- Racism in the United Kingdom
United Kingdomhas long had a history of racism, from mediæval times, through years of the slave tradeto the modern day.
An apartheid-like system existed in early Anglo-Saxon England, which prevented the native British genes getting into the Anglo-Saxon population by restricting intermarriage and wiped out a majority of original British genes in favour of Germanic ones, according to a new study. According to research led by
University College London, Anglo-Saxon settlers enjoyed a substantial social and economic advantage over the native Celtic Britons [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/2076470.stm English and Welsh are races apart] ] who lived in what is now England, for more than 300 years from the middle of the 5th century. [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1635457 Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England] ] [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/07/060721-england.html Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests] ] [ [http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/genetics/dn9575-apartheid-slashed-celtic-genes-in-early-england.html 'Apartheid' slashed Celtic genes in early England] ]
race riots across the United Kingdomin 1919: South Shields, Glasgow, London's East End, Liverpool, Cardiff, Barry, and Newport. There were further riots by immigrant and minority populations in East London during the 1930s and Notting Hillin the 1950s.
In the 1980s, perceived societal racism, discrimination and
poverty- alongside further perceptions of powerlessness and oppressive policing - sparked a series of riots in areas with substantial African-Caribbean populations. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/bbc_parliament/3631579.stm Q&A: The Scarman Report 27] BBC Online. April 2004. Accessed " 6 October 2006".] These "uprisings" (as they were described by some in the community) took place in St Pauls in 1980, Brixton, Toxteth and Moss Sidein 1981, St Pauls again in 1982, Notting Hill Gatein 1982, Toxteth in 1982, and Handsworth, Brixton and Tottenham in 1985. [ [http://www.warwick.ac.uk/CRER/differentreality/timeline.html A Different Reality: minority struggle in British cities] University of Warwick. Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations. Accessed " 6 October 2006"
° [http://www.eco.utexas.edu/~hmcleave/357Limpossibleintro.pdf#search=%22riots%20uprisings%20brixton%22 The 1981 Brixton Uprisings] "The Riot not to work collective". "...What has changed since last year's uprisings". London 1982. Accessed "
6 October 2006"]
The report identified both "racial discrimination" and a "racial disadvantage" in Britain, concluding that urgent action was needed to prevent these issues becoming an "endemic, ineradicable disease threatening the very survival of our society". The era saw an increase in attacks on Black people by white people. The "Joint Campaign Against Racism" committee reported that there had been more than 20,000 attacks on non-indigenous Britons including Britons of Asian origin during 1985. [Law and Order, moral order: The changing rhetoric of the Thatcher government. [http://socialistregister.com/socialistregister.com/files/SR_1987_Taylor.pdf online] . Ian Taylor. "Accessed
6 October 2006"]
More recently in 2001, there have been both the Bradford riots and the
Oldham Riots. These riots have followed cases of perceived racism - either the public displays of racist sentiment (including crimes against members of ethnic minorities which were subsequently ignored by the authorities), or, as in the Brixton Riots, racial profilingand alleged harassment by the policeforce. In 2005, there have been Birmingham riots between the Black Britishand British Asiancommunities, with the spark for the riot being an alleged gang rape of a teenage black girl by a group of Asian men.
British Crime Surveyreveals that in 2004, 87,000 people from black or minority ethnic communities said they had been a victim of a racially motivated crime. They had suffered 49,000 violent attacks, with 4,000 being wounded. At the same time 92,000 white people said they had also fallen victim of a racially motivated crime. The number of violent attacks against whites reached 77,000, while the number of white people who reported being wounded was five times the number of black and minority ethnic victims at 20,000. Most of the offenders (57%) in the racially motivated crimes identified in the British Crime Survey are not white. White victims said 82% of offenders were not white. [ [http://card.wordpress.com/2006/11/12/the-hidden-white-victims-of-racism/ The hidden white victims of racism] ]
Racism in one form or another was widespread in Britain before the twentieth century, and during the 1900s particularly towards Jewish groups and immigrants from Eastern Europe. The British establishment even considered
Irish peoplea separate and degenerate race until well into the 19th century.
World War I, public expressions of white supremacism have been limited to far-rightpolitical parties such as the British National Frontin the 1970s, whilst most mainstream politicians have publicly condemned all forms of racism. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that racism remains widespread, and some politicians and public figures have been accused of excusing or pandering to racist attitudes in the media, particularly with regard to immigration. There have been growing concerns in recent years about institutional racismin public and private bodies, and the tacit support this gives to crimes resulting from racism, such as the murder of Stephen Lawrence, Gavin Hopely and Ross Parker.
Race Relations Act 1965outlawed public discrimination, and established the Race Relations Board. Further Acts in 1968 and 1976 outlawed discrimination in employment, housing and social services, and replaced the Race Relations Board with Commission for Racial Equality. The Human Rights Act 1999made organisations in Britain, including public authorities, subject to the European Convention on Human Rights. The Race Relations Act 2000extends existing legislation for the public sector to the police force, and requires public authorities to promote equality.
There have been tensions over
immigrationsince at least the early 1900s. These were originally engendered by hostility towards Jews and immigrants from Russiaand Eastern Europe. Britain first began restricting immigration in 1905 and has also had very strong limits on immigration since the early 1960s. Legislation was particularly targeted at members of the Commonwealth of Nations, who had previously been able to migrate to the UK under the British Nationality Act 1948. Conservative MP Enoch Powellmade acontroversial 1968 Rivers of Blood speechin opposition to Commonwealthimmigration to Britain; this resulted in him being swiftly removed from the Shadow Cabinet.
Virtually all legal immigration, except for those claiming refugee status, ended with the
Immigration Act 1971; however, free movement for citizens of the European Unionwas later established by the Immigration Act 1988. Legislation in 1993, 1996 and 1999 gradually decreased the rights and benefits given to those claiming refugee statues ("asylum seekers"). 582,000 people came to live in the UK from elsewhere in the world in 2004 according to the office of National Statistics.
Some commentators believe that a huge amount of racism, from within all communities, has been undocumented within the UK, adducing the many British cities whose populations have a clear racial divide. While these commentators believe that race relations have improved immensely over the last thirty years, they still believe that
racial segregationremains an important but largely unaddressed problem, although research [http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/publications/factsandfigures/dmag-briefing-2005-38.pdf] has shown that ethnic segregation has reduced within England and Wales between the 1991 Census and 2001 Census.
United Kingdomhas been accused of "sleepwalking toward apartheid" by Trevor Phillips, chair of that country's Commission for Racial Equality. Philips has said that Britain is fragmenting into isolated racial communities: "literal black holes into which no one goes without fear and trepidation and nobody escapes undamaged". Philips believes that racial segregation in Britain is approaching that of the United States. "You can get to the point as they have in the U.S. where things are so divided that there is no turning back."Freeman, Simon. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-1792559,00.html "Britain urged to wake up to race crisis"] , The Times, September 22, 2005.]
The BBC has reported that the latest crime statistics appear to support Phillips' concerns. They show that race-hate crimes increased by almost 600 per cent in
Londonin the month after the July 7 bomb attacks, with 269 more offenses allegedly "motivated by religious hatred" reported to the Metropolitan Police, compared to the same period last year.
In 2007 racist remarks made by contestants on the Celebrity Big Brother TV series against Bollywood actress
Shilpa Shettycaused widespread outrage, not least in the UKwith the British public phoning in to make Shetty the series winner and the other ethnic minority contestant Jermaine Jacksonthe runner up. Demonstrators in Bangloreburned effigies of the TV Channel's directors.cite web|url=http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=13808&grp=1&cat=197|publisher=" BLINK"|title="Channel 4 should have licence withdrawn, says Ken "|]
In July 2008, the London-based
National Children's Bureaureleased a 366-page guide counseling adults on recognizing racist behavior in young children. The guide, titled Young Children and Racial Justice, warns adults that babies must also be included in the effort to eliminate racism. The bureau says to be aware of children who "react negatively to a culinary tradition other than their own by saying 'yuck'." Nursery staff must be alert for racist remarks among toddlers, a government-sponsored agency report has said. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/education/2261307/Toddlers-who-dislike-spicy-food-racist,-say-report.html Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report] , Telegraph]
It has been reported that racial minorities are underrepresented in the police force [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4684429.stm] . In urban areas, tensions between Whites and Pakistanis occasionally flare up. Several items of racism in Scotland are reported here. [http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=562] .
In 2005-6, 1,543 victims of racist crime in Scotland were of Pakistani origin, while more than 1,000 victims were classed as being "white British". [ [http://news.scotsman.com/scotland.cfm?id=479212007 Scotsman.com News - Almost 20 race-hate crimes a day in Scotland] ]
Kriss Donaldwas a Scottish fifteen-year-old who was kidnapped and murdered in Glasgowin 2004.Five British Pakistanimen were later found guilty of racially-motivated violence; those convicted of murder were all sentenced to life imprisonment. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/5409734.stm BBC NEWS | Scotland | Glasgow and West |Kriss attacked 'for being white'] ]
BBC, in 2002, has [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/2277959.stm reported] on a poll conducted by System Threewhich "suggested that one in four Scots admitted to being strongly or slightly racist".
However, there are indications that the Scottish authorities and people are well aware of the problem and are trying to tackle it. Among the Scottish under 15 years old there is the positive sign that, "younger white pupils rarely drew on racist discourses." [http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/education/mepess-05.asp] .
Recent research indicates that there is much less Islamaphobia in Scotland than in England. While English nationalism often implies xenophobic attitudes, nationalism in Scotland does not. Indeed, xenophobia in Scotland has decreased since devolution. By 2003, Scots of Pakistani ethnicity were over twice as likely to vote for the SNP as ‘majority Scots’ (defined as those who were not only born in Scotland, but are also non-Muslim and do not have English-born partners). [http://www.devolution.ac.uk/pdfdata/Briefing%2024%20-%20Hussain-Miller.pdf]
Racism in the United Kingdom is particularly acute in
Northern Ireland, which has prompted " The Guardian" newspaper to label it the "race hate capital of Europe" [http://www.guardian.co.uk/race/story/0,11374,1120113,00.html] . Despite having the smallest numbers of non-whites in the UK it has the highest levels of racist violence in the country (racially motivated attacks are at 16.4% per 1000 of the minority population, whilst in Englandand Walesthe figure is 12.6%).
More recently non-white people, especially Chinese, have started to live in Northern Ireland, primarily in the capital
Belfast. MLA Anna Loof Chinese origin and a member of the the Alliance Party became in 2007 the first, and so far only, politician born in East Asiaelected to any national parliament or assembly in the United Kingdom. Discrimination takes many forms such as the spraying of racist graffiti, intimidation, assaults, general harassment, protection racketing, vandalism and house burning. Attempts to build a mosque in Portadownwere met by much opposition; the plan was eventually dropped. However, recently the Police Service of Northern Ireland, in liaison with local politicians, have managed to improve community relations between migrants and local communities, leading to a noticeable decrease in racism in general.
Racism by country
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