- ^ J D Aldama, La vergenidad in partu en la exegesis patristica, Salamanca, 1962, 113
- ^ Though questions and ambiguities remained, at least since the time Scotus had formulated his answer to the last remaining objection (that it would imply Mary needed no saviour) it had been infallibly taught by the ordinary and universal magisterium as at least implied by the deposit of faith (de fide tenenda). The existence of the feast was a strong indication of the Church's belief in the Immaculate Conception, even before its 19th century extraordinary papal definition as a dogma. And consensus since then had been growing that it was not merely implied by the deposit of faith (de fide credenda), but specifically and explicitly revealed (de fide credenda).
- ^ Fulgens corona 3
- ^ In the encclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae Pope Pius canvased Catholic bishops before making a final decicion on the dogma
- ^ Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus, no 44.
- ^ This dogma, too, is a good example of the development of doctrine in Catholic thought. It is a truth infallibly taught since long ago as at least implied by the deposit of faith (de fide tenenda) by the ordinary and universal magisterium, and even sometimes extraordinarily by popes. However, in the centuries before the papal definition the consensus had grown to the point where it was infallibly taught as not merely de fide tenenda, but de fide credenda, by the ordinary and universal magisterium. Finally its credenda status was solemnized by an extraordinary papal definition. It is important to note that the Catholic Church does not base its teaching about the Assumption on any apocryphal account, but rather on discernment of the Tradition of the Church, longstanding teaching on this issue, and other theological reasons.
- ^ As the Virgin Mary remained an ever-virgin and sinless, it is viewed that the Virgin Mary could not thus suffer the consequences of Original Sin, which is chiefly Death. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3819.htm Nicea II Session 6 Decree
- ^ http://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/NICAEA2.HTM#2 Nicaea II Definition, "without blemish"
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church Part 1, Section 963
- ^ Chapter 19. 26-27,
- ^ Pope John Paul II's encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en.html
- ^ Pope John Paul II on Saint Louis de Montfort http://www.catholicregister.org/content/view/1402/857/
- ^ 1 Tim, 2,5
- ^ Oratio IV ad Deiparem
- ^ and dating from approximately AD 250
- ^ Ad Caeli Reginam, 51
- ^ ."http://www.zenit.org/article-5650?l=english
- ^ Ott 256
- ^ 1Tim 2,5
- ^ Ott Dogmatics 256
- ^ Ott 256.
- ^ Ad diem Illum 14
- ^ a b AAS, 1918, 181
- ^ Mystici Corporis 110
- ^ Munificentissimus Deus 40
- ^ S. Gregorius Naz., Poemata dogmatica, XVIII, v. 58; PG XXXVII, 485.
- ^ Prudentius, Dittochaeum, XXVII: PL LX, 102 A.
- ^ S. Ephraem, Hymni de B. Maria, ed. Th. J. Lamy, t. II, Mechliniae, 1886, hymn. XIX, p. 624.
- ^ 12, verses 1-5.
- ^ in:enyclical Ad caeli reginam
- ^ a b Ad Caeli reginam 39
- ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12620a.htm
- ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al., 2003 The Raccolta St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0-9706526-6-9
- ^ R Lauretin, Lourdes, Dossier des documents authentiques, Paris: 1957
- ^ John De Marchi, The Immaculate Heart, New York: Farrar, Straus and Young
- ^ "In virtue of considerations made known, and others which for reason of brevity we omit; humbly invoking the Divine Spirit and placing ourselves under the protection of the most Holy Virgin, and after hearing the opinions of our Rev. Advisors in this diocese, we hereby: 1) Declare worthy of belief, the visions of the shepherd children in the Cova da Iria, parish of Fátima, in this diocese, from 13 May to 13 October 1917. 2) Permit officially the cult of Our Lady of Fátima.", Bishop of Leiria-Fátima, October 13, 1930.
- ^ J.M.Böhr, Marguerite Marie Alacoque, Regensburg, p. 101
- ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3)
- ^ Miserentissimus Redemptor, Encyclical of Pope Pius XI 
- ^ van Houtryve, La Vierge des Pauvres, Banneux, 1947
- ^ a b Agenzia Fides - Congregazione per l'Evangelizzazione dei Popoli
- ^ Fulgens Corona, 10
- ^ Schmaus Mariologie, 220-247
- ^ Karl Rahner, Das neue Dogma, 1951, Hans Küng, 2008
- ^ Art treasures in Italy by Giulio Carlo Argan, Bernard Samuel Myers, Trewin Copplestone 1969 ASIN: B001KV9P90 page 167
- ^ The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0814659144 pages vii–viii and 81
- ^ Catholic beliefs and traditions: ancient and ever new by John F. O'Grady 2002 ISBN 0809140470 page 183
- ^ a b Encyclopedia of feminist literature by Mary Ellen Snodgrass 2006 ISBN 0816060401 page 547
- ^ a b c The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0814659144 page 253
- ^ The Next Pope Anura Guruge 2010 ISBN 061535372X page 227
- ^ A history of ideas and images in Italian art by James Hall 1983 ISBN 0064333175 page 223
- ^ Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller 1971 ASIN: B0023VMZMA page 112
- ^ Renaissance art: a topical dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0313246580 page 174
- ^ Lauren Arnold, 1999 Princely Gifts & Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China by ISBN 0967062802 page 151
- ^ Lauren Arnold in Atlantic Monthly, September 2007
- ^ The great encounter of China and the West by David E. Mungello 1999 ISBN 0847694399 page 27
- ^ Art and music in the early modern period by Franca Trinchieri Camiz, Katherine A. McIver ISBN 0754606899 page 15
- ^ Mujer del maiz by Angel Vigil 1994 ISBN 1563081946 pages 16–19
- ^ a b Empire of the Aztecs by Barbara A. Somervill 2009 ISBN 1604131497 page 132
- ^ Our Lady of Guadalupe by Jeanette Rodríguez 1994 ISBN 0292770626 pages 44–46
- ^ "Canonization of Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin". http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- ^ The image of Guadalupe by Jody Brant Smith 1995 ISBN 0865544212 pages 1–2
- ^ Miracles of Our Lady by Gonzalo de Berceo, Richard Terry Mount, Annette Grant Cash 1997 ISBN 0813120195 page 6–7
- ^ Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Johannes Herolt, C. C. Swinton Blandpages 2004 ISBN 1419173081 pages 4–6
- ^ Piety and charity in late medieval Florence by John Henderson 1997 ISBN 0226326888 page 196
- ^ Pilgrimage to images in the fifteenth century by Robert Maniura 2004 ISBN 1843830558 page 104
- ^ Maximilian Kolbe: Saint of Auschwitz by Elaine Murray Stone 1997 ISBN 0809166372 pages 7–8
- ^ Lourdes: A History of Its Apparitions and Cures by Georges Bertrin 2004 ISBN 1417981237 page 181
- ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 page 339
- ^ "Modern Miracles Have Strict Rules (David van Biega, Time Magazine April 10, 1995". April 10, 1995. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,982807,00.html. Retrieved November, 18, 2010.
- ^ Mary is for Everyone by William McLoughlin, Jill Pinnock 1998 ISBN 085244429X page 183
- ^ Carl Jung by Claire Dunne 2002 ISBN 082646307X page 84
- ^ Progressive Christianity by William A. Vrooman 2005 ISBN 1417998296 page 150
- ^ Christianity: the first two thousand years by David Lawrence Edwards 2001 ISBN 0304701270 pages 438-439
- ^ Hail Mary?: the struggle for ultimate womanhood in Catholicism by Maurice Hamington 1995, ISBN 0415913047, pages 2 and 36
- ^ Blessed one: Protestant perspectives on Mary by Beverly Roberts Gaventa, Cynthia L. Rigby 2002 ISBN 0664224385 page 102
- ^ http://www.east2west.org/doctrine.htm#dormition Comparison of the Assumption and the Dormition of Mary
- ^ Ecclesiasticus II: Orthodox Icons, Saints, Feasts and Prayer by George Dion Dragas 2005 ISBN 0974561800 page 178
- ^ http://www.east2west.org/doctrine.htm#IC Explanation of the Immaculate Conception from an Eastern Catholic perspective
- ^ http://www.assumptioncatholicchurch.net/ Many Eastern Catholic churches bear the titles of Latin Rite doctrines such as the Assumption of Mary.
- ^ a b Bäumer, Marienlexikon, 534
- ^ a b c Bäumer, Marienlexikon, 535
- ^ at Viale 30 Aprile- 6, 00153, Rome
- ^ University of Dayton Marian Institute
- Saint Louis de Montfort True Devotion to Mary ISBN 1593304706, also available as online text 
- Luigi Gambero, 1999, Mary and the Fathers of the Church, Ignatius Press ISBN 0898706866
- Michael Schmaus, Mariologie, Katholische Dogmatik, München Vol V, 1955
- K Algermissen, Boes, Egelhard, Feckes, Michael Schmaus, Lexikon der Marienkunde, Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg, 1967
- Remigius Bäumer, Leo Scheffczyk (Hrsg.) Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe, Institutum Marianum Regensburg, 1994, ISBN 3-88096-891-8 (cit. Bäumer)
- Stefano De Fiores, (Marianum) Maria, sintesi di valori. Storia culturale di mariologia. Cinisello Balsamo 2005;
- Stefano de Fiores, (Marianum), Maria. Nuovissimo dizionario. 2 Vols. Bologna 2006;
- Mariology Society of America 
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis, referenced as AAS by year.
- Pope Pius IX, Apostolic Constitution
- Pope Pius XII, encyclicals and bulls
- Pope John Paul II, encyclical, apostolic letters and addresses
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