- Wang Jingwei Government
Infobox Former Country
native_name = 中華民國
conventional_long_name = Nanjing Nationalist Government
common_name = Wang Jingwei Government|
continent = Asia
country = China
World War II
Puppet stateof Japan
empire = Japan|
year_start = 1940
date_start = March 30
year_end = 1945
date_end = August 10
p1 = Reformed Government of the Republic of China
flag_p1 = Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg
p2 = Provisional Government of the Republic of China
flag_p2 = Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg
p3 = Mengjiang
flag_p3 = Flag of the Mengjiang.svg
s1 = Republic of China
flag_s1 = Flag of the Republic of China.svg|
coa_size = 100px
capital = Nanking
national_anthem = "
National Anthem of the Republic of China"
common_languages = Chinese
currency = |
title_leader = President
year_leader1 = 1940 — 1945
title_deputy = Vice President
deputy1 = Zhou Fohai|
The Wang Jingwei Government was a
governmentunder the leadership of Wang Jingweiin the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japanin March 1940. It is also sometimes called the Nanjing Nationalist Government (zh-tp|t=南京國民政府|p= Nánjīng Guó Mín Zhèngfǔ), or the Republic of China-Nanjing. Other names are "Wang Jingwei Regime" (汪精衛政權, Wāng Jīngwèi Zhèngquán) or simply " Nanjing regime" or the " New China".
The Wang Jingwei Government was one of several
puppet states of the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945), and was meant to rival the legitimacy the government of Chiang Kai-shek, which was of the same name in Chongqing. Wang Jingwei was a Kuomintang(KMT) leftist who had broken away from Chiang Kai-Shek's government in March 1940 and defected to the Japanese invaders.
Claiming to be the rightful
governmentof the Republic of China, it flew the same flag and displayed the same emblem as Chiang Kai-shek's National Government. However, it was widely regarded as a puppet state and enjoyed no diplomatic recognition, except from the states of the Anti-Comintern Pact.
The Nanjing Nationalist Government was nominally a reintegration of several entities that Japan had established in northern and central China, including the
Reformed Government of the Republic of Chinaof eastern China, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Chinaof northern China, and the Mengjianggovernment in Inner Mongolia, though in reality northern China and Inner Mongolia stayed relatively free of its influence.
Officially the Reformed State as founded during 30th of March 1940 and Wang Jingwei became head of state with Japanese support among declared war on the allies in 9th January, 1943.
In theory, the Reformed Government controlled all of China with the exception of
Manchukuo, which it recognized as an independent state. In actuality, the Reformed Government controlled only Jiangsu, Anhui, and the north sector of Zhejiang, all of which were Japanese-controlled territories from 1937.
Therefore, the Reformed Government actually controlled this region: The actual borders changed as the Japanese gained territory in the war. Thus, during the December 1941 Japanese offensive, the Reformed Government extended its control to
Hunan, Hubei, and parts of Jiangxiprovince. The port of Shanghaiand the towns of Hankouand Wuchang were also under control of the Reformed Government at various times.
The Japanese-controlled provinces of
Shandongand Hebeiwere also theoretically part of this political entity, although they were actually administered by the Commander of the Japanese North Front, under a separate Japanese-controlled government based in Beijing. Like the Northern Front, the southern sectors had their own Japanese military commander and government based in Guangzhou.Each front acted as its own military unit with its own political and economic administration as well as its own Japanese military commander.
* Jiangsu: 41,818 square miles (108,308 km²); capital: Chinkiang
* Anhui: 51,888 square miles (134,389 km²); capital: Anking (also included the national capital of
* Zhejiang: 39,780 square miles (103,030 km²); capital: Hangchou
Other founts during 1940 period related why your total extension of territory are 1,264,000 km2 During the war, the
Imperial Japanese Armycommitted numerous atrocities in the area controlled by the Reformed Government, such as the so-called "mopping up" operations to frighten the populace. General Toshizo Nishio, the Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army's expeditionary forces in mainland China, was subsequently replaced by General Neiji Okamura. On September 9 1945, following Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese forces in the area surrendered to General He Yingqinof the National Revolutionary army.
Government, economy, education and everyday life
Government and political administration
The administrative structure of the Reformed Government included a
Legislative Yuanand an Executive Yuan. Both were under the president and head of state Wang Jingwei. Real political power remained with the Commander of the Japanese Army Central Chinese Front and Japanese political entities formed by the Japanese Counsellors. The Japanese also set up various local nationalist parties and movements to support its cause.
After obtaining Japanese approval to establish a nationalist government, Wang Jingwei ordered the
Sixth Kuomintang Representative Congressto establish the government in Nanjing. The dedication occurred in the Conference Hall, and both the "blue-sky white-sun red-earth" national flag and the "blue-sky white-sun" Nationalist Party flag were unveiled, flanking a large portrait of Sun Yat-Sen.
On the day the new government was formed, just before the session of the "Central Political Conference" began, Wang visited Sun's tomb in Nanjing's
Purple Mountainin an attempt to establish the legitimacy of his government as Sun's successor. Wang had been a high-level official of the Nationalist government and, as a confidant to Sun, had transcribed Sun's will, the Zongli's Testament. To discredit the legitimacy of the Chongqinggovernment, Wang adopted Sun's flag in the hope that this would establish him as the rightful successor to Sun and bring the government back to Nanjing.
The Nanjing Government and the northern Chinese areas
The Beijing administration (East Yi Anti-Communist Autonomous Administration) was under the commander-in-chief of the Japanese North China Front until the
Yellow Riverarea fell within the sphere of influence of the Central Chinese Front. During this same period the area from middle Zhejiang to the Canton region was administered by the South Chinese Front. These small, largely independent fiefdoms had local money, local leaders, and frequent squabbles.
These political phenomena were analyzed by the American journalist
Jim Tewwho worked on the " Japanese Advertiser", a Japanese independent newspaper, which was American-owned.
The case of the Nanjing pro-Japanese administration was researched by Chester Holcombe, a young American journalist, who arrived in Shanghai to interview the head of government. This interview was published in the
Shanghainewspaper, "The China Weekly Review", under the title "The Nanjing Prisoner", to the annoyance of the Japanese Army and the local civil establishment. Holcombe was blacklisted and threatened with death if he were to return.
Wang Jingwei travelled to Tokyo in 1941 for meetings with his Japanese overseers. In Tokyo the Nanjing Government Minister and Vice president Chou Fo-hai commented to the "
Asahi Shimbun" that the Japanese establishment was making little progress in the Nanjing area. This quote provoked anger from Kumataro Honda, the Japanese Ambassador and Consul in Nanjing. Chou Fo-hai petitioned for total control of its central provinces for the National Government. Japanese Army Officer Teiichi Suzukiwas charged with providing military guidance for Wang Jingwei's new regime at Nanking, also himself representing part of the real power in the country.
A common monopolistic economic policy was applied in the area, to the benefit of Japanese
zaibatsuand local representatives, with the permission of the Japanese Army, when supposedly these companies had equal treatment with the local Chinese companies by the Government. The President of the Yuan legislature in Nanjing, Cheng Kung-po, commented on this to the " Kaizo" Japanese review. The Nanjing Nationalist Government of the Republic of China had an Embassy in Yokohama(as did Manchukuo).
Structure of Local Administration Chinese Reformed State
Liang Hongzhi:-President and Head of State in the initial period
Wang Jingwei:-President and Head of State
Chen Gongbo:-President and Head of State after the death of Wang. Also, President of Legislative Yuan and Mayor of Shanghaioccupied sector.
Zhou Fohai:-Vice President and Finance minister in Executive Yuan
Kumataro Honda:-Japanese civil and political counselor of local government and Japanese Ambassador in Nanjing
Nobuyuki Abe:-political adviser in Chinese administration
Teiichi Suzuki:-Military, and political adviser in Chinese administration
Bao Wenyue:-Minister of Military Affairs
Ren Yuandao:-Minister of Navy
Xiao Shuxuan:-General Chief of Staff
Yang Kuiyi:-Minister of Military Training
Li Shiqun:-Head of "Tewu",the Nanjing regime's secret service
Kaya Okinori:-Japanese nationalist,merchant and commercial adviser in the Chinese area
Chu Minyi:-National Ambassador in Yokohama, Japan
Tao Liang:-Chinese landowner, also Chinese government official
Chao Kung:-Obscure personage, purported Buddhist leader
Foreign Representatives and Diplomatic Personnel in Chinese Reformed State
Kumataro Honda:-Japanese Ambassador and Representative in Nanjing
Ernst Wörmann:-German Ambassador to Wang Jing-wei's pro-Japanese Government in Nanjing
The local economy was administered primarily for the Japanese Army of the Central Front. Military planners installed an "occupation economy" with wartime money (
Japanese Military Yenand native Chinese Yuan), a Chinese Central Bank and supposedly Chinese entities, but administered for Japanese counsellors and the Japanese Army in the area. The natives had greater access to coveted war-time luxuries, and the Japanese Army enjoyed such things as matches, rice, tea, coffee, cigars, foods and alcoholic drinks, all scarce items in Japan proper. Additional entertainment, such as brothels, casinos and bars, were managed by the Japanese and local functionaries for the military. The purpose of this control was allegedly to impede the monetary depreciation of the yen, so as to maintain the strength of the Japanese currency on the continent.
In the Japanese-occupied territories, the prices of basic necessities rose substantially. In 1941, they increased eleven-fold in Shanghai. Similar inflation occurred in Manchukuo, despite heavily-centralized economic control by the Japanese.
Education was similar in all the Japanese occupied territories. The Japanese strategy was to create a workforce, suited for the factories and mines, and for manual labour. The Japanese also attempted to introduce their culture and dress to the Chinese. There were agitations, similar to those in Manchukuo, for more meaningful Chinese educational development under Japanese rule. The Japanese also built Shinto temples and similar cultural centres in order to instill their culture and values in the Chinese populace. These activities came to a halt at the end of the war.
Daily life was difficult in the Nanjing Nationalist Government-controlled Republic of China. The local residents used the
black marketto obtain needed items or to influence the ruling establishment. The Japanese Kempeitai, Chinese local police, and Chinese citizens in the service of the Japanese, censored all information, monitored any opposition, and tortured their enemies in support of suchs security tasks if created a "native" secret agency, the " Tewu",with Army s "advising".The Japanese also established POWdetention centres, concentration camps, and Kamikazetraining centres to indoctrinate pilots,as members of Navy s Shanghai Kokutai(equipped with Mitsubishi A6MReisen, Yokosuka K5Y, Nakajima B5Ns and some Seaplanes)as part of "Shina Homen Kantai" (China Area Fleet) among Army s I/II Chutai of 85th Hiko Sentaiand 9st Sentai(equipped with Ki-44Shoki/ Ki-84Hayate) both units based in Shanghai and Nanjing area.
The Nanjing Government organized the "Bureau of Newspapers Management" under the "Department of Propaganda" in October 1940.in order to execute it effectivelly control four laws of press in 1941 was created among the reinforzed relation between both media control sections.such related departments created one news classification from A,B,C classes are analized for permit or not your published joining the control policy of autorized advertisement
The population was probably close to the 1937-38 figures of the Interior Affairs Ministry, with no account taken of the outer regions or areas occupied by later advances:
The populations of the major cities were:
*Shanghai: 3,703,430 (including 75,000 foreigners)
*Hankow: 804,526 (during its temporary control)
Other population estimates are as follows:
Others sources during 1940 related why total resident cypher rosed to 182,000,000.
The Japanese Army organized a local army, supposedly to defend the Nanjing Regime-controlled China. In reality, it served as a second line of defense and security forces in the
Second Sino-Japanese war. For this purpose, they organized a Collaborationist air force,("Reformed Government of China Air Force" (1938) renamed "National Government of China Air Force" (1940)) and sended some gliders for training pourposes;later giving them some a:
Nakajima Ki-9biplanes for training and reconossaince
Nakajima Ki-34"Thora" for military activities and troop transport;
Tachikawa Ki-55"Ida" for training;
Tachikawa Ki-9"Spruce" for reconnaissance and training; and
Nakajima Ki-43Ia Hayabusa "Oscar" for defence.
For the Collaborationist army, Japan provided:
Type 94 TK Light Tanks
Type 89 Medium Tanks
Type 95 Light Tanks ("Ha-Go")
* Type 38 Year Meiji Carbines
* German helmets, cannons, mortars, and light AA cannons
Arisaka rifles, Type 99 Rifles and Nambu pistols.
For the Collaborationist navy Imperial navy provided some wartime captured ships how:
*Gunboat Suma (Ex-HMS Moth)
*Gunboat Tatara (Ex-USS Wake (PR-3)
*Gunboat Karatsu (Ex-USS Luzon(PR-7)
*Gunboat Narumi (Ex-RM Ermanno Carlotto)
*Gunboat Okitsu (Ex-RM Lepanto)
*Gunboat Nan-Yo (Ex-Chinese Navy Teh Hsing)
*Patrol Boat PB-102 (Ex-DD USS Steward,DD-224)
*Patrol Boat PB-101 (Ex-DD HMS Thracian)
*Ligth Cruiser Isojima (Ex-Chinese Navy Ning Hai)
*Ligth Cruiser Yasojima (Ex-Chinese Navy Ping Hai)
This was probably why the
Imperial Japanese Navy,( Shanghai SNLF,ones 746 men based in Shanghai port belonged in "China Theater Fleet" among Yangtze SNLFa river squadron of "1st China Fleet",detached near Yangtze river and Hankow SNLFbased in Hankow and detached in "Middle River Division" and "Yangtze River Fleet",joining others naval units) could assume total control of the Shanghai seaport, and river ports in Hankowand Wuchang among extended your influence to Guangzhouseaport with Canton SNLFbelonged in "Canton Special Base Force".The regime also had a regular police force under Japanese control, very likely similar to the situation at Kangde. The local politicians and media consistently provided pro-Japanese propaganda.It included phrases praising the "heroic efforts of the Imperial troops", and argued for a "national defence against Communism and Western interests".
Chiang Kai-shek's forces captured numerous members of Wang Chingwei's army during military engagements. Enemy prisoners of low rank were persuaded to renege and fight alongside anti-Japanese forces, but high-ranking prisoners were executed. Leaders of the military include:
*Minister of Military Affairs Bao Wenyue (鮑文樾)
*Minister of Navy Ren Yuandao (任援道)
*General Chief of Staff Yang Kuiyi (楊揆一)
*Minister of Military Training Xiao Shuxuan (蕭叔萱)
Japanese methods of recruiting
During the conflicts in central China, the Japanese utilized several methods to recruit volunteers for their allied forces. Japanese sympathisers like Nanjing's pro-Japanese governor, or major local landowners like
Tao-liang, were used to recruit local peasants in return for money or food. The Japanese recruited 5,000 volunteers in the Anhui area for the local Nanjing Army. Japanese forces and the Reformed Nanjing Government used slogans such as "Drop Your Weapons, and Take the Plow", "Oppose the Communist Bandits" or "Oppose Corrupt Government and Support the Reformed Nanjing Government". Other methods included soliciting the cooperation of local bandits, using money, drugs, weapons, or captured goods as enticements. With this system, they organized anti-guerrilla units, who sometimes collaborated with criminal elements.
The Japanese used various methods for subjugating the local populace in the Central provinces. Initially, fear was used to maintain order in the regions, but this approach was changed, following appraisals by Japanese military ideologists. In 1939, the Japanese army attempted some populist policies, including:
* confiscating the property of major landowners, divided it into small holdings, and allocated them to local peasants;
* sending candy and food to children;
* providing the Chinese with medical services, including vaccination against cholera, typhus, and varicella, and treatments for other diseases;
* ordering Japanese soldiers not to violate any women in the area; and
* dropping leaflets from Japanese airplanes, offering procedures and rewards for providing information (with the aid of a white surrender flag), handing over weapons, or other actions beneficial to the Japanese cause, in exchange for money and food.
Buddhist leaders of the occupied Chinese territories ("Shao-Kung") were also forced to give public speeches and via the media to persuade the populace of the virtues of a Chinese alliance with Japan, and advocate the breaking-off of all relations with Western powers.
In 1938, a manifesto was launched in Shanghai, reminding the populace of the track record of the Japanese alliance in maintaining "moral supremacy", and accusing Generallissimo Chiang Kai-Shek of treason for maintaining the Western alliance.
In support of such efforts and reinforzed its control of held-areas in 1941 period,Wang Jingweiproposed the "Qingxiang Weinyuan"(Qingxiang Plan) for applied in the lower course of the
Him ordered to government organized the "Qingxiang Weiyuanhui" (Qingxiang Plan Committee),conformed by Wang Jingwei (Chairman),Zhou Fohai and Chen Gongbo (I and II Vice-Chairmans) and Li Shiqun (Secretary).this plan started in July 1941 and Wang sustained that areas was applied would convert "heping fangong jianguo mofanqu" (model areas of
peace, anti-communism,and rebuilding the country)
Primary industry statistics
Before and during Japanese control of the Reformed Nanjing Republic of China, the farming possibilities were as follows:
Winter wheat and kaoliang zones
* Precipitation: 24 in (600 mm)
* Growing period: 241 days
* Cultivated land area: 118,993 mile² (308,000 km²)
* Cultivated land area: 47% for winter wheat and 68% for kaoliang
* Cultivatable area per farm: 5.1 acres (21,000 m²)
* Percentage of peasant-tenants: 5%
* Peasant population density per unit area of cultivated land: 450/km² (1,165/mile²)
Distribution of crops
* Wheat: 46%
* Rice: 23%
* Corn: 16%
* Cotton: 9%
* Kaoliang: 19%
Distribution of animals
* Oxen: 40%
* Donkeys: 21%
* Mules: 16%
* Loaders: 32%
* Hand carts: 36%
* Loader Animal: 21%
* Carts: 60%
Yangtze rice and wheat zones
* Precipitation: 42 inches (1070 mm)
* Growing period: 293 day
* Cultivated land area: 40,328 square miles (104,000 km²)
* Cultivated land area: 61% for rice and 25% for wheat
* Cultivatable area per farm: 3.5 acres (14,000 m²)
* Percentage of peasant-tenants: 25%
* Peasant population density per unit area of cultivated land: 525/km² (1,360/mile²)
Distribution Of Land Usage For Farming
* Rice: 58%
* Wheat: 31%
* Cotton: 13%
* Barley: 19%
Distribution Of Animal Husbandry
* Oxen: 40%
* Water buffalo: 42%
* Pigs: 15%
Transportation Distribution In Terms Of Localities
* Loaders: 41%
* Hand carts: 22%
* Little vessels & boats: 33%
Land in cultivation
**Land in cultivation: 22.7%
**Cultivated land per person: 0.38 acres (1,500 m²)
**Land in cultivation: 52.4%
**Cultivated land per person: 0.39 acres (1,600 m²)
**Land in cultivation: 26.3%
**Cultivated land per person: 0.30 acres (1,200 m²)
For mining resources, see
Empire of Japan (natural resources, Asia mainland and Pacific areas, after 1937)
Industry & commerce
In Shanghai, several factories had been established for the development of silk and cotton, many of them with pre-war Japanese and other foreign capital investment. A notable installation was the "
Shanghai Power Plant" at the heart of the city, with a production capacity of about 200 megawatts. This power plant used coal from northern China and other Chinese areas. Since 1843, the port of Shanghai had been China's gateway for commerce, and in 1935, it was handling trade with New York, London, San Francisco, Kobe, Liverpool, Los Angeles, Hong-Kong, Hamburg and Rotterdam. Shanghai also had other industries that were crucial to modern Chinese society at that time.
To complement the efforts of the
South Manchurian RailwayCompany, the Japanese civil establishment and the Imperial Japanese Army, in collaboration with Chinese local businessmen, founded the North China RailwayCompany, with branches in Hopei, Shangtung and other Northern Chinese areas, in order to link up the north China and central China railways. At about the same time, the pro-Japanese government in Nanjing, together with "native" Japanese establishments and the Japanese Central Chinese Army authorities, organized the Central China RailwayCompany to link up the railways of Ahnwei, Kiangsu, north Chekiang, and areas which were near to or were held by the Southern Japanese Chinese Army, for economic and strategic reasons. It was probably for these same reasons that the Japanese organized a Chinese merchant shipping vessel company and Commerce Authority Entity for managing commercial traffic in the Shanghai international port in those days.
Japanese authorities also reinforced Chinese industrial monopolies in the occupied territories, modelling them on
Naiga Wata Kaisha(which specialized in managing affairs of the cotton industry, partly for the Japanese government), or private zaibatsus, such as Mitsubishiand others.
Dadao government (Shanghai 1937-1940)
Provisional Government of the Republic of China
Reformed Government of the Republic of China
Second Sino-Japanese War
Collaborationist Chinese Army
List of Japanese supporters of the WWII period
Organization of the China Garrison detachment of the Imperial Japanese Army (to 1937)
Organization of Japanese Expeditionary forces in China
List of East Asian leaders in the Japanese sphere of influence (1931-1945)
List of leaders of the Republic of China
Chinese Reformed Air Force
* David P. Barrett and Larry N. Shyu, eds.; "Chinese Collaboration with Japan, 1932-1945: The Limits of Accommodation" Stanford University Press 2001
* John H. Boyle, "China and Japan at War, 1937–1945: The Politics of Collaboration" (Harvard University Press, 1972).
* James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine, eds., "China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945" (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1992)
* Ch'i Hsi-sheng, "Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945" (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982).
* Frederick W. Mote, "Japanese-Sponsored Governments in China, 1937–1945" (Stanford University Press, 1954).
* Joseph Newman,"GoodBye Japan",(references about Chinese Reformed Regime) published in New York,March 1942
* Edward Behr,"The Last Emperor",published by Recorded Picture Co(Productions) Ltd and Screenframe Ltd,1987
* Agnes Smedley,"Battle Hymn of China"
* Chiang Kai Shek,"The Soviet Russia in China"
Wego W. K. Chiang,"How the Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek gained the Chinese- Japanese eight years war,1937-1945"
* Alphonse Max,"Southeast Asia Destiny and Realities",published by Institute of International Studies,1985.
* Jowett, Phillip S. , Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England.
* [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/cn_j_nj2.html Nanjing Puppet Government National Flag]
* [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/cn_j_tp.html#ccrc Central China Railway Company Flag, under Japanese Army control]
* [http://home.modemss.brisnet.org.au/~dunn/ozatwar/japmoney.htm Japanese occupation moneys]
* [http://www.indiana.edu/~easc/resources/working_paper/noframe_6a_sloga.htm Slogans, Symbols, and Legitimacy: The Case of Wang Jingwei's Nanjing Regime]
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